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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911673/genetic-syndromes-associated-with-central-nervous-system-tumors
#1
Charmi Vijapura, Ehab Saad Aldin, Aristides A Capizzano, Bruno Policeni, Yutaka Sato, Toshio Moritani
Several genetic tumor syndromes have associated central nervous system (CNS) neoplasms. The spectrum of syndromes that have intracranial tumor manifestations includes ataxia telangiectasia, Cowden syndrome, familial adenomatous polyposis, hereditary non-polyposis-related colorectal cancer, Li-Fraumeni syndrome, Gorlin syndrome, neurofibromatosis types 1 and 2, multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1, tuberous sclerosis complex, von Hippel-Lindau disease, and Turcot syndrome. Many of these disorders are inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion, and identification of the associated genetic defects has led to improved understanding of the molecular pathways involved in tumorigenesis, helping pave the way to the emergence of molecularly targeted therapeutics...
December 2, 2016: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910896/methylmercury-induces-the-expression-of-tnf-%C3%AE-selectively-in-the-brain-of-mice
#2
Miyuki Iwai-Shimada, Tsutomu Takahashi, Min-Seok Kim, Masatake Fujimura, Hitoyasu Ito, Takashi Toyama, Akira Naganuma, Gi-Wook Hwang
Methylmercury selectively damages the central nervous system (CNS). The tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily includes representative cytokines that participate in the inflammatory response as well as cell survival, and apoptosis. In this study, we found that administration of methylmercury selectively induced TNF-α expression in the brain of mice. Although the accumulated mercury concentration in the liver and kidneys was greater than in the brain, TNF-α expression was induced to a greater extent in brain...
December 2, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909809/announcing-cimpact-now-the-consortium-to-inform-molecular-and-practical-approaches-to-cns-tumor-taxonomy
#3
EDITORIAL
David N Louis, Ken Aldape, Daniel J Brat, David Capper, David W Ellison, Cynthia Hawkins, Werner Paulus, Arie Perry, Guido Reifenberger, Dominique Figarella-Branger, Pieter Wesseling, Tracy T Batchelor, J Gregory Cairncross, Stefan M Pfister, Stefan Rutkowski, Michael Weller, Wolfgang Wick, Andreas von Deimling
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 1, 2016: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896893/an-acute-disseminated-encephalomyelitis-like-illness-in-the-elderly-neuroimaging-and-neuropathology-findings
#4
Ulrike W Kaunzner, Elliott Salamon, Elena Pentsova, Marc Rosenblum, Sasan Karimi, Nancy Nealon, Ehud Lavi, Dara G Jamieson
INTRODUCTION: Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is a rare demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS) that classically occurs in children and adolescents. It characteristically presents with acute inflammation, resulting in demyelination, often following an infectious disease. ADEM has been described in adult patients, but the incidence in the adult and especially elderly population is low. CASES: We describe five older adults (age 57 to 85) who presented with acute neurological symptoms...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Neuroimaging: Official Journal of the American Society of Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894339/the-identification-of-human-pituitary-adenoma-initiating-cells
#5
Branavan Manoranjan, Sujeivan Mahendram, Saleh A Almenawer, Chitra Venugopal, Nicole McFarlane, Robin Hallett, Thusyanth Vijayakumar, Almunder Algird, Naresh K Murty, Doron D Sommer, John P Provias, Kesava Reddy, Sheila K Singh
Classified as benign central nervous system (CNS) tumors, pituitary adenomas account for 10% of diagnosed intracranial neoplasms. Although surgery is often curative, patients with invasive macroadenomas continue to experience significant morbidity and are prone to tumor recurrence. Given the identification of human brain tumor-initiating cells (TICs) that initiate and maintain tumor growth while promoting disease progression and relapse in multiple CNS tumors, we investigated whether TICs also drive the growth of human pituitary adenomas...
