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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619398/global-burden-of-disease-of-mercury-used-in-artisanal-small-scale-gold-mining
#1
Nadine Steckling, Myriam Tobollik, Dietrich Plass, Claudia Hornberg, Bret Ericson, Richard Fuller, Stephan Bose-O'Reilly
BACKGROUND: Artisanal small-scale gold mining (ASGM) is the world's largest anthropogenic source of mercury emission. Gold miners are highly exposed to metallic mercury and suffer occupational mercury intoxication. The global disease burden as a result of this exposure is largely unknown because the informal character of ASGM restricts the availability of reliable data. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of occupational mercury intoxication and the disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) attributable to chronic metallic mercury vapor intoxication (CMMVI) among ASGM gold miners globally and in selected countries...
March 2017: Annals of Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602523/engineering-biological-systems-using-automated-biofoundries
#2
REVIEW
Ran Chao, Shekhar Mishra, Tong Si, Huimin Zhao
Engineered biological systems such as genetic circuits and microbial cell factories have promised to solve many challenges in the modern society. However, the artisanal processes of research and development are slow, expensive, and inconsistent, representing a major obstacle in biotechnology and bioengineering. In recent years, biological foundries or biofoundries have been developed to automate design-build-test engineering cycles in an effort to accelerate these processes. This review summarizes the enabling technologies for such biofoundries as well as their early successes and remaining challenges...
June 7, 2017: Metabolic Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600315/rna-based-amplicon-sequencing-highlights-the-impact-of-the-processing-technology-on-microbiota-composition-of-artisanal-and-industrial-pdo-lard-d-arnad
#3
Ilario Ferrocino, Alberto Bellio, Angelo Romano, Guerrino Macori, Kalliopi Rantsiou, Lucia Decastelli, Luca Cocolin
"Valle d'Aosta Lard d'Arnad" is a protected designation of origin (PDO) product produced from fat of the shoulder and back of heavy pigs. Its manufacturing process can be very diverse, especially regarding the maturation temperature and the NaCl concentrationused for the brine, thereby the main goal of this study was to investigate the impact of those parameters on the microbiota developed during curing and ripening. Three farms producing Lard d'Arnad were selected. Two plants, reflecting the industrial process characterized either by low maturation temperature (plant A [10% NaCl; 2°C]) or by using a low NaCl concentrations (plant B [2...
June 9, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591285/iris-claw-intraocular-lens-implantation-in-children-with-ectopia-lentis
#4
Sadık Görkem Çevik, Muhammer Özgür Çevik, Ahmet Tuncer Özmen
Purpose: Artisan iris-claw lens implantation (AICLI) is a surgical technique for treating ectopia lentis. We aimed to compare visual outcomes and possible long-term complications of AICLI surgery in pediatric patients with ectopia lentis with or without a diagnosable hereditary disease. Methods: Seventeen children with non-traumatic ectopia lentis were retros pectively classified into two groups: group 1 included children with a diagnosable hereditary disease (11 patients, 65%), and group 2 included children without any definable hereditary disease (six patients, 35%)...
March 2017: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585687/analytical-fingerprint-of-wolframite-ore-concentrates
#5
Hans-Eike Gäbler, Wilhelm Schink, Simon Goldmann, Andreas Bahr, Timo Gawronski
Ongoing violent conflicts in Central Africa are fueled by illegal mining and trading of tantalum, tin, and tungsten ores. The credibility of document-based traceability systems can be improved by an analytical fingerprint applied as an independent method to confirm or doubt the documented origin of ore minerals. Wolframite (Fe,Mn)WO4 is the most important ore mineral for tungsten and is subject to artisanal mining in Central Africa. Element concentrations of wolframite grains analyzed by laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry are used to establish the analytical fingerprint...
