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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456553/silencing-of-iron-and-heme-related-genes-revealed-a-paramount-role-of-iron-in-the-physiology-of-the-hematophagous-vector-rhodnius-prolixus
#1
Ana B Walter-Nuno, Mabel L Taracena, Rafael D Mesquita, Pedro L Oliveira, Gabriela O Paiva-Silva
Iron is an essential element for most organisms However, free iron and heme, its complex with protoporphyrin IX, can be extremely cytotoxic, due to the production of reactive oxygen species, eventually leading to oxidative stress. Thus, eukaryotic cells control iron availability by regulating its transport, storage and excretion as well as the biosynthesis and degradation of heme. In the genome of Rhodnius prolixus , the vector of Chagas disease, we identified 36 genes related to iron and heme metabolism We performed a comprehensive analysis of these genes, including identification of homologous genes described in other insect genomes...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456123/activated-carbon-enhanced-anaerobic-digestion-of-food-waste-laboratory-scale-and-pilot-scale-operation
#2
Le Zhang, Jingxin Zhang, Kai-Chee Loh
Effects of activated carbon (AC) supplementation on anaerobic digestion (AD) of food waste were elucidated in lab- and pilot-scales. Lab-scale AD was performed in 1 L and 8 L digesters, while pilot-scale AD was conducted in a 1000 L digester. Based on the optimal dose of 15 g AC per working volume derived from the 1 L digester, for the same AC dosage in the 8 L digester, an improved operation stability coupled with a higher methane yield was achieved even when digesters without AC supplementation failed after 59 days due to accumulation of substantial organic intermediates...
February 15, 2018: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455472/double-digest-rad-sequencing-outperforms-microsatellite-loci-at-assigning-paternity-and-estimating-relatedness-a-proof-of-concept-in-a-highly-promiscuous-bird
#3
Derrick J Thrasher, Bronwyn G Butcher, Leonardo Campagna, Michael S Webster, Irby J Lovette
Information on genetic relationships among individuals is essential to many studies of the behavior and ecology of wild organisms. Parentage and relatedness assays based on large numbers of SNP loci hold substantial advantages over the microsatellite markers traditionally used for these purposes. We present a double-digest restriction site-associated DNA sequencing (ddRAD-seq) analysis pipeline that, as such, simultaneously achieves the SNP discovery and genotyping steps and which is optimized to return a statistically powerful set of SNP markers (typically 150-600 after stringent filtering) from large numbers of individuals (up to 240 per run)...
February 17, 2018: Molecular Ecology Resources
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455284/speciation-analysis-of-arsenic-in-seafood-and-seaweed-part-i-evaluation-and-optimization-of-methods
#4
Mesay Mulugeta Wolle, Sean D Conklin
Several extraction and chromatographic methods were evaluated to identify optimum conditions for arsenic speciation analysis in seafood and seaweed. The extraction systems, which include aqueous, aqueous-organic, acidic, basic, and enzymatic solutions, were examined for their efficiency in extracting arsenic from finfish, crustaceans, molluscs, and seaweed keeping the chemical forms of the native arsenicals intact. While dilute solutions of nitric acid, hydrochloric acid, and tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) extract high fractions of arsenic from most of the matrices, the extractants oxidized arsenite (As3+ ) to arsenate (As5+ ) and converted some arsenosugars and non-polar arsenicals to known and/or unknown forms...
February 17, 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454921/sequential-pretreatment-for-cell-disintegration-of-municipal-sludge-in-a-neutral-bio-electro-fenton-system
#5
Qilin Yu, Xiaochen Jin, Yaobin Zhang
Sludge cell disruption was generally considered as the rate-limiting step for the anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge (WAS). Advanced oxidation processes and bio-electro-chemical systems were recently reported to enhance the hydrolysis of WAS and sludge cell disruption, while the cell-breaking processes of these systems remain unclear yet. In this study, an innovative Bio-electro-Fenton system was developed to pretreat the WAS sequentially with cathode Fenton process and anode anaerobic digestion...
