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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050441/the-physiological-response-of-broiler-chickens-to-the-dietary-supplementation-of-the-bacteriocin-nisin-and-ionophore-coccidiostats
#1
B Kieronczyk, M Sassek, E Pruszynska-Oszmalek, P Kolodziejski, M Rawski, S Swiatkiewicz, D Józefiak
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation with nisin alone or in combination with salinomycin or monensin on broiler chickens in terms of growth performance, selected blood parameters, digestive enzyme activity, apparent nutrient digestibility, and tibiotarsus mineralization, as well as selected gastrointestinal tract (GIT) organ weights, intestinal length, and central immune organ weights. Two independent experiments, each including 400 one-day-old female Ross 308 chicks differing in ionophore coccidiostats, i...
September 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049842/acid-digestion-on-river-influenced-shelf-sediment-organic-matter-carbon-and-nitrogen-contents-and-isotopic-ratios
#2
Pasquier Virgil, Sans Jofre Pierre, Lebeau Oanez, Liorzou Celine, Rabineau Marina
RATIONALE: Natural stable isotopes ratios (d(13) Corg and (15) N vales) and associated elemental concentrations (i.e. total organic carbon and total nitrogen contents) preserved in marine sediments are frequently used for the determination of paleoenvironmental processes such as the origin of organic matter. Previous studies highlighted biases in the determination of such geochemical proxies due to pre-analysis acid treatment methods. This study is the first systematic comparison of the effect of acid treatment methods on bulk organic matter using a unique sedimentary system, under two contrasting climatic contexts (i...
October 19, 2017: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048831/-fabrication-of-acylsemicarbazide-based-porous-organic-polymer-for-selective-enrichment-of-glycopeptides
#3
Hongwei Wang, Zhongshan Liu, Xiaojun Peng, Junjie Ou, Mingliang Ye
An acylsemicarbazide-based porous organic polymer (POP) was facilely prepared by the polymerization of benzene-1,3,5-tricarbohydrazide (BTZ) and 1,4-phenylene diisocyanate (PDI). The physical properties of as-synthesized material were characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), solid-state cross polarisation magic angle spinning carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance (CP-MAS (13)C NMR), nitrogen adsorption/desorption measurement, water contact angle and so on. The specific surface area was 166 m(2)/g, and the water contact angle was 46...
July 8, 2017: Se Pu, Chinese Journal of Chromatography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043990/tumor-necrosis-factor-%C3%AE-and-procalcitonin-level-variations-in-the-serum-and-their-effects-on-organ-function-in-patients-with-severe-acute-pancreatitis-during-infected-stage
#4
Yanping Zhu
To investigate the changes of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and procalcitonin (PCT) in the serum and their effects on organ function in patients with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) during infected stage, aiming to provide a reference to individual treatment. 32 patients with SAP during infected stage admitted to the Digestive Department of The Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University from April 2014 to May 2015 and also 30 volunteer normal people were recruited in this study. And 26 patients detected with positive pathogenic bacteria were grouped into group A and another 6 patients with negative pathogenic bacteria into group B and 30 normal people into group C...
July 2017: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042192/an-immune-related-gene-expression-atlas-of-the-shrimp-digestive-system-in-response-to-two-major-pathogens-brings-insights-into-the-involvement-of-hemocytes-in-gut-immunity
#5
Amanda S Silveira, Gabriel M Matos, Marcelo Falchetti, Fabio S Ribeiro, Albert Bressan, Evelyne Bachère, Luciane M Perazzolo, Rafael D Rosa
Much of our current knowledge on shrimp immune system is restricted to the defense reactions mediated by the hemocytes and little is known about gut immunity. Here, we have investigated the transcriptional profile of immune-related genes in different organs of the digestive system of the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. First, the tissue distribution of 52 well-known immune-related genes has been assessed by semiquantitative analysis in the gastrointestinal tract (foregut, midgut and hindgut) and in the hepatopancreas and circulating hemocytes of shrimp stimulated or not with heat-killed bacteria...
