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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232373/disentangling-metabolic-functions-of-bacteria-in-the-honey-bee-gut
#1
Lucie Kešnerová, Ruben A T Mars, Kirsten M Ellegaard, Michaël Troilo, Uwe Sauer, Philipp Engel
It is presently unclear how much individual community members contribute to the overall metabolic output of a gut microbiota. To address this question, we used the honey bee, which harbors a relatively simple and remarkably conserved gut microbiota with striking parallels to the mammalian system and importance for bee health. Using untargeted metabolomics, we profiled metabolic changes in gnotobiotic bees that were colonized with the complete microbiota reconstituted from cultured strains. We then determined the contribution of individual community members in mono-colonized bees and recapitulated our findings using in vitro cultures...
December 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231024/-diatom-detection-using-enzyme-combined-with-strong-acid-digestion-method
#2
J Yao, W J Kan
OBJECTIVES: To detect diatom in the organs of drowners by enzyme combined with strong acid digestion method, and evaluate its application value. METHODS: A total of 40 cases which have been identified as drowning in local region were collected. Samples of the lung, liver, kidney, and the water of the scene were also gathered from each case. Strong acid digestion method, enzyme combined with strong acid digestion method, and enzymic digestion method were respectively performed to detect the diatom in the samples...
April 2017: Fa Yi Xue za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224883/utilization-of-protein-in-red-clover-and-alfalfa-silages-by-lactating-dairy-cows-and-growing-lambs
#3
Glen A Broderick
Feeding trials were conducted with lactating cows and growing lambs to quantify effects of replacing dietary alfalfa silage (AS) with red clover silage (RCS) on nutrient utilization. The lactation trial had a 2 × 4 arrangement of treatments: AS or RCS fed with no supplement, rumen-protected Met (RPM), rumen-protected Lys (RPL), or RPM plus RPL. Grass silage was fed at 13% of dry matter (DM) with AS to equalize dietary neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and crude protein contents. All diets contained (DM basis) 5% corn silage and 16% crude protein...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224879/plant-oil-supplements-reduce-methane-emissions-and-improve-milk-fatty-acid-composition-in-dairy-cows-fed-grass-silage-based-diets-without-affecting-milk-yield
#4
A R Bayat, I Tapio, J Vilkki, K J Shingfield, H Leskinen
Four lipid supplements varying in chain length or degree of unsaturation were examined for their effects on milk yield and composition, ruminal CH4 emissions, rumen fermentation, nutrient utilization, and microbial ecology in lactating dairy cows. Five Nordic Red cows fitted with rumen cannulas were used in a 5 × 5 Latin square with five 28-d periods. Treatments comprised total mixed rations based on grass silage with a forage-to-concentrate ratio of 60:40 supplemented with no lipid (CO) or 50 g/kg of diet dry matter (DM) of myristic acid (MA), rapeseed oil (RO), safflower oil (SO), or linseed oil (LO)...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224143/multiplexed-reduced-representation-bisulfite-sequencing-with-magnetic-bead-fragment-size-selection
#5
William P Accomando, Karin B Michels
Reduced representation bisulfite sequencing (RRBS) is a technique for assessing genome-wide DNA methylation in an organism whose genome has been fully sequenced. It allows researchers to target gene regions with particular CpG densities, thereby selecting the desired genomic contexts. Here, we describe an approach that uses magnetic beads to accomplish this selection. In addition, the use of indexed, methylated adapters enables up to 12 samples to be pooled, and subjected to multiplexed RRBS in a single-sequencing lane...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224131/characterization-of-tomato-leaf-curl-purple-vein-virus-a-new-monopartite-new-world-begomovirus-infecting-tomato-in-northeast-brazil
#6
M A Macedo, L C Albuquerque, M R Maliano, J O Souza, M R Rojas, A K Inoue-Nagata, R L Gilbertson
A new begomovirus species was identified from tomato plants with upward leaf curling and purple vein symptoms, which was first identified in the Piaui state of Northeast (NE) Brazil in 2014. Tomato leaf samples were collected in 2014 and 2016, and PCR with degenerate primers revealed begomovirus infection. Rolling circle amplification and restriction enzyme digestion indicated a single genomic DNA of ~ 2.6 kb. Cloning and sequencing revealed a genome organization similar to DNA-A components of New World (NW) bipartite begomoviruses, with no DNA-B...