February 9, 2018: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454065/impact-of-food-additives-on-the-gut-brain-axis
#6
Mary K Holder, Benoit Chassaing
The mammalian intestinal tract is heavily colonized with a complex community of micro-organisms, present at a very high density, and containing an estimated amount of 10 14 bacteria. The microbiota generally benefits the host, as it plays a central role in maturing the immune system, protecting against infection by entero-pathogens such as Clostridium difficile, and favoring nutrient digestion/energy extraction in our intestine. An altered microbiota, however, can become detrimental and lead to inflammation, metabolic disorders, and even altered behavior/neuroinflammation...
February 14, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452399/response-of-goose-intestinal-microflora-to-the-source-and-level-of-dietary-fiber
#7
Haizhu Zhou, Wei Guo, Tao Zhang, Bo Xu, Di Zhang, Zhanwei Teng, Dapeng Tao, Yujie Lou, Yunhang Gao
Geese are capable of digesting and making use of a high-fiber diet, but the mechanism is not well understood and would be of great significance for the development and utilization of roughage resources. In this study, we investigated the effect of dietary fiber (source: corn stover and alfalfa, included at 5% or 8%) on microflora in goose intestines. We used 35-day-old Carlos geese in which we first studied the influence of fiber ingestion on diet digestibility and immune organ indices of geese and found that high dietary fiber (8% content) significantly increased feed intake, the digestibility of neutral and acid detergent fiber, and thymus, bursa, and spleen size...
February 14, 2018: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451524/-diet-and-gut-microbiota-two-sides-of-the-same-coin
#8
Ramona Schiumerini, Francesca Pasqui, Davide Festi
Gut microbiota is a complex ecosystem, resident in the digestive tract, exerting multiple functions that can have a significant impact on the pathophysiology of the host organism. The composition and functions of this "superorganism" are influenced by many factors, and among them, the host's dietary habits seem to have a significant effect. Dietary changes in the evolution of human history and in the different stages of life of the human subjects are responsible for qualitative and functional modification of gut microbiota...
January 2018: Recenti Progressi in Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451298/micro-computed-tomography-visualization-of-the-vestigial-alimentary-canal-in-adult-oestrid-flies
#9
D Martín-Vega, A Garbout, F Ahmed, L M Ferrer, J Lucientes, D D Colwell, M J R Hall
Oestrid flies (Diptera: Oestridae) do not feed during the adult stage as they acquire all necessary nutrients during the parasitic larval stage. The adult mouthparts and digestive tract are therefore frequently vestigial; however, morphological data on the alimentary canal in adult oestrid flies are scarce and a proper visualization of this organ system within the adult body is lacking. The present work visualizes the morphology of the alimentary canal in adults of two oestrid species, Oestrus ovis L. and Hypoderma lineatum (de Villiers), with the use of non-invasive micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) and compares it with the highly developed alimentary canal of the blow fly Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera: Calliphoridae)...
February 16, 2018: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450774/removal-of-tetracyclines-sulfonamides-and-quinolones-by-industrial-scale-composting-and-anaerobic-digestion-processes
#10
Hang Liu, Chengjun Pu, Xiaolu Yu, Ying Sun, Junhao Chen
This study evaluated and compared the removal of antibiotics by industrial-scale composting and anaerobic digestion at different seasons. Twenty compounds belonged to three classes of widely used veterinary antibiotics (i.e., tetracyclines, sulfonamides, and quinolones) were investigated. Results show that of the three groups of antibiotics, tetracyclines were dominant in swine feces and poorly removed by anaerobic digestion with significant accumulation in biosolids, particularly in winter. Compared to that in winter, a much more effective removal (> 97%) by anaerobic digestion was observed for sulfonamides in summer...