October 14, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042108/spatial-distribution-and-environmental-geochemistry-of-zinc-metal-in-water-and-surficial-bottom-sediments-of-lagoon-burullus-egypt
#6
Abd El-Monsef Ahmed El-Badry, Ahmad Mohamed El-Kammar
Lagoon Burullus is located in the North West quadrant of the Nile Delta. It receives drainage water through several drains around the lagoon. Understanding the mobility and bioavailability of zinc metal in bottom sediments of Lagoon Burullus is essential for the design of remediation processes and the institution of environmental recommendation for zinc pollution. Single extractions used to fractionate zinc into five fractions. The chemical analyses preceded using atomic absorption spectrometry after using the digestion technique...
October 14, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29041914/analysis-of-the-genome-of-the-new-zealand-giant-collembolan-holacanthella-duospinosa-sheds-light-on-hexapod-evolution
#7
Chen Wu, Melissa D Jordan, Richard D Newcomb, Neil J Gemmell, Sarah Bank, Karen Meusemann, Peter K Dearden, Elizabeth J Duncan, Sefanie Grosser, Kim Rutherford, Paul P Gardner, Ross N Crowhurst, Bernd Steinwender, Leah K Tooman, Mark I Stevens, Thomas R Buckley
BACKGROUND: The New Zealand collembolan genus Holacanthella contains the largest species of springtails (Collembola) in the world. Using Illumina technology we have sequenced and assembled a draft genome and transcriptome from Holacanthella duospinosa (Salmon). We have used this annotated assembly to investigate the genetic basis of a range of traits critical to the evolution of the Hexapoda, the phylogenetic position of H. duospinosa and potential horizontal gene transfer events. RESULTS: Our genome assembly was ~375 Mbp in size with a scaffold N50 of ~230 Kbp and sequencing coverage of ~180×...
October 17, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040844/can-hydrothermal-pretreatment-improve-anaerobic-digestion-for-biogas-from-lignocellulosic-biomass
#8
Dou Wang, Fei Shen, Gang Yang, Yanzong Zhang, Shihuai Deng, Jing Zhang, Yongmei Zeng, Tao Luo, Zili Mei
Hydrothermally-pretreated rice straw (HPRS) from various pretreatment temperatures was anaerobically-digested in whole slurry. Results indicated promoting pretreatment temperature significantly deconstructed rice straw, and facilitated the conversion of insoluble fractions to soluble fractions. Although 306.6 mL/g TS biogas was maximally yielded in HPRS-90 and HPRS-180, respectively, via digestion in whole slurry, it was only 3% promotion compared to the unpretreated rice straw. HPRS-210 yielded 208.5 mL/g TS biogas, which was 30% reduction with longer lag period of 19...
October 5, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039350/the-toxicity-of-vanadium-on-gastrointestinal-urinary-and-reproductive-system-and-its-influence-on-fertility-and-fetuses-malformations
#9
Aleksandra Wilk, Dagmara Szypulska-Koziarska, Barbara Wiszniewska
Vanadium is a transition metal that has a unique and beneficial effect on both humans and animals. For many years, studies have suggested that vanadium is an essential trace element. Its biological properties are of interest due to its therapeutic potential, including in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Vanadium deficiencies can lead to a range of pathologies. However, excessive concentration of this metal can cause irreversible damage to various tissues and organs. Vanadium toxicity mainly manifests in gastrointestinal symptoms, including diarrhea, vomiting, and weight reduction...