June 6, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584754/occupational-dermatoses-among-cottage-industry-workers-of-kashmir-valley-in-north-india
#6
Saniya Akhtar, Iffat Hassan, Farhan Rasool, Yasmeen J Bhat, Gousia Sheikh
INTRODUCTION: Cottage industry is usually a small-scale industry operated from home by family members using their own equipment. Kashmir has a unique cottage industry of its own which deals with production of many handicrafts, which may lead to a peculiar pattern of skin diseases in these artisans. Aim: The aim of this study was to find out the pattern of skin disorders in the cottage industry workers of Kashmir valley, with primary focus on the occupation-related dermatoses and to identify the most common cutaneous manifestation in these workers...
May 2017: Indian Dermatology Online Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584601/prevalence-and-risk-factors-for-sulfadoxine-antibody-among-patients-undergoing-treatment-for-malaria-in-benin-city-nigeria
#7
Kingsley Ikuoyogie, Helen Oroboghae Ogefere, Richard Omoregie
OBJECTIVES: Because of lack of data on the prevalence of sulfadoxine antibody, this study was conducted to determine the prevalence of sulfadoxine antibodies and its possible risk factors. METHODS: Blood specimens were collected from 500 patients undergoing treatment for malaria at Central Hospital, Benin City, Nigeria. A structured questionnaire was used to collect information and sociodemographic data. Sulfadoxine antibodies were detected by drug absorption (DAT) and immune complex (IMC) methods...
May 2017: Oman Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571574/the-use-of-local-ecological-knowledge-as-a-complementary-approach-to-understand-the-temporal-and-spatial-patterns-of-fishery-resources-distribution
#8
Mauro Sergio Pinheiro Lima, Jorge Eduardo Lins Oliveira, Marcelo Francisco de Nóbrega, Priscila Fabiana Macedo Lopes
BACKGROUND: Acquiring fast and accurate information on ecological patterns of fishery resources is a basic first step for their management. However, some countries may lack the technical and/or the financial means to undergo traditional scientific samplings to get such information; therefore affordable and reliable alternatives need to be sought. METHODS: We compared two different approaches to identify occurrence patterns and catch for three main fish species caught with bottom-set gillnets used by artisanal fishers from northeast Brazil: (1) scientific on-board record data of small-scale fleet (n = 72 trips), and (2) interviews with small-scale fishers on Local Ecological Knowledge (LEK) (n = 32 interviews)...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541069/reading-between-the-menu-lines-are-restaurants-descriptions-of-healthy-foods-unappealing
#9
Bradley P Turnwald, Dan Jurafsky, Alana Conner, Alia J Crum
OBJECTIVE: As obesity rates continue to climb in America, much of the blame has fallen on the high-calorie meals at popular chain restaurants. Many restaurants have responded by offering "healthy" menu options. Yet menus' descriptions of healthy options may be less attractive than their descriptions of less healthy, standard options. This study examined the hypothesis that the words describing items in healthy menu sections are less appealing than the words describing items in standard menu sections...
May 25, 2017: Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509842/molecular-epidemiology-of-methicillin-resistant-and-methicillin-susceptible-staphylococcus-aureus-in-the-ovine-dairy-chain-and-in-farm-related-humans
#10
Guerrino Macori, Giuseppina Giacinti, Alberto Bellio, Silvia Gallina, Daniela Manila Bianchi, Daniele Sagrafoli, Nicla Marri, Gilberto Giangolini, Simonetta Amatiste, Lucia Decastelli
Staphylococcus aureus is a major cause of clinical infections in humans and its enterotoxins cause foodborne disease. In the present study, we tested a total of 51 isolates of S. aureus from small-ruminant dairy farms with artisan dairy facilities, all located in Latium, Italy. The farms have a known history of a high prevalence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). Most of the MRSA isolates (27 of 51) belonged to spa-type t127 (43.1%), followed by t2678 (3.9%), t044 (2%), t1166 (2%), and t1773 (2%). PFGE performed on mecA positive strains identified one cluster (≥ 80% of similarity), comprising 22 MRSA...
