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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667120/chromium-in-postmortem-material
#1
Danuta Dudek-Adamska, Teresa Lech, Tomasz Konopka, Paweł Kościelniak
Recently, considerable attention has been paid to the negative effects caused by the presence and constant increase in concentration of heavy metals in the environment, as well as to the determination of their content in human biological samples. In this paper, the concentration of chromium in samples of blood and internal organs collected at autopsy from 21 female and 39 male non-occupationally exposed subjects is presented. Elemental analysis was carried out by an electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometer after microwave-assisted acid digestion...
April 17, 2018: Biological Trace Element Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665634/characterization-of-microplastic-litter-in-the-gastrointestinal-tract-of-solea-solea-from-the-adriatic-sea
#2
G Pellini, A Gomiero, T Fortibuoni, Carmen Ferrà, F Grati, A N Tassetti, P Polidori, G Fabi, G Scarcella
Micro-plastic particles in the world's oceans represent a serious threat to both human health and marine ecosystems. Once released into the aquatic environment plastic litter is broken down to smaller pieces through photo-degradation and the physical actions of waves, wind, etc. The resulting particles may become so small that they are readily taken up by fish, crustaceans and mollusks. There is mounting evidence for the uptake of plastic particles by marine organisms that form part of the human food chain and this is driving urgent calls for further and deeper investigations into this pollution issue...
March 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665508/pre-separation-of-ammonium-content-during-high-solid-thermal-alkaline-pretreatment-to-mitigate-ammonia-inhibition-kinetics-and-feasibility-analysis
#3
Yang Zhuo, Yun Han, Qiliang Qu, Yuqin Cao, Dangcong Peng, Yuyou Li
The feasibility of ammonia pre-separation during the thermal-alkaline pretreatment (TAP) of waste activated sludge was evaluated to mitigate ammonia inhibition during high solid anaerobic digestion (HSAD). The results showed that the TAP increased the organics hydrolysis rate as much as 77% compared to the thermal hydrolysis pretreatment (THP). The production and separation of the ammonia during the TAP exhibited a linear relationship with the hydrolysis of organics and the Emerson model. The pre-separation ratio of the free ammonia nitrogen exceeded 98...
March 27, 2018: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663665/investigation-of-nano-sized-debris-released-from-cocrmo-secondary-interfaces-in-total-hip-replacements-digestion-of-the-flakes
#4
Alina M Crainic, Mauro Callisti, Martin R Palmer, Richard B Cook
The in vivo release of wear debris and corrosion products from the metallic interfaces of total hip replacements is associated with a wide spectrum of adverse body reactions and systemic manifestations. The origin of debris and the electrochemical conditions at the sites of material loss both play a role in determining the physicochemical characteristics of the particles, and thus influence their in vivo reactivity. Debris retrieved from revised CoCrMo tapers and cement-stem interfaces consists of heterogeneous flakes that comprise mechanically mixed metal particles, corrosion products and organic material...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662480/comparative-analysis-of-the-microbiota-between-sheep-rumen-and-rabbit-cecum-provides-new-insight-into-their-differential-methane-production
#5
Lan Mi, Bin Yang, Xialu Hu, Yang Luo, Jianxin Liu, Zhongtang Yu, Jiakun Wang
The rumen and the hindgut represent two different fermentation organs in herbivorous mammals, with the former producing much more methane than the latter. The objective of this study was to elucidate the microbial underpinning of such differential methane outputs between these two digestive organs. Methane production was measured from 5 adult sheep and 15 adult rabbits, both of which were placed in open-circuit respiratory chambers and fed the same diet (alfalfa hay). The sheep produced more methane than the rabbits per unit of metabolic body weight, digestible neutral detergent fiber, and acid detergent fiber...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662071/lrh-1-agonism-favours-an-immune-islet-dialogue-which-protects-against-diabetes-mellitus
#6
Nadia Cobo-Vuilleumier, Petra I Lorenzo, Noelia García Rodríguez, Irene de Gracia Herrera Gómez, Esther Fuente-Martin, Livia López-Noriega, José Manuel Mellado-Gil, Silvana-Yanina Romero-Zerbo, Mathurin Baquié, Christian Claude Lachaud, Katja Stifter, German Perdomo, Marco Bugliani, Vincenzo De Tata, Domenico Bosco, Geraldine Parnaud, David Pozo, Abdelkrim Hmadcha, Javier P Florido, Miguel G Toscano, Peter de Haan, Kristina Schoonjans, Luis Sánchez Palazón, Piero Marchetti, Reinhold Schirmbeck, Alejandro Martín-Montalvo, Paolo Meda, Bernat Soria, Francisco-Javier Bermúdez-Silva, Luc St-Onge, Benoit R Gauthier
Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is due to the selective destruction of islet beta cells by immune cells. Current therapies focused on repressing the immune attack or stimulating beta cell regeneration still have limited clinical efficacy. Therefore, it is timely to identify innovative targets to dampen the immune process, while promoting beta cell survival and function. Liver receptor homologue-1 (LRH-1) is a nuclear receptor that represses inflammation in digestive organs, and protects pancreatic islets against apoptosis...