September 25, 2017: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037592/adsorption-of-marine-phycotoxin-okadaic-acid-on-a-covalent-organic-framework
#10
Laura M Salonen, Sara R Pinela, Soraia P S Fernandes, João Louçano, Enrique Carbó-Argibay, Marisa P Sarriá, Carlos Rodríguez-Abreu, João Peixoto, Begoña Espiña
Phycotoxins, compounds produced by some marine microalgal species, can reach high concentrations in the sea when a massive proliferation occurs, the so-called harmful algal bloom. These compounds are especially dangerous to human health when concentrated in the digestive glands of seafood. In order to generate an early warning system to alert for approaching toxic outbreaks, it is very important to improve monitoring methods of phycotoxins in aquatic ecosystems. Solid-phase adsorption toxin tracking devices reported thus far based on polymeric resins have not been able to provide an efficient harmful algal bloom prediction system due to their low adsorption capabilities...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037122/obtaining-edaphic-biostimulants-biofertilizers-from-sewage-sludge-using-fermentative-processes-short-time-effects-on-soil-biochemical-properties
#11
Bruno Rodríguez-Morgado, Pablo Caballero, Patricia Paneque, Isidoro Gómez, Juan Parrado, Manuel Tejada
In this manuscript we study the manufacture and effect on soils of different edaphic biostimulants/biofertilizers (BS) obtained from sewage sludge using Bacillus licheniformis as biological tool. These BS consist of different combinations of organic matter, bacteria and enzymes that were subjected to several treatments. These BS were applied in soil in order to observe their influence on the biochemical properties (enzymatic activities and ergosterol content). Dehydrogenase, urease, β-glucosidase, phosphatase activities and ergosterol content were measured at different incubation days...
October 16, 2017: Environmental Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036014/a-family-with-two-cases-of-melanocytic-tumors-and-fragile-x-syndrome
#12
Candice Lesage, Isabelle Coupier, Bernard Guillot
Fragile X syndrome (FXS), a leading cause of inherited intellectual disability, most commonly results from an expansion of the CGG trinucleotide repeat in the fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) gene to more than 200 copies (full mutation). The FXS phenotype differs by sex and is associated with intellectual and cognitive impairment, characteristic physical features, epilepsy, and/or behavioral challenges including autism spectrum disorder. In this patient population, tumors involving blood cells, digestive organs, the central nervous system, and testes have been described, but melanocytic tumors have not been reported...
October 13, 2017: Melanoma Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033945/improved-efficacy-of-oral-immunotherapy-using-non-digestible-oligosaccharides-in-a-murine-cow-s-milk-allergy-model-a-potential-role-for-foxp3-regulatory-t-cells
#13
Marlotte M Vonk, Mara A P Diks, Laura Wagenaar, Joost J Smit, Raymond H H Pieters, Johan Garssen, Betty C A M van Esch, Léon M J Knippels
BACKGROUND: Oral immunotherapy (OIT) is a promising therapeutic approach to treat food allergic patients. However, there are some concerns regarding its safety and long-term efficacy. The use of non-digestible oligosaccharides might improve OIT efficacy since they are known to directly modulate intestinal epithelial and immune cells in addition to acting as prebiotics. AIM: To investigate whether a diet supplemented with plant-derived fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) supports the efficacy of OIT in a murine cow's milk allergy model and to elucidate the potential mechanisms involved...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033916/contribution-of-ruminal-fungi-archaea-protozoa-and-bacteria-to-the-methane-suppression-caused-by-oilseed-supplemented-diets
#14
Shaopu Wang, Katrin Giller, Michael Kreuzer, Susanne E Ulbrich, Ueli Braun, Angela Schwarm
Dietary lipids can suppress methane emission from ruminants, but effects are variable. Especially the role of bacteria, archaea, fungi and protozoa in mediating the lipid effects is unclear. In the present in vitro study, archaea, fungi and protozoa were selectively inhibited by specific agents. This was fully or almost fully successful for fungi and protozoa as well as archaeal activity as determined by the methyl-coenzyme M reductase alpha subunit gene. Five different microbial treatments were generated: rumen fluid being intact (I), without archaea (-A), without fungi (-F), without protozoa (-P) and with bacteria only (-AFP)...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033019/processing-of-mycotoxin-contaminated-waste-streams-through-anaerobic-digestion
#15
L De Gelder, K Audenaert, B Willems, K Schelfhout, S De Saeger, M De Boevre
Food and feed stocks heavily contaminated with mycotoxins are rendered unfit for consumption and therefore discarded as waste. Due to the lack of guidelines and in accordance with the prudent avoidance principle, these waste streams are often incinerated. For better valorization, these streams could be used as input for anaerobic digestion. However, the degradation of multiple mycotoxins during anaerobic digestion and their effect on the methane production is currently unknown. In batch tests spiked with mycotoxins, aflatoxin B1, ochratoxin A, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone and T-2 toxin were degraded for more than 90%...