November 28, 2016: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889994/pd-1-pd-ls-a-new-target-for-regulating-the-immunopathogenesis-in-central-nervous-system-disorders
#6
Jie Wu, Zhengquan Yu, Gang Chen
The central nervous system (CNS) was traditionally thought to tolerate inflammatory responses. However, CNS is not completely immune-privileged in recent researches. These responses including Microglia and macrophage activation and peripheral immune cells infiltration have been founded successively. Thus, the traditional view of the adult brain as an immune-privileged organ has been changed. Increasing evidence indicated that the PD-1(programmed cell death-1)/PD-Ls signal pathway plays an important role in regulating the immunopathogenesis of brain following injury...
November 23, 2016: Current Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889895/inflammatory-response-in-the-cns-friend-or-foe
#7
REVIEW
Marta Sochocka, Breno Satler Diniz, Jerzy Leszek
Inflammatory reactions could be both beneficial and detrimental to the brain, depending on strengths of their activation in various stages of neurodegeneration. Mild activation of microglia and astrocytes usually reveals neuroprotective effects and ameliorates early symptoms of neurodegeneration; for instance, released cytokines help maintain synaptic plasticity and modulate neuronal excitability, and stimulated toll-like receptors (TLRs) promote neurogenesis and neurite outgrowth. However, strong activation of glial cells gives rise to cytokine overexpression/dysregulation, which accelerates neurodegeneration...
November 26, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889752/dietary-and-alcohol-intake-and-central-nervous-system-tumors-in-adults-results-of-the-cerenat-multicenter-case-control-study
#8
Benjamin Allès, Camille Pouchieu, Anne Gruber, Pierre Lebailly, Hugues Loiseau, Pascale Fabbro-Peray, Luc Letenneur, Isabelle Baldi
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the relationship between diet and central nervous system (CNS) tumors, especially in terms of their histological subtypes. This study investigated the overall associations between food groups, alcohol intake and CNS tumors, and in particular about the associations between neuroepithelial tumors and meningiomas. METHODS: Data were collected through the CERENAT (CEREbral tumors: a NATional study) case-control study conducted in France during the period 2004-2010...
November 26, 2016: Neuroepidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888882/the-challenge-of-primary-central-nervous-system-lymphoma
#9
REVIEW
Julia Carnevale, James L Rubenstein
Primary central nervous system (CNS) lymphoma is a challenging subtypes of aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Emerging clinical data suggest that optimized outcomes are achieved with dose-intensive CNS-penetrant chemotherapy and avoiding whole brain radiotherapy. Anti-CD20 antibody-based immunotherapy as a component of high-dose methotrexate-based induction programs may contribute to improved outcomes. An accumulation of insights into the molecular and cellular basis of disease pathogenesis is providing a foundation for the generation of molecular tools to facilitate diagnosis as well as a roadmap for integration of targeted therapy within the developing therapeutic armamentarium for this challenging brain tumor...
December 2016: Hematology/oncology Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888628/impact-of-epidemiological-characteristics-of-supratentorial-gliomas-in-adults-brought-about-by-the-2016-world-health-organization-classification-of-tumors-of-the-central-nervous-system
#10
Haihui Jiang, Yong Cui, Junmei Wang, Song Lin
The latest World Health Organization (WHO) classification of tumors of the central nervous system (CNS) integrates both histological and molecular features in the definition of diagnostic entities. This new approach enrolls novel entities of gliomas. In this study, we aimed to reveal the epidemiological characteristics, including age at diagnosis, gender ratio, tumor distribution and survival, of these new entities. We retrospectively reclassified 1210 glioma samples according to the 2016 CNS WHO diagnostic criteria...
November 24, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884589/cohabitation-with-an-ehrlich-tumor-bearing-cagemate-induces-immune-but-not-behavioral-changes-in-male-mice
#11
Thalita R M Machado, Glaucie J Alves, Wanderley M Quinteiro-Filho, João Palermo-Neto
Cohabitation with Ehrlich ascitic tumor-injected conspecifics induces behavioral, neurochemical, endocrine and immune changes indicative of stress and immune impairment in female mice. The present work analyzed the effects of similar cohabitation in Swiss and Balb/C male mice. At least 12 pairs of male mice were divided into a control group and an experimental group. On experimental day 1 (ED1), one animal within each experimental pair was inoculated with 5×10(6) Ehrlich tumor cells intraperitoneally (i.p...