April 16, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661568/cultivated-bacterial-diversity-associated-with-the-carnivorous-plant-utricularia-breviscapa-lentibulariaceae-from-floodplains-in-brazil
#7
Felipe Rezende Lima, Almir José Ferreira, Cristine Gobbo Menezes, Vitor Fernandes Oliveira Miranda, Manuella Nóbrega Dourado, Welington Luiz Araújo
Carnivorous plant species, such as Utricularia spp., capture and digest prey. This digestion can occur through the secretion of plant digestive enzymes and/or by bacterial digestive enzymes. To comprehend the physiological mechanisms of carnivorous plants, it is essential to understand the microbial diversity related to these plants. Therefore, in the present study, we isolated and classified bacteria from different organs of Utricularia breviscapa (stolons and utricles) and from different geographic locations (São Paulo and Mato Grosso)...
March 31, 2018: Brazilian Journal of Microbiology: [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661512/organelle-survival-in-a-foreign-organism-hydra-nematocysts-in-the-flatworm-microstomum-lineare
#8
Georg Krohne
Nematocysts are characteristic organelles of the phylum cnidaria. They are designated kleptocnidae when sequestered in animals that feed on cnidaria. Kleptocnidae are known for more than a century. Nevertheless it is still enigmatic how selected nematocyst types survive in the predator and how they reach their final destination in the foreign body. In the free-living Platyhelminth Microstomum lineare the fate of nematocysts of the prey Hydra oligactis was analyzed at the ultrastructural level and by fluorescence microscopy using hydra polyps that had been stained in vivo with the fluorescent dyes TROMI and TRITC...
April 8, 2018: European Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660660/bioaugmentation-strategy-for-enhancing-anaerobic-digestion-of-high-c-n-ratio-feedstock-with-methanogenic-enrichment-culture
#9
Ying Li, Lianhua Li, Yongming Sun, Zhenhong Yuan
To investigate whether bioaugmentation could improve the digestion performance of high C/N ratio feedstock without co-digestion with nitrogen-rich substrate, different forms of enriched methanogenic culture were introduced to the continuous feed digesters. The performance efficiency of bioaugmentation on digestion improvement was compared. The effect of bioaugmentation on microbial community composition was revealed as well. Results demonstrated that routine bioaugmentation with liquid culture (containing the microbes and the medium remains) showed the best performance, with the organic loading rate (OLR), methane percentage, volumetric methane production (VMP) and volatile solid methane production (VSMP) higher at 1...
April 5, 2018: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659310/effect-of-feeding-broccoli-floret-residues-on-leghorn-layer-performance-and-egg-quality-and-nutrient-digestibility
#10
A F Mustafa, B Baurhoo
1. A study was conducted to determine the effects of dried broccoli floret (DBF) on egg production parameters, egg quality, and apparent nutrient digestibility of laying hens. It was hypothesised that feeding DBF can improve egg quality without adversely affecting layer performance. 2. Seventy-two White Leghorn layers aged 62 weeks were randomly allotted to four dietary treatments (six cage replicates with three hens each) and fed diets containing 0, 40, 80, and 120 g/kg DBF in feed for 56 d. 3. Inclusion of DBF had no effect on feed intake, egg production, feed conversion ratio or egg components...
