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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721171/response-to-an-unusual-outbreak-in-a-high-risk-situation
#1
Mahmood Muazu Dalhat, Olufunmilayo Ibitola Fawole, Patrick Mboya Nguku, Meeyoung Mattie Park, Casey Daniel Hall, Nasir Sani-Gwarzo
In 2010, a series of lead poisoning outbreaks linked to artisanal gold processing killed at least 400 young children in Zamfara State in northwestern Nigeria. There were several efforts to respond to the outbreaks as they occurred. Subsequent recurrence of lead poisoning outbreaks within Zamfara and beyond suggested that there were no efforts to mitigate the outbreaks as recommended for disaster management. This case study, to be completed within 3 hours, is suitable for senior level public health officials and those training for such positions...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710986/pulmonary-function-and-respiratory-health-of-rural-farmers-and-artisanal-and-small-scale-gold-miners-in-ghana
#2
Mozhgon Rajaee, Allison K Yee, Rachel N Long, Elisha P Renne, Thomas G Robins, Niladri Basu
The recent increase in artisanal and small scale gold mining (ASGM) worldwide has elicited a number of public health concerns for miners and mining communities, including respiratory health. The two primary inhalational exposures of concern are crystalline silica expected to be present in gold ore and smoke from biomass fuels used in cooking. Here, measurements of pulmonary function and of respiratory symptoms were performed in an ASGM community, Kejetia, and a comparison agricultural community, Gorogo, in the Upper East Region of Ghana in May-July 2011...
July 12, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707852/medicine-and-the-making-of-a-city-spaces-of-pharmacy-and-scholarly-medicine-in-seventeenth-century-stockholm
#3
Hjalmar Fors
This essay takes seventeenth-century Stockholm as its point of departure in discussing the many spaces to which early modern medicine belonged, in particular the court, the cityscape, the site of the pharmacy, and the city’s Collegium Medicum. It shows how scholarly medicine and pharmacy arose along with the city itself. They were a part of the city and of its many interlaced local, European, and global flows and relationships. Thus the essay offers new perspectives on medicine as part of, and a driving force behind, Stockholm’s transition from a medieval town to the capital of an early modern state, as well as the city’s integration into the early modern system of global trade...
September 2016: Isis; An International Review Devoted to the History of Science and its Cultural Influences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704387/abundance-of-commercially-important-reef-fish-indicates-different-levels-of-over-exploitation-across-shelves-of-the-u-s-virgin-islands
#4
Elizabeth Kadison, Marilyn Brandt, Richard Nemeth, Justin Martens, Jeremiah Blondeau, Tyler Smith
The United States Virgin Islands are comprised of two separate insular platforms separated by the deep water Anegada Passage. Although managed by the same regulations, as one fishery, several physical and spatial differences exist between the two northern shelf islands, St. Thomas and St. John, and isolated St. Croix. Based on two long-term fisheries independent datasets, collected by the U.S. Virgin Islands Territorial Coral Reef Monitoring Program and the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment, there were significant differences between the northern USVI and St...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695581/trophic-redundancy-among-fishes-in-an-east-african-nearshore-seagrass-community-inferred-from-stable-isotope-analysis
#5
P Matich, J J Kiszka, K R Gastrich, M R Heithaus
Stable-isotope analysis supplemented with stomach contents data from published sources was used to quantify the trophic niches, trophic niche overlaps and potential trophic redundancy for the most commonly caught fish species from an East African nearshore seagrass community. This assessment is an important first step in quantifying food-web structure in a region subject to intense fishing activities. Nearshore food webs were driven by at least two isotopically distinct trophic pathways, algal and seagrass, with a greater proportion of the sampled species feeding within the seagrass food web (57%) compared with the algal food web (33%)...