February 15, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449860/adaptive-genetic-divergence-despite-significant-isolation-by-distance-in-populations-of-taiwan-cow-tail-fir-keteleeria-davidiana-var-formosana
#11
Kai-Ming Shih, Chung-Te Chang, Jeng-Der Chung, Yu-Chung Chiang, Shih-Ying Hwang
Double digest restriction site-associated DNA sequencing (ddRADseq) is a tool for delivering genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers for non-model organisms useful in resolving fine-scale population structure and detecting signatures of selection. This study performs population genetic analysis, based on ddRADseq data, of a coniferous species, Keteleeria davidiana var. formosana , disjunctly distributed in northern and southern Taiwan, for investigation of population adaptive divergence in response to environmental heterogeneity...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449111/a-comparative-study-of-thermophilic-and-mesophilic-anaerobic-co-digestion-of-food-waste-and-wheat-straw-process-stability-and-microbial-community-structure-shifts
#12
Xuchuan Shi, Xianglin Guo, Jiane Zuo, Yajiao Wang, Mengyu Zhang
Renewable energy recovery from organic solid waste via anaerobic digestion is a promising way to provide sustainable energy supply and eliminate environmental pollution. However, poor efficiency and operational problems hinder its wide application of anaerobic digestion. The effects of two key parameters, i.e. temperature and substrate characteristics on process stability and microbial community structure were studied using two lab-scale anaerobic reactors under thermophilic and mesophilic conditions. Both the reactors were fed with food waste (FW) and wheat straw (WS)...
February 12, 2018: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448169/molecular-spectroscopic-features-of-protein-in-newly-developed-chickpea-relationship-with-protein-chemical-profile-and-metabolism-in-the-rumen-and-intestine-of-dairy-cows
#13
Baoli Sun, Nazir Ahmad Khan, Peiqiang Yu
The first aim of this study was to investigate the nutritional value of crude protein (CP) in CDC [Crop Development Centre (CDC), University of Saskatchewan] chickpea varieties (Frontier kabuli and Corinne desi) in comparison with a CDC barley variety in terms of: 1) CP chemical profile and subfractions; (2) in situ rumen degradation kinetics and intestinal digestibility of CP; 2) metabolizable protein (MP) supply to dairy cows; and (3) protein molecular structure characteristics using advanced molecular spectroscopy...
February 6, 2018: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447668/a-simple-and-automated-sample-preparation-system-for-subsequent-halogens-determination-combustion-followed-by-pyrohydrolysis
#14
L S F Pereira, M F Pedrotti, P Dalla Vecchia, J S F Pereira, E M M Flores
A simple and automated system based on combustion followed by a pyrohydrolysis reaction was proposed for further halogens determination. This system was applied for digestion of soils containing high (90%) and also low (10%) organic matter content for further halogens determination. The following parameters were evaluated: sample mass, use of microcrystalline cellulose and heating time. For analytes absorption, a diluted alkaline solution (6 mL of 25 mmol L -1 NH 4 OH) was used in all experiments. Up to 400 mg of soil with high organic matter content and 100 mg of soil with low organic matter content (mixed with 400 mg of cellulose) could be completely digested using the proposed system...
June 20, 2018: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446871/effect-of-management-of-organic-wastes-on-inactivation-of-brassica-nigra-and-fusarium-oxysporum-f-sp-lactucae-using-soil-biosolarization
#15
J D Fernández-Bayo, T E Randall, D R Harrold, Y Achmon, K V Hestmark, J Su, R M Dahlquist-Willard, T R Gordon, J J Stapleton, J S VanderGheynst, C W Simmons
BACKGROUND: Soil biosolarization is a promising alternative to conventional fumigation. Volatile fatty acids (VFAs) produced in the soil through fermentation of amended organic matter can affect pest inactivation during biosolarization. The objective was to determine how soil amended with organic wastes that were partially stabilized through either composting or anaerobic digestion affected the inactivation of Brassica nigra (BN, a weed) and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lactucae (FOL, a phytopathogenic fungus)...