December 9, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224093/sex-effects-at-the-ramparts-nutrient-and-microbe-mediated-regulation-of-the-immune-metabolic-interface
#7
Nyrie Israelian, Jayne S Danska
The relationships between dietary compounds, derivative metabolites, and host metabolism and immunity are controlled by diverse molecular mechanisms. Essential contributions to these dynamics come from the community of microbes (the microbiome) inhabiting the human digestive tract. The composition and function of the microbiome are shaped by available nutrients, and reciprocally, these organisms produce an as yet poorly defined repertoire of molecules that communicate with the epithelial barrier and the mucosal immune system...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223596/presence-and-persistence-of-the-amnesic-shellfish-poisoning-toxin-domoic-acid-in-octopus-and-cuttlefish-brains
#8
Vanessa M Lopes, Rui Rosa, Pedro R Costa
Domoic acid (DA) is a neurotoxin that causes degenerative damage to brain cells and induces permanent short-term memory loss in mammals. In cephalopod mollusks, although DA is known to accumulate primarily in the digestive gland, there is no knowledge whether DA reaches their central nervous system. Here we report, for the first time, the presence of DA in brain tissue of the common octopus (Octopus vulgaris) and the European cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis), and its absence in the brains of several squid species (Loligo vulgaris, L...
December 5, 2017: Marine Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222086/genome-wide-dna-methylation-profiling-using-the-methylation-dependent-restriction-enzyme-lpnpi
#9
Ruben Boers, Joachim Boers, Bas de Hoon, Christel Kockx, Zeliha Ozgur, Anco Molijn, Wilfred van IJcken, Joop Laven, Joost Gribnau
DNA methylation is a well-known epigenetic modification that plays a crucial role in gene regulation, but genome-wide analysis of DNA methylation remains technically challenging and costly. DNA methylation-dependent restriction enzymes can be used to restrict CpG methylation analysis to methylated regions of the genome only, which significantly reduces the required sequencing depth and simplifies subsequent bioinformatics analysis. Unfortunately, this approach has been hampered by complete digestion of DNA in CpG methylation-dense regions, resulting in fragments that are too small for accurate mapping...
December 8, 2017: Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220770/role-of-methanogenesis-on-the-biotransformation-of-organic-micropollutants-during-anaerobic-digestion
#10
Lorena Gonzalez-Gil, Miguel Mauricio-Iglesias, Denisse Serrano, Juan M Lema, Marta Carballa
Several studies showed that some organic micropollutants (OMPs) are biotransformed during anaerobic digestion (AD). Yet, most of them aim at reporting removal efficiencies instead of understanding the biotransformation process. Indeed, how each of the main AD stages (i.e., hydrolysis, acidogenesis, and methanogenesis) contribute to OMP biotransformation remains unknown. This study focuses on investigating the role of methanogenesis, the most characteristic step of AD, to OMP removal. More specifically, the sorption and the biotransformation of 20 OMPs by methanogenic biomass were analyzed determining their concentrations in both liquid and solid phases...
December 5, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219761/the-fate-of-nitrite-and-nitrate-during-anaerobic-digestion
#11
K Ghyselbrecht, A Monballiu, M H Somers, I Sigurnjak, E Meers, L Appels, B Meesschaert
Anaerobic digestion is widely used to produce renewable energy. However, the main drawback is the limited conversion efficiency of organic matter. Applying an advanced oxidation process (AOP) as a digestate post-treatment is able to increase this conversion efficiency but will also lead to the oxidation of ammonium to nitrite or nitrate. In this lab scale study, the fate of the latter in the digester was investigated. Nitrite and nitrate were therefore added in concentrations that could arise from rate limiting ammonium concentrations (1...
December 8, 2017: Environmental Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217301/-gut-microbiota-what-impact-on-colorectal-carcinogenesis-and-treatment
#12
REVIEW
Antoine Bruneau, Minh-Tam Baylatry, Anne Christine Joly, Harry Sokol
The gut microbiota, composed of 1014 microorganisms, is now considered as a "hidden organ", regarding to its digestive, metabolic and immune functions, which are helpful to its host. For the last 15 years, advances in molecular biology have highlighted the association of gut microbiota dysbiosis with several diseases, including colorectal cancer. An increased abundance of some bacteria (including Fusobacterium nucleatum, Bacteroides fragilis, Escherichia coli) is associated with cancer, whereas others seem to be protective (Faecalibacterium prausnitzii)...
December 4, 2017: Bulletin du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215799/comparison-of-prestoblue%C3%A2-and-plating-method-to-evaluate-antimicrobial-activity-of-ascorbic-acid-boric-acid-and-curcumin-in-an-in-vitro-gastrointestinal-model
#13
Daniel Hernandez-Patlan, Bruno Solis-Cruz, Abraham Méndez-Albores, Juan D Latorre, Xochitl Hernandez-Velasco, Guillermo Tellez, Raquel López-Arellano
AIMS: To compare the conventional plating method versus a fluorometric method using PrestoBlue® as a dye by determining the antimicrobial activity of two organic acids and curcumin against Salmonella Enteritidis in an avian in vitro digestion model that simulates the crop, proventriculus and intestine. METHODS AND RESULTS: A concentration of 108 cfu ml-1 of S. Enteritidis was exposed to groups with different rates of ascorbic acid, boric acid and curcumin. Significant differences were observed when the means of the treatments were compared with the controls in the compartments that simulate the crop and intestine (P < 0...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214351/regenerative-medicine-for-the-esophagus
#14
REVIEW
Kengo Kanetaka, Shinichiro Kobayashi, Susumu Eguchi
Advances in tissue engineering techniques have made it possible to use human cells as biological material. This has enabled pharmacological studies to be conducted to investigate drug effects and toxicity, to clarify the mechanisms underlying diseases, and to elucidate how they compensate for impaired organ function. Many researchers have tried to construct artificial organs using these techniques, but none has succeeded in growing a whole organ. Unlike other digestive organs with complicated functions, such as the processing and absorption of nutrients, the esophagus has the relatively simple function of transporting content, which can be replicated easily by a substitute...
