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D V Cavalcante, B S Bentes, J M Martinelli-Lemos
Macrobrachium surinamicum is a small shrimp that inhabits rivers of low salinity. It is mainly caught as bycatch in Amazon shrimp Macrobrachium amazonicum fisheries, which is widely exploited by artisanal fisheries for food and economic needs of the riverside population. This study aimed to characterize the spatial and temporal distribution of the freshwater shrimp M. surinamicum in the Guajará Bay and on Mosqueiro Island, correlating the abundance of this species with abiotic factors (temperature and salinity)...
December 1, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Biology, Revista Brasleira de Biologia
Matthew McLean, Javier Cuetos-Bueno, Osamu Nedlic, Marston Luckymiss, Peter Houk
Understanding how and why coral reefs have changed over the last twenty to thirty years is crucial for sustaining coral-reef resilience. We used a historical baseline from Kosrae, a typical small island in Micronesia, to examine changes in fish and coral assemblages since 1986. We found that natural gradients in the spatial distribution of fish and coral assemblages have become amplified, as island geography is now a stronger determinant of species abundance patterns, and habitat forming Acropora corals and large-bodied fishes that were once common on the leeward side of the island have become scarce...
2016: PloS One
Valentina Franco-Trecu, Massimiliano Drago, Helena Katz, Emanuel Machín, Yamandú Marín
Plastic debris in marine environments and its impact on wildlife species is becoming a problem of increasing concern. In pinnipeds, entanglements commonly consist of loops around the neck of non-biodegradable materials from fishing gear or commercial packaging, known as "neck collars". These entanglements can cause injuries, death by suffocation and starvation, and therefore they may add to the overall decrease in population. Our objective was to describe the entanglement of two species of otariids (Arctocephalus australis and Otaria flavescens) in the South West Atlantic Ocean...
January 2017: Environmental Pollution
Lucilla Iacumin, Marisa Manzano, Debbie Andyanto, Giuseppe Comi
Speck is a meat product obtained from the deboned leg of pork that is salted, smoked and seasoned for four to six months. During speck seasoning, Eurotium rubrum and Penicillium solitum grow on the surface and collaborate with other moulds and tissue enzymes to produce the typical aroma. Both of these strains usually predominate over other moulds. However, moulds producing ochratoxins, such as Aspergillus ochraceus and Penicillium nordicum, can also co-grow on speck and produce ochratoxin A (OTA). Consequently, speck could represent a potential health risk for consumers...
April 2017: Food Microbiology
Jeffrey D Weidenhamer, Meghann P Fitzpatrick, Alison M Biro, Peter A Kobunski, Michael R Hudson, Rebecca W Corbin, Perry Gottesfeld
Removing lead from gasoline has resulted in decreases in blood lead levels in most of the world, but blood lead levels remain elevated in low and middle-income countries compared to more developed countries. Several reasons for this difference have been investigated, but few studies have examined the potential contribution from locally-made aluminum cookware. In a previous study of cookware from a single African country, Cameroon, artisanal aluminum cookware that is made from scrap metal released significant quantities of lead...
November 17, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
A E Romo-Curiel, O Sosa-Nishizaki, J C Pérez-Jiménez, M C Rodríguez-Medrano
Samples of the shovelnose guitarfish Pseudobatos productus were collected on board a vessel and at landings of artisanal commercial fisheries in the Gulf of California from May 2004 to June 2007. Samples of 650 females, 2047 embryos and 484 uterine eggs were examined. The reproductive cycle is annual, ovulation and parturition occur in July, the uterine eggs are in diapause for 9 months (July-March) before an accelerated growth of embryos of 3 months. Histological analyses of the uterine wall of pregnant females suggested that no secretions were used for embryo nourishment...
November 10, 2016: Journal of Fish Biology
Mo Chen, Wenxi Lu, Zeyu Hou, Yu Zhang, Xue Jiang, Jichun Wu
Different gold mining and smelting processes can lead to distinctive heavy metal contamination patterns and results. This work examined heavy metal pollution from a large-scale cyanidation gold mining operation, which is distinguished from artisanal and small-scale amalgamation gold mining, in Jilin Province, China. A total of 20 samples including one background sample were collected from the surface of the mining area and the tailings pond in June 2013. These samples were analyzed for heavy metal concentrations and degree of pollution as well as sources of Cr, Cu, Zn, Pb, Ni, Cd, As, and Hg...