October 9, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032352/physiological-impacts-of-acute-cu-exposure-on-deep-sea-vent-mussel-bathymodiolus-azoricus-under-a-deep-sea-mining-activity-scenario
#16
Inês Martins, Joana Goulart, Eva Martins, Rosa Morales-Román, Sergio Marín, Virginie Riou, Ana Colaço, Raul Bettencourt
Over the past years, several studies have been dedicated to understanding the physiological ability of the vent mussel Bathymodiolus azoricus to overcome the high metal concentrations present in their surrounding hydrothermal environment. Potential deep-sea mining activities at Azores Triple junction hydrothermal vent deposits would inevitably lead to the emergence of new fluid sources close to mussel beds, with consequent emission of high metal concentrations and potential resolubilization of Cu from minerals formed during the active phase of the vent field...
October 9, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032300/gastric-cathepsin-d-exception-or-the-rule-in-decapods-crustaceans
#17
Diana Martínez-Alarcón, Reinhard Saborowski, Liliana Rojo-Arreola, Fernando García-Carreño
Cathepsin D is an aspartic endopetidase with typical characteristics of lysosomal enzymes. Cathepsin D activity has been reported in the gastric fluid of clawed lobsters where it acts as an extracellular digestive enzyme. Here we investigate whether cathepsin D is unique in clawed lobsters or, instead, common in decapod crustaceans. Eleven species of decapods belonging to six infraorders were tested for cathepsin D activity in the midgut gland, the muscle tissue, the gills, and when technically possible, in the gastric fluid...
October 11, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030559/understanding-seed-mediated-growth-of-gold-nanoclusters-at-molecular-level
#18
Qiaofeng Yao, Xun Yuan, Victor Fung, Yong Yu, David Tai Leong, De-En Jiang, Jianping Xie
The continuous development of total synthesis chemistry has allowed many organic and biomolecules to be produced with known synthetic history-that is, a complete set of step reactions in their synthetic routes. Here, we extend such molecular-level precise reaction routes to nanochemistry, particularly to a seed-mediated synthesis of inorganic nanoparticles. By systematically investigating the time-dependent abundance of 35 intermediate species in total, we map out relevant step reactions in a model size growth reaction from molecularly pure Au25 to Au44 nanoparticles...
October 13, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028492/modelling-an-industrial-anaerobic-granular-reactor-using-a-multi-scale-approach
#19
H Feldman, X Flores-Alsina, P Ramin, K Kjellberg, U Jeppsson, D J Batstone, K V Gernaey
The objective of this paper is to show the results of an industrial project dealing with modelling of anaerobic digesters. A multi-scale mathematical approach is developed to describe reactor hydrodynamics, granule growth/distribution and microbial competition/inhibition for substrate/space within the biofilm. The main biochemical and physico-chemical processes in the model are based on the Anaerobic Digestion Model No 1 (ADM1) extended with the fate of phosphorus (P), sulfur (S) and ethanol (Et-OH). Wastewater dynamic conditions are reproduced and data frequency increased using the Benchmark Simulation Model No 2 (BSM2) influent generator...
September 20, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027705/effects-of-dietary-supplementation-of-spices-on-forage-degradability-ruminal-fermentation-in-vivo-digestibility-growth-performance-and-nitrogen-balance-in-black-bengal-goat
#20
M R Chowdhury, M M H Khan, S U Mahfuz, M A Baset
The objective of the study was to evaluate the effects of spices on forage utilization and nitrogen (N) emission using in vitro and in vivo approach. A 6 × 5 factorial triplicate arrangement was used to assess the in vitro degradability of rice straw with control (without spices) and individual (40 mg/g rice straw) spices (cumin, coriander, clove, black cumin, turmeric) at five different incubation times. In vitro dry matter (DM) and organic matter (OM) degradability of rice straw were highest in presence of spices except for clove...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
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