April 16, 2018: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658936/two-dimensional-gel-electrophoresis-coupled-with-mass-spectrometry-methods-for-an-analysis-of-human-pituitary-adenoma-tissue-proteome
#11
Xianquan Zhan, Yuda Huang, Ying Long
Human pituitary adenoma (PA) is a common tumor that occurs in the human pituitary gland in the hypothalamus-pituitary-targeted organ axis systems, and may be classified as either clinically functional or nonfunctional PA (FPA and NFPA). NFPA is difficult for early stage diagnosis and therapy due to barely elevating hormones in the blood compared to FPA. Our long-term goal is to use proteomics methods to discover reliable biomarkers for clarification of PA molecular mechanisms and recognition of effective diagnostic, prognostic markers and therapeutic targets...
April 2, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658531/preliminary-assessment-of-vibration-impacts-generated-by-the-public-transport-systems-on-pregnant-women-based-on-subjective-reactions
#12
Magdalena Kromka-Szydek, Zygmunt Dziechciowski, Paulina Tyrpin
PURPOSE: Research efforts summarised in this study were a part of preliminary investigation to evaluate the impact of pregnant women's exposure to vibrations generated by public transport system when using. METHODS: The assessment of the problem and discomfort for pregnant women, caused by the public transportation is based on a questionnaire including questions relating to the women's subjective feelings on well-being or discomfort when exposed to vibration during the ride in passenger cars or when using means of public transport...
2018: Acta of Bioengineering and Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29657411/the-effect-of-supplementation-of-multistrain-probiotic-preparation-in-combination-with-vitamins-and-minerals-to-the-basal-diet-on-the-growth-performance-carcass-traits-and-physiological-response-of-broilers
#13
Sugiharto Sugiharto, Isroli Isroli, Turrini Yudiarti, Endang Widiastuti
Aim: The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of supplementation of multistrain probiotic preparation in combination with vitamins and minerals to the broiler chicken diets on their growth performance, hematological parameters, and carcass traits. Materials and Methods: Two hundred and eighty-eight Lohmann 1-day-old broiler chicks were randomly allocated to four groups, i.e., control (without additional supplementation) and three experimental treatments where basal diet was enriched by 0...
February 2018: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656191/instability-diagnosis-and-syntrophic-acetate-oxidation-during-thermophilic-digestion-of-vegetable-waste
#14
Dong Li, Yi Ran, Lin Chen, Qin Cao, Zhidong Li, Xiaofeng Liu
Effective process monitoring and instability diagnosis are important for stable anaerobic digestion (AD) of vegetable waste (VW). In order to evaluate the performance of thermophilic digestion of VW, to make early diagnosis for instability after organic overload, and to reveal the dynamics of microbial community under different running states, thermophilic AD of VW was carried out under improved organic loading rates (OLR) of 0.5-2.5 g volatile solid (VS)/(L ∙ d) in this study. Gaseous parameters including volumetric methane production rate (VMPR), CH4 , CO2 , and H2 concentrations, and liquid parameters including pH, oxidation-reduction potential, volatile fatty acid (VFA), and total alkalinity (TA), bicarbonate alkalinity (BA), intermediate alkalinity (IA), and ammonia, were monitored...
April 10, 2018: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655854/the-expression-and-distribution-of-a-leptin-receptor-in-the-central-nervous-system-digestive-organs-and-gonads-of-the-giant-freshwater-prawn-macrobrachium-rosenbergii
#15
Jaruwan Poljaroen, Ruchanok Tinikul, Panat Anuracpreeda, Prasert Sobhon, Yotsawan Tinikul
In the present study, the presence and distribution of leptin receptor (LEP-R) in central nervous system, digestive organs, gonads of giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, were investigated with Western blot and immunohistochemistry. By Western blot a LEP-R with a molecular weight (MW) of 100 kDa was detected in the brain, thoracic ganglia, abdominal ganglia, hepatopancreas, all parts of the gastrointestinal tract, ovaries, and testes. In hepatopancreas and foregut, another intense positive band was detected at molecular weight of 30 kDa, which could be an isotype of LEP-R...