May 16, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499674/-training-of-residents-in-amniocentesis-effectiveness-of-a-craft-simulator
#11
A Cazaux, R Callec, E Gauchotte, R Sataf, E Perdriolle, O Morel
OBJECTIVE: This prospective study aims to assess a low fidelity simulation device for learning amniocentesis to gynecology-obstetrics residents. METHODS: From 2013 to 2016, gynecology-obstetrics residents of all levels, from the maternity of Nancy hospital, which have already performed amniocentesis or not, participated in amniocentesis training on an artisanal simulator. Residents were evaluated on the amniocentesis simulator according to seven quality criteria...
May 9, 2017: Gynecologie, Obstetrique, Fertilite & Senologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497433/marine-protected-areas-in-costa-rica-how-do-artisanal-fishers-respond
#12
Róger Madrigal-Ballestero, Heidi J Albers, Tabaré Capitán, Ariana Salas
Costa Rica is considering expanding their marine protected areas (MPAs) to conserve marine resources. Due to the importance of households' responses to an MPA in defining the MPA's ecological and economic outcomes, this paper uses an economic decision framework to interpret data from near-MPA household surveys to inform this policy discussion. The model and data suggest that the impact of expanding MPAs relies on levels of enforcement and on-shore wages. If larger near-shore MPAs can produce high wages through increased tourism, MPA expansions could provide ecological benefits with low burdens to communities...
May 11, 2017: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479145/arsenic-and-mercury-concentrations-in-marine-fish-sourced-from-local-fishermen-and-fish-markets-in-mine-impacted-communities-in-ratatotok-sub-district-north-sulawesi-indonesia
#13
Keith Bentley, Amin Soebandrio
Mesel gold mine, Ratatotok Sub-district, North Sulawesi, Indonesia deposited about 4.5millionm(3) of detoxified tailings containing arsenic (As) and mercury (Hg) via a submarine pipeline into Buyat Bay. As and Hg analysis of 216 fish muscle tissue composites from subsistence fishermen, local markets and a reference market confirmed that mean As levels were comparable between locations (range 1.71 to 2.12mg/kg wet weight (ww)) and <10% of the Australia New Zealand standard. Mean Hg concentrations were highest for the artisanal fishermen group (0...
May 4, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470642/iris-clip-lens-implantation-with-novel-approach-for-aphakia-after-previous-filtration-surgery
#14
A Hammer, T J Wolfensberger
Purpose To present a novel and simplified surgical technique of Artisan lens implantation for intraocular lens luxation and aphakia in glaucoma patients with previous superior filtration surgery. Methods Analysis of 12 patients with a history of previous superior filtration surgery for glaucoma, who underwent artisan lens implantation. To allow lens manipulation and implantation without alteration of the filtration bleb, the main sclerocorneal incision was performed laterally and the Artisan lens was held in place for enclavation of the iris stroma via a superior corneal incision without disturbing the filtration bleb...
April 2017: Klinische Monatsblätter Für Augenheilkunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462205/production-of-farmstead-lactose-free-pecorino-di-osilo-and-ricotta-cheeses-from-sheep-s-milk
#15
Luisa Pulinas, Carlo Spanu, Ilenia Idda, Ignazio Ibba, Gavino Nieddu, Salvatore Virdis, Christian Scarano, Francesca Piras, Nadia Spano, Gavino Sanna, Enrico Pietro Luigi De Santis
The present work was aimed to define and validate farmstead production of lactose-free Pecorino di Osilo cheese, fresh ricotta cheese, and salted and smoked ricotta cheese (Ricotta mustia). The enzymatic activity of the commercial preparation containing lactase (1.1 g/mL), preliminarily tested using a spectrophotometric titration, showed activity equal to 4950±40 neutral lactase unit/g. The amount of lactase required to obtain the lactose-free milk was then established in triplicate laboratory trials, by adding the enzyme at concentrations of 0...