July 11, 2017: Journal of Fish Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695305/mercury-contamination-in-selected-foodstuffs-and-potential-health-risk-assessment-along-the-artisanal-gold-mining-gilgit-baltistan-pakistan
#6
Arjumand Riaz, Sardar Khan, Said Muhammad, Caihong Liu, Mohammad Tahir Shah, Mohsin Tariq
This study investigates the mercury (Hg) contaminations in soil and foodstuffs along the artisanal gold mining areas, Gilgit-Baltistan Province, Pakistan. For this purpose, soils were analyzed for Hg concentrations and evaluated for the enrichment/contamination using enrichment factor or contamination factors (CF). The CF values ranged from 18.9 to 153 showed multifold higher levels of Hg contamination as compared to background or reference site. Foodstuffs including vegetables, seeds or grains and fish muscles showed Hg accumulation...
July 10, 2017: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666013/exploitation-rates-of-two-benthic-resources-across-management-regimes-in-central-chile-evidence-of-illegal-fishing-in-artisanal-fisheries-operating-in-open-access-areas
#7
Miguel Andreu-Cazenave, Maria Dulce Subida, Miriam Fernandez
There is an urgent need to quantify the impacts of artisanal fisheries and define management practices that allow for the recovery and conservation of exploited stocks. The extent of illegal catch is particularly critical as a driver of overexploitation in artisanal fisheries. However, the lack of data at proper spatial scales limits the evaluation of illegal fishing and effectiveness of management practices. We used a catch curve analysis to estimate total instantaneous mortality as a proxy of fishing pressure in the artisanal benthic fishery in central Chile...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658634/dietary-human-exposure-to-mercury-in-two-artisanal-small-scale-gold-mining-communities-of-northwestern-colombia
#8
Carlos Salazar-Camacho, Manuel Salas-Moreno, Siday Marrugo-Madrid, José Marrugo-Negrete, Sergi Díez
Artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) is the largest anthropogenic source of mercury pollution worldwide, posing a grave threat to human health. The present study identifies current levels of mercury in the human population from mining areas of the Chocó Department, Colombia, through total mercury (THg) and methylmercury (MeHg) measurements in human hair. Mercury exposure of the local population was assessed in two towns affected by ASGM and was related to different variables of interest. Concentrations of THg in human hair ranged from 0...
June 25, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655297/reduced-egfr-elevated-urine-protein-and-low-level-of-personal-protective-equipment-compliance-among-artisanal-small-scale-gold-miners-at-bibiani-ghana-a-cross-sectional-study
#9
Justice Afrifa, Samuel Essien-Baidoo, Richard K D Ephraim, Daniel Nkrumah, Daniel Osei Dankyira
BACKGROUND: Mercury is a toxic metal with its effects on human health ranging from acute to chronic in a very short time of exposure. Artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) is the main source of direct human exposure to mercury. AIM: To access the effect of mercury exposure on the renal function and level of personal protective equipment (PPE) compliance among small-scale gold miners in Bibiani District of the Western Region of Ghana METHOD: 110 consenting male gold miners were purposively recruited for this study...