February 15, 2018: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445519/highly-efficient-generation-of-knock-in-transgenic-medaka-by-crispr-cas9-mediated-genome-engineering
#16
Ikuko Watakabe, Hisashi Hashimoto, Yukiko Kimura, Saori Yokoi, Kiyoshi Naruse, Shin-Ichi Higashijima
Background: Medaka ( Oryzias latipes ) is a popular animal model used in vertebrate genetic analysis. Recently, an efficient (~ 30%) knock-in system via non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) was established in zebrafish using the CRISPR/Cas9 system. If the same technique were applicable in medaka, it would greatly expand the usefulness of this model organism. The question of the applicability of CRISPR/Cas9 in medaka, however, has yet to be addressed. Results: We report the highly efficient generation of knock-in transgenic medaka via non-homologous end joining (NHEJ)...
2018: Zoological Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444757/a-review-on-the-applications-of-microbial-electrolysis-cells-in-anaerobic-digestion
#17
REVIEW
Zhengsheng Yu, Xiaoyun Leng, Shuai Zhao, Jing Ji, Tuoyu Zhou, Aman Khan, Apurva Kakde, Pu Liu, Xiangkai Li
Anaerobic digestion (AD) has been widely used for biogas or biofuel generation from waste treatment. Because a low production rate and instability of AD occur frequently, various technologies have been applied to improvement of AD. Microbial electrolysis cells (MECs), an emerging technology, can convert organic matter into hydrogen, methane, and other value-added products. Recent studies showed that application of MEC to AD (MEC-AD) can accelerate degradation of a substrate (including recalcitrant compounds) and alter AD microbial community by enriching exoelectrogens and methanogens thus increasing biogas production...
February 12, 2018: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444484/application-of-a-new-targeted-low-density-microarray-and-conventional-biomarkers-to-evaluate-the-health-status-of-marine-mussels-a-field-study-in-sardinian-coast-italy
#18
Susanna Sforzini, Caterina Oliveri, Andrea Orrù, Giannina Chessa, Beniamina Pacchioni, Caterina Millino, Awadhesh N Jha, Aldo Viarengo, Mohamed Banni
In the present study, we investigated the health status of marine mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) caged and deployed at three different sites on the Sardinian coastline characterized by different levels of contamination: Fornelli (F, the reference site), Cala Real (CR), and Porto Torres (PT). A new low density oligonucleotide microarray was used to investigate global gene expression in the digestive gland of mussels. Target genes were selected to cover most of the biological processes involved in the stress response in bivalve mollusks (e...
February 11, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436209/focus-on-gastroesophageal-reflux-ger-and-laryngopharyngeal-reflux-lpr-new-pragmatic-insights-in-clinical-practice
#19
M Gelardi, G Ciprandi
Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) is a common disease usually limited to the oesophagus. Laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) is an inflammatory reaction of the mucosa of pharynx, larynx, and other associated upper respiratory organs, caused by a reflux of stomach contents outside the oesophagus. LPR is considered to be a relatively new clinical entity with a vast number of clinical manifestations which are treated sometimes empirically and without a correct diagnosis. However, there is disagreement between specialists about its definition and management: gastroenterologists consider LPR to be a substantially rare manifestation of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), whereas otolaryngologists believe that LPR is an independent, but common in their practice, disorder...
January 2018: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434667/transcriptome-analysis-of-the-digestive-system-of-a-wood-feeding-termite-coptotermes-formosanus-revealed-a-unique-mechanism-for-effective-biomass-degradation
#20
Alei Geng, Yanbing Cheng, Yongli Wang, Daochen Zhu, Yilin Le, Jian Wu, Rongrong Xie, Joshua S Yuan, Jianzhong Sun
Background: Wood-feeding termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, represents a highly efficient system for biomass deconstruction and utilization. However, the detailed mechanisms of lignin modification and carbohydrate degradation in this system are still largely elusive. Results: In order to reveal the inherent mechanisms for efficient biomass degradation, four different organs (salivary glands, foregut, midgut, and hindgut) within a complete digestive system of a lower termite, C...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
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