January 24, 2017: Italian Journal of Food Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457283/artisan-iris-fixated-intraocular-lens-implantation-in-combination-with-pupilloplasty-correction-of-aphakia-with-pathologically-large-pupil-and-insufficient-capsular-support
#16
Panpan Ye, Fengying He, Junting Shi, Jian Liu, Guanlu Liang, Jing Wu, Wen Xu
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to report the efficacy and safety of applying pupilloplasty in combination with Artisan iris-fixated intraocular lens (IOL) implantation in the treatment for aphakia with pathologically large pupil and insufficient capsular support. DESIGN: The study was a retrospective case series. PARTICIPANTS: Twenty-six aphakic eyes with pathologically large pupil and insufficient capsular support (from 26 patients) were included in the study...
April 2017: Canadian Journal of Ophthalmology. Journal Canadien D'ophtalmologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453548/self-feedbacks-determine-the-sustainability-of-human-interventions-in-eco-social-complex-systems-impacts-on-biodiversity-and-ecosystem-health
#17
Marco Ortiz, Richard Levins
Several administrative polices have been implemented in order to reduce the negative impacts of fishing on natural ecosystems. Four eco-social models with different levels of complexity were constructed, which represent the seaweed harvest in central-northern Chile under two different regimes, Management and Exploitation Areas for Benthic Resources (MAEBRs) and Open Access Areas (OAAs). The dynamics of both regimes were analyzed using the following theoretical frameworks: (1) Loop Analysis, which allows the local stability or sustainability of the models and scenarios to be assessed; and (2) Hessian´s optimization procedure of a global fishery function (GFF) that represents each dynamics of each harvest...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440982/-intelligence-quotient-loss-in-mexican-pottery-artisan-s-children
#18
Daniel Estrada-Sánchez, Bret Ericson, Cuauhtémoc Arturo Juárez-Pérez, Guadalupe Aguilar-Madrid, Lina Hernández, Sandra Gualtero, Jack Caravanos
BACKGROUND: In Mexico, artisans frequently use lead oxide or greta in order to produce utensils, which are destined to preparation and storage of food and drinks. Additionally, the risk of lead poisoning of artisans and their families is greater than in general population, and within these families, children are the most susceptible to lead poisoning. The aim of this study was to estimate IQ loss in Mexican children from potter families exposed to lead. METHODS: Lead concentrations in soil were determined in 19 potter's homes that functioned as pottery workshops in seven Mexican states between 2009 and 2012...
May 2017: Revista Médica del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440966/lead-levels-in-vegetables-from-artisanal-mining-sites-of-dilimi-river-bukuru-and-barkin-ladi-north-central-nigeria-cancer-and-non-cancer-risk-assessment
#19
Orish Ebere Orisakwe, Emmanuel Ayuba Dagur, Herbert Orji Chidi Mbagwu, Nnaemeka Arinze Udowelle
Lead (Pb) contamination of foods and especially of frequently consumed vegetables is a growing public health concern worldwide. Although levels of exposure in developed countries have declined over the past decades, the same cannot be said of developing countries. Health risk assessment has increasingly been employed to determine the potential hazard of heavy metal exposure to humans. In this study vegetable samples (tomatoes, red pepper, brown beans, lettuce, cabbage, Irish potatoes, onions, green beans and carrot), soil samples, irrigation water and sediment samples were collected from the Dilimi River, Bukuru and Barkin Ladi communities in north central Nigeria and analyzed for Pb content using atomic absorption spectroscopy...
March 1, 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409430/spatio-temporal-distribution-of-metals-in-household-dust-from-rural-semi-urban-and-urban-environments-in-the-niger-delta-nigeria
#20
Chukwujindu M A Iwegbue, Ejiro C Oliseyenum, Bice S Martincigh
Concentrations of metals in household dust samples from rural, semi-urban and urban zones of the Niger Delta in Nigeria were measured during both 2009 and 2014 with the aim of providing information on changes in the concentrations, distribution patterns, sources and risks of metals in these zones. The concentrations of metals in the dust samples were quantified by using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrophotometry (ICP-AES) after digestion with aqua regia. The measured concentrations (mg kg(-1)) of metals in the three zones within the study periods were as follows: <LOQ-21...
April 13, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
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