June 27, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654685/spatial-variability-of-spanish-sardine-sardinella-aurita-abundance-as-related-to-the-upwelling-cycle-off-the-southeastern-caribbean-sea
#10
Digna Rueda-Roa, Jeremy Mendoza, Frank Muller-Karger, Juan José Cárdenas, Alina Achury, Yrene Astor
The Sardinella aurita fishery off northeastern Venezuela, region of seasonal wind-driven coastal-upwelling, accounts for 90% of the Caribbean Sea small pelagic catch. This law-protected artisanal fishery takes place up to ~10 km offshore. The spatial distribution, number of schools, and biomass of S. aurita were studied using eight hydro-acoustic surveys (1995-1998). The study included the analysis of satellite-derived sea surface temperature and chlorophyll-a. Surveys were grouped by strong, weak, and transitional upwelling seasons...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654663/two-sides-of-a-coin-effects-of-climate-change-on-the-native-and-non-native-distribution-of-colossoma-macropomum-in-south-america
#11
Taise M Lopes, Dayani Bailly, Bia A Almeida, Natália C L Santos, Barbara C G Gimenez, Guilherme O Landgraf, Paulo C L Sales, Matheus S Lima-Ribeiro, Fernanda A S Cassemiro, Thiago F Rangel, José A F Diniz-Filho, Angelo A Agostinho, Luiz C Gomes
Climate change and species invasions interact in nature, disrupting biological communities. Based on this knowledge, we simultaneously assessed the effects of climate change on the native distribution of the Amazonian fish Colossoma macropomum as well as on its invasiveness across river basins of South America, using ecological niche modeling. We used six niche models within the ensemble forecast context to predict the geographical distribution of C. macropomum for the present time, 2050 and 2080. Given that this species has been continuously introduced into non-native South American basins by fish farming activities, we added the locations of C...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649866/sensory-profile-of-sheep-cheeses-during-a-six-month-storage-period-as-evaluated-by-consumers
#12
Adriana Gámbaro, Lucía Maceiras, Florencia Erramouspe, Lucía Nógues, Nicolás Callejas, Ignacio Vieitez
Over the past decade, the use of check-all-that-apply questions has become an easier and faster alternative to traditional sensory profiles using trained assessors, allowing the characterisation of a product by consumers. In this study, 65 consumers evaluated the acceptability of six artisan Uruguayan sheep cheese samples during a six-month storage period, providing a descriptive profile using a check-all-that-apply questionnaire consisting of 32 sensory and non-sensory terms. Although the acceptability of five of the six samples was not modified during storage, the consumers were able to perceive changes in the texture and flavour of products, providing a sensory profile of the cheeses...
January 1, 2017: Food Science and Technology International, Ciencia y Tecnología de Los Alimentos Internacional
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619398/global-burden-of-disease-of-mercury-used-in-artisanal-small-scale-gold-mining
#13
Nadine Steckling, Myriam Tobollik, Dietrich Plass, Claudia Hornberg, Bret Ericson, Richard Fuller, Stephan Bose-O'Reilly
BACKGROUND: Artisanal small-scale gold mining (ASGM) is the world's largest anthropogenic source of mercury emission. Gold miners are highly exposed to metallic mercury and suffer occupational mercury intoxication. The global disease burden as a result of this exposure is largely unknown because the informal character of ASGM restricts the availability of reliable data. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of occupational mercury intoxication and the disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) attributable to chronic metallic mercury vapor intoxication (CMMVI) among ASGM gold miners globally and in selected countries...
March 2017: Annals of Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602523/engineering-biological-systems-using-automated-biofoundries
#14
REVIEW
Ran Chao, Shekhar Mishra, Tong Si, Huimin Zhao
Engineered biological systems such as genetic circuits and microbial cell factories have promised to solve many challenges in the modern society. However, the artisanal processes of research and development are slow, expensive, and inconsistent, representing a major obstacle in biotechnology and bioengineering. In recent years, biological foundries or biofoundries have been developed to automate design-build-test engineering cycles in an effort to accelerate these processes. This review summarizes the enabling technologies for such biofoundries as well as their early successes and remaining challenges...
June 7, 2017: Metabolic Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600315/rna-based-amplicon-sequencing-highlights-the-impact-of-the-processing-technology-on-microbiota-composition-of-artisanal-and-industrial-pdo-lard-d-arnad
#15
Ilario Ferrocino, Alberto Bellio, Angelo Romano, Guerrino Macori, Kalliopi Rantsiou, Lucia Decastelli, Luca Cocolin
"Valle d'Aosta Lard d'Arnad" is a protected designation of origin (PDO) product produced from fat of the shoulder and back of heavy pigs. Its manufacturing process can be very diverse, especially regarding the maturation temperature and the NaCl concentrationused for the brine, thereby the main goal of this study was to investigate the impact of those parameters on the microbiota developed during curing and ripening. Three farms producing Lard d'Arnad were selected. Two plants, reflecting the industrial process characterized either by low maturation temperature (plant A [10% NaCl; 2°C]) or by using a low NaCl concentrations (plant B [2...