November 17, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Hitoshi Kodamatani, Steven J Balogh, Yabing H Nollet, Akito Matsuyama, Vesna Fajon, Milena Horvat, Takashi Tomiyasu
An inter-laboratory study was conducted to compare results from different analytical methods for monomethylmercury (MeHg) concentrations in 17 soil and sediment samples. The samples were collected from mercury-contaminated areas, including Minamata Bay and Kagoshima Bay in Japan, the Idrija mercury mine in Slovenia, and an artisanal small-scale gold mining area in Indonesia. The Hg in these samples comes from several different sources: industrial waste from an acetaldehyde production facility, volcanic activity, Hg mining activity, and artisanal and small-scale gold mining activity (ASGM)...
November 14, 2016: Chemosphere
Stefano Rea, Leonardo Marino, Roberta Stocchi, Raffaella Branciari, Anna Rita Loschi, Dino Miraglia, David Ranucci
The burrata cheese is a traditional product from Southern Italy, consisting of an envelope of pasta filata (stretched curd) filled with cream and pasta filata strips (usually leftovers from mozzarella production). Physical [water activity (aw), pH], chemical (moisture, NaCl content) and microbiological [total viable count (TVC), Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., Yersinia enterocolitica, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Enterobacteriaceae, coagulase-positive staphylococci] characteristics of burrata cheeses manufactured in artisanal and industrial plants were evaluated...
June 3, 2016: Italian Journal of Food Safety
Renata D S Cezar, Norma Lucena-Silva, Jonas M Borges, Vania L A Santana, José W Pinheiro Junior
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: The present study was aimed at detecting Mycobacterium bovis in artisanal cheese using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. METHODS: One hundred seven cheese samples (250g) were purchased in 107 commercial establishments including neighborhood grocery stores, bakeries, and open-air markets from 19 municipalities of the state of Pernambuco, Brazil. Ten grams of each cheese sample were macerated with sterile saline solution in a sterile bag and DNA was extracted from 20mg of the macerated material using the Wizard SV Genomic DNA Purification System...
September 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
Takashi Tomiyasu, Hitoshi Kodamatani, Yuriko Kono Hamada, Akito Matsuyama, Ryusuke Imura, Yoko Taniguchi, Nuril Hidayati, Joeni Setijo Rahajoe
This study investigates the distribution of total mercury (T-Hg) and methylmercury (MeHg) in the soil and water around the artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) area along the Cikaniki River, West Java, Indonesia. The concentration of T-Hg and MeHg in the forest soil ranged from 0.07 to 16.7 mg kg(-1) and from <0.07 to 2.0 μg kg(-1), respectively, whereas it ranged from 0.40 to 24.9 mg kg(-1) and from <0.07 to 56.3 μg kg(-1), respectively, in the paddy field soil. In the vertical variation of the T-Hg of forest soil, the highest values were observed at the soil surface, and these values were found to decrease with increasing depth...
November 9, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Alexandre Ceugniez, Bernard Taminiau, Françoise Coucheney, Philippe Jacques, Véronique Delcenserie, Georges Daube, Djamel Drider
The study of microbial ecosystems in artisanal foodstuffs is important to complete in order to unveil its diversity. The number of studies performed on dairy products has increased during the last decade, particularly those performed on milk and cheese derivative products. In this work, we investigated the bacterial content of "Tomme d'Orchies" cheese, an artisanal pressed and uncooked French cheese. To this end, a metagenetic analysis, using Illumina technology, was utilized on samples taken from the surface and core of the cheese at 0, 1, 3, 14 and 21days of ripening process...
October 29, 2016: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Edna Santos de Souza, Renato Alves Texeira, Hercília Samara Cardoso da Costa, Fábio Júnior Oliveira, Leônidas Carrijo Azevedo Melo, Kelson do Carmo Freitas Faial, Antonio Rodrigues Fernandes
Contamination of soil, water and plants caused by gold mining is of great societal concern because of the risk of environmental pollution and risk to human health. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the risk to human health from ingestion of As, Ba, Co, Cu, Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb, Se and Ni present in soil, sterile and mineralized waste, and water and plants at a gold mine in Serra Pelada, Pará, Brazil. Samples of soil, sterile and mineralized waste, water and plants were collected around an artisanal gold mine located in Serra Pelada...