December 6, 2017: Surgery Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210595/evaluation-of-anionic-surfactant-removal-by-anaerobic-degradation-of-commercial-laundry-wastewater-and-domestic-sewage
#15
Clara Vieira de Faria, Tiago Palladino Delforno, Dagoberto Yukio Okada, Maria Bernadete Amâncio Varesche
An expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactor was evaluated for the anaerobic digestion of commercial laundry wastewater and domestic sewage focused on the removal of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS). The reactor was operated in three stages, all under mesophilic conditions and with a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 36 hours. At stage I, the laundry wastewater was diluted with tap water (influent: 15.3 ± 4.9 mg LAS/L); at stage II, 50% of the feed volume was domestic sewage and 50% was a mixture of tap water and laundry wastewater (influent: 15...
December 6, 2017: Environmental Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209506/border-terriers-under-primary-veterinary-care-in-england-demography-and-disorders
#16
Dan G O'Neill, Elisabeth C Darwent, David B Church, Dave C Brodbelt
Background: The Border Terrier is a working terrier type that is generally considered to be a relatively healthy and hardy breed. This study aimed to characterise the demography and common disorders of Border Terriers receiving veterinary care in England using de-identified electronic patient record data within the VetCompass™ Programme. Results: Annual birth proportion for Border Terriers showed a decreasing trend from 1.46% in 2005 to 0.78% in 2014. The median adult bodyweight for males (10...
2017: Canine Genetics and Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209063/effect-of-different-organic-fertilizers-application-on-growth-and-environmental-risk-of-nitrate-under-a-vegetable-field
#17
Shuyan Li, Jijin Li, Bangxi Zhang, Danyang Li, Guoxue Li, Yangyang Li
The effect of chicken manure after different disposal methods (water-logged composting, GOF; anaerobic digestion, BR; thermophilic composting, ROF) on vegetable growth and environmental risk was investigated under the tomato-celery-tomato field. Results showed that organic fertilizers significantly increased vegetable yield and quality, but with inappropriate application may cause serious environmental risk such as nitrate pollution. Maximum vegetable yield of 80.9, 68.3, 112.7 t·ha-1 (first, second and third rotation crop, respectively) with best vegetable quality was obtained in ROF treatment...
December 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207979/a-propeptide-toolbox-for-secretion-optimization-of-flavobacterium-meningosepticum-endopeptidase-in-lactococcus-lactis
#18
Pei Yu Lim, Lee Ling Tan, Dave Siak-Wei Ow, Fong T Wong
BACKGROUND: Lactic acid bacteria are a family of "generally regarded as safe" organisms traditionally used for food fermentation. In recent years, they have started to emerge as potential chassis for heterologous protein production. And more recently, due to their beneficial properties in the gut, they have been examined as potential candidates for mucosal delivery vectors, especially for acid-sensitive enzymes. One such application would be the delivery of gluten-digesting endopeptidases for the treatment of celiac disease...
December 5, 2017: Microbial Cell Factories
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207080/effect-of-puerarin-on-collagen-metabolism-of-fibroblasts-in-pelvic-tissue-of-women-with-pelvic-organ-prolapse
#19
Yang Li, Li Hong, Cheng Liu, Jie Min, Shasha Hong, Ming Hu, Yang Zhao, Qing Yang, Jianming Tang, Songming He
The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effect of puerarin on pelvic organ prolapse (POP) and the underlying mechanisms that regulate the metabolism of human parametrial ligament fibroblasts (HPLFs). HPLFs obtained from the pelvic tissue of patients with (n=10) or without (n=8) POP during hysterectomy were isolated by enzymatic digestion and subsequently identified by immunocytochemistry in a previous study of the authors. Following this, cultured HPLFs were treated with 0.01, 0.10 or 1...
November 20, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202139/changes-in-the-pancreas-caused-by-different-types-of-hypertension
#20
Paulina Nowińska, Irena Kasacka
Hypertension is considered a lifestyle disease. Unfavorable forecasts predict a significant increase in the number of patients suffering from this disorder. Many changes in various organs have been observed as a result of ischemia. An interesting question arises of whether differences between the mechanisms occurring in different types of hypertension could produce different effects in the organs. It is well known that there is a close relationship between hypertension and insulin resistance. On the other hand, insulin resistance is the main cause of type 2 diabetes, which develops in parallel with changes in the pancreas...
November 30, 2017: Acta Biochimica Polonica
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