June 9, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591285/iris-claw-intraocular-lens-implantation-in-children-with-ectopia-lentis
#16
Sadık Görkem Çevik, Muhammer Özgür Çevik, Ahmet Tuncer Özmen
Purpose: Artisan iris-claw lens implantation (AICLI) is a surgical technique for treating ectopia lentis. We aimed to compare visual outcomes and possible long-term complications of AICLI surgery in pediatric patients with ectopia lentis with or without a diagnosable hereditary disease. Methods: Seventeen children with non-traumatic ectopia lentis were retros pectively classified into two groups: group 1 included children with a diagnosable hereditary disease (11 patients, 65%), and group 2 included children without any definable hereditary disease (six patients, 35%)...
March 2017: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585687/analytical-fingerprint-of-wolframite-ore-concentrates
#17
Hans-Eike Gäbler, Wilhelm Schink, Simon Goldmann, Andreas Bahr, Timo Gawronski
Ongoing violent conflicts in Central Africa are fueled by illegal mining and trading of tantalum, tin, and tungsten ores. The credibility of document-based traceability systems can be improved by an analytical fingerprint applied as an independent method to confirm or doubt the documented origin of ore minerals. Wolframite (Fe,Mn)WO4 is the most important ore mineral for tungsten and is subject to artisanal mining in Central Africa. Element concentrations of wolframite grains analyzed by laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry are used to establish the analytical fingerprint...
June 6, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584754/occupational-dermatoses-among-cottage-industry-workers-of-kashmir-valley-in-north-india
#18
Saniya Akhtar, Iffat Hassan, Farhan Rasool, Yasmeen J Bhat, Gousia Sheikh
INTRODUCTION: Cottage industry is usually a small-scale industry operated from home by family members using their own equipment. Kashmir has a unique cottage industry of its own which deals with production of many handicrafts, which may lead to a peculiar pattern of skin diseases in these artisans. Aim: The aim of this study was to find out the pattern of skin disorders in the cottage industry workers of Kashmir valley, with primary focus on the occupation-related dermatoses and to identify the most common cutaneous manifestation in these workers...
May 2017: Indian Dermatology Online Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584601/prevalence-and-risk-factors-for-sulfadoxine-antibody-among-patients-undergoing-treatment-for-malaria-in-benin-city-nigeria
#19
Kingsley Ikuoyogie, Helen Oroboghae Ogefere, Richard Omoregie
OBJECTIVES: Because of lack of data on the prevalence of sulfadoxine antibody, this study was conducted to determine the prevalence of sulfadoxine antibodies and its possible risk factors. METHODS: Blood specimens were collected from 500 patients undergoing treatment for malaria at Central Hospital, Benin City, Nigeria. A structured questionnaire was used to collect information and sociodemographic data. Sulfadoxine antibodies were detected by drug absorption (DAT) and immune complex (IMC) methods...
May 2017: Oman Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571574/the-use-of-local-ecological-knowledge-as-a-complementary-approach-to-understand-the-temporal-and-spatial-patterns-of-fishery-resources-distribution
#20
Mauro Sergio Pinheiro Lima, Jorge Eduardo Lins Oliveira, Marcelo Francisco de Nóbrega, Priscila Fabiana Macedo Lopes
BACKGROUND: Acquiring fast and accurate information on ecological patterns of fishery resources is a basic first step for their management. However, some countries may lack the technical and/or the financial means to undergo traditional scientific samplings to get such information; therefore affordable and reliable alternatives need to be sought. METHODS: We compared two different approaches to identify occurrence patterns and catch for three main fish species caught with bottom-set gillnets used by artisanal fishers from northeast Brazil: (1) scientific on-board record data of small-scale fleet (n = 72 trips), and (2) interviews with small-scale fishers on Local Ecological Knowledge (LEK) (n = 32 interviews)...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine
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