April 11, 2018: Acta Histochemica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655757/fucoxanthin-bioavailability-from-fucoxanthin-fortified-milk-in-vivo-and-in-vitro-study
#16
Il-Kyoon Mok, Jae Kwon Lee, Jeong Hwa Kim, Cheol-Ho Pan, Sang Min Kim
Our previous study reported the improved stability of fucoxanthin (FX) fortified in whole milk (WM) and skimmed milk (SM). In this study, in vivo and in vitro FX bioavailability were investigated using FX-fortified milk (FX-SM and FX-WM) and microalga Phaeodactylum tricornutum biomass (Pt-powder). Organ tissue accumulation of FX and its metabolites (FXOH: fucoxanthinol, AXA: amarouciaxanthin A) after repeated oral administration was in the following order: FX-SM > FX-WM > Pt-powder. In vivo pharmacokinetic study with a single oral administration also demonstrated that the absorption of FXOH and AXA was the highest for FX-SM...
August 30, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655558/effects-of-feeding-milk-replacer-at-2-rates-with-pelleted-low-starch-or-texturized-high-starch-starters-on-calf-performance-and-digestion
#17
J D Quigley, T M Hill, T S Dennis, F X Suarez-Mena, R L Schlotterbeck
Milk replacer (MR) feeding programs have traditionally fed at less than ad libitum amounts to promote calf starter (CS) intake and allow early weaning. More recently, increased amounts of MR preweaning have been shown to increase preweaning ADG, although postweaning growth may be reduced. Several studies suggest that limited postweaning digestion of nutrients in CS may contribute to postweaning growth impairment. It is not clear whether CS formulation might also contribute to differences in postweaning nutrient digestion when calves are fed different MR programs...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653358/anaerobic-treatment-of-n-n-dimethylformamide-containing-wastewater-by-co-culturing-two-sources-of-inoculum
#18
Zhe Kong, Lu Li, Rei Kurihara, Kengo Kubota, Yu-You Li
The complete methanogenic degradation of N, N-dimethylformamide (DMF) was achieved in this study. Initially, DMF was found to be feebly degradable by a lab-scale submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactor (SAnMBR) using normal anaerobic digestion sludge (ADS) even after 120-day's culturing. However, aerobic DMF-degrading activated sludge (AS) was rapidly cultivated in a continuous aeration reactor (CAR). A specially designed anaerobic co-cultured sludge (ACS) made by artificially mixing AS with ADS was successfully domesticated by a long term repeated batch experiment...
April 4, 2018: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653309/bioactive-extracellular-compounds-produced-by-the-dinoflagellate-alexandrium-minutum-are-highly-detrimental-for-oysters
#19
J Castrec, P Soudant, L Payton, D Tran, P Miner, C Lambert, N Le Goïc, A Huvet, V Quillien, F Boullot, Z Amzil, H Hégaret, C Fabioux
Blooms of the dinoflagellate Alexandrium spp., known as producers of paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs), are regularly detected on the French coastline. PSTs accumulate into harvested shellfish species, such as the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas, and can cause strong disorders to consumers at high doses. The impacts of Alexandrium minutum on C. gigas have often been attributed to its production of PSTs without testing separately the effects of the bioactive extracellular compounds (BECs) with allelopathic, hemolytic, cytotoxic or ichthyotoxic properties, which can also be produced by these algae...
March 29, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652926/assessment-of-costs-associated-with-adverse-events-in-patients-with-cancer
#20
William Wong, Yeun Mi Yim, Ashley Kim, Martin Cloutier, Marjolaine Gauthier-Loiselle, Patrick Gagnon-Sanschagrin, Annie Guerin
Adverse event (AE)-related costs represent an important component of economic models for cancer care. However, since previous studies mostly focused on specific AEs, treatments, or cancer types, limited information is currently available. Therefore, this study assessed the incremental healthcare costs associated with a large number of AEs among patients diagnosed with some of the most prevalent types of cancer. Data were obtained from a large US claims database. Adult patients were included if diagnosed with and treated for one of the following cancer types: breast, digestive organs and peritoneum, genitourinary organs (including bladder and ovary and other uterine adnexa), lung, lymphatic and hematopoietic tissue, and skin...
2018: PloS One
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