October 27, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Robert Kaba Alhassan, Edward Nketiah-Amponsah, Daniel Kojo Arhinful
BACKGROUND: Nearly four decades after the Alma-Ata declaration of 1978 on the need for active client/community participation in healthcare, not much has been achieved in this regard particularly in resource constrained countries like Ghana, where over 70 % of communities in rural areas access basic healthcare from primary health facilities. Systematic Community Engagement (SCE) in healthcare quality assessment remains a grey area in many health systems in Africa, albeit the increasing importance in promoting universal access to quality basic healthcare services...
December 2016: Health Economics Review
Rachid Mchich, Timothée Brochier, Pierre Auger, Patrice Brehmer
This work presents a mathematical model describing the interactions between the cross-shore structure of small pelagic fish population an their exploitation by coastal and offshore fisheries. The complete model is a system of seven ODE's governing three stocks of small pelagic fish population moving and growing between three zones. Two types of fishing fleets are inter-acting with the fish population, industrial boats, constrained to offshore area, and artisanal boats, operating from the shore. Two time scales were considered and we use aggregation methods that allow us to reduce the dimension of the model and to obtain an aggregated model, which is a four dimension one...
October 26, 2016: Acta Biotheoretica
Ana Isabel Camacho Guerreiro, Richard J Ladle, Vandick da Silva Batista
BACKGROUND: Climate change is altering climate patterns, mainly increasing the frequency and intensity of extreme events with potentially serious impacts on natural resources and the people that use them. Adapting to such impacts will require the integration of scientific and local (folk) knowledge, especially the first-hand experiences and perceptions of resource users such as fishers. In this study, we identify how commercial riverine fishers in the Amazon remember extreme climatic events (flood and drought) and how they face the consequences of extreme events on fish availability...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine
Mariantonietta Succi, Maria Aponte, Patrizio Tremonte, Serena Niro, Elena Sorrentino, Massimo Iorizzo, Luca Tipaldi, Gianfranco Pannella, Gianfranco Panfili, Alessandra Fratianni, Raffaele Coppola
Five protected designation of origin (PDO) Caciocavallo Silano and 6 non-PDO Caciocavallo cheeses, ripened for 6 mo and collected in the 5 Italian regions of the PDO area (Apulia, Basilicata, Calabria, Campania, and Molise, Italy), were studied to assess their physico-chemical (pH, acidity, moisture, fat, ash, protein, and free amino acid composition) and microbiological profiles. Analyses evidenced a certain fluctuation of previous parameters among samples regardless of the kind of cheese evaluated (PDO and non-PDO)...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
R Esteban, P Verborgh, P Gauffier, D Alarcón, J M Salazar-Sierra, J Giménez, A D Foote, R de Stephanis
Killer whales (Orcinus orca) in the Mediterranean Sea are currently restricted to the Strait of Gibraltar and surrounding waters. Thirty-nine individuals were present in 2011, with a well-differentiated social structure, organized into five pods. Killer whale occurrence in the Strait is apparently related to the migration of their main prey, Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus). In spring, whale distribution was restricted to shallow waters off the western coast of the Strait where all pods were observed actively hunting tuna...
2016: Advances in Marine Biology
Carlos Raúl Belotti López de Medina, Lautaro López Geronazzo, Clarisa Otero
This paper reports the results of a zooarchaeological analysis conducted on the occupation layer of a compound structure (Residential Unit 1) of the Pucara de Tilcara archaeological site (Jujuy Province, northwestern Argentina). Its occupation span extends between the 13th and 15th centuries AD, but evidence diagnostic of the Inka Period (AD 1430-1536) is predominant. Residential Unit 1 was a house-workshop that hosted specialized crafts like metallurgy and lapidary during the Inka Period. It was proposed in previous works that artisans living at Pucara de Tilcara were provisioned with agropastoral products by the Inka administration...
2016: PloS One
Hossein Mohammad Rabie, Parviz Malekifar, Mohammad Ali Javadi, Danial Roshandel, Hamed Esfandiari
PURPOSE: To review our experience with crystalline lens extraction and iris claw Artisan IOL implantation in patients with lens subluxation secondary to Marfan syndrome. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of 12 eyes of 9 patients with lens subluxation due to Marfan syndrome who underwent crystalline lens removal and Artisan IOL (Ophtec, Groningen, Netherlands) implantation. A questionnaire of pre- and post-operative data, including demographics, pre- and postoperative comorbidities and complications was completed...
October 5, 2016: International Ophthalmology
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