November 22, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879538/efficacy-of-ifosfamide-cisplatin-etoposide-ice-chemotherapy-for-a-cns-germinoma-in-a-child-with-down-syndrome
#12
Seishiro Nodomi, Katsutsugu Umeda, Hiroo Ueno, Satoshi Saida, Hidefumi Hiramatsu, Takeshi Funaki, Yoshiki Arakawa, Takashi Mizowaki, Souichi Adachi, Toshio Heike
Intracranial germ cell tumor is sometimes associated with Down syndrome; however, no optimal treatment has been developed due to the high risk of recurrence and treatment-related mortality. Here, we report on a patient with an intracranial germinoma in the bilateral basal ganglia. The patient received 3 courses of ifosfamide-cisplatin-etoposide in combination with whole-brain irradiation (24 Gy), with no serious complications. The patient is alive and disease free 16 months after the initial diagnosis. This regimen is a feasible treatment for intracranial germ cell tumor associated with Down syndrome, although careful attention must be paid to the increased risk for severe infection...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878560/clinical-and-etiological-profile-of-epilepsy-in-elderly-a-hospital-based-study-from-rural-india
#13
Archana Verma, Alok Kumar
To determine the clinical profile and etiology of epilepsy in elderly patients in rural population of India which is in a phase of demographic transition with steadily growing geriatric population. A cross-sectional, prospective, hospital-based clinicoepidemiological study was performed from October 2014 to November 2015. Patients having onset of epilepsy after 60 years were incorporated in the study. We excluded the acute symptomatic seizures. One hundred and ten patients were enrolled and were divided into three standard subgroups: subgroup A (aged 60-70), subgroup B (aged 71-80), and subgroup C (aged 81-90)...
November 22, 2016: Acta Neurologica Belgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878432/histopathologic-diagnosis-of-brain-metastases-current-trends-in-management-and-future-considerations
#14
Lien Bekaert, Evelyne Emery, Guénaëlle Levallet, Emmanuèle Lechapt-Zalcman
Confronted with brain metastases (BM), pathologists aim to rule out a primary central nervous system (CNS) tumor and to identify or verify the primary tumor site to guide the clinician to specific therapies. Apart from morphological features, ancillary immunohistochemical analysis is the most effective tool for characterizing a metastatic neoplasm of unknown origin. A limited array of antibodies is used, taking into account relevant clinical information and the known brain tropism of lung cancer, breast cancer and melanoma...
November 22, 2016: Brain Tumor Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877908/an-immuno-wall-microdevice-exhibits-rapid-and-sensitive-detection-of-idh1-r132h-mutation-specific-to-grade-ii-and-iii-gliomas
#15
Akane Yamamichi, Toshihiro Kasama, Fumiharu Ohka, Hiromichi Suzuki, Akira Kato, Kazuya Motomura, Masaki Hirano, Melissa Ranjit, Lushun Chalise, Michihiro Kurimoto, Goro Kondo, Kosuke Aoki, Noritada Kaji, Manabu Tokeshi, Toshio Matsubara, Takeshi Senga, Mika K Kaneko, Hidenori Suzuki, Masahito Hara, Toshihiko Wakabayashi, Yoshinobu Baba, Yukinari Kato, Atsushi Natsume
World Health Organization grade II and III gliomas most frequently occur in the central nervous system (CNS) in adults. Gliomas are not circumscribed; tumor edges are irregular and consist of tumor cells, normal brain tissue, and hyperplastic reactive glial cells. Therefore, the tumors are not fully resectable, resulting in recurrence, malignant progression, and eventual death. Approximately 69-80% of grade II and III gliomas harbor mutations in the isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 gene (IDH1), of which 83-90% are found to be the IDH1-R132H mutation...
2016: Science and Technology of Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872607/disparate-changes-in-plasma-and-brainstem-cytokine-levels-in-adult-and-ageing-rats-associated-with-age-related-changes-in-facial-motor-neuron-number-snout-muscle-morphology-and-exploratory-behavior
#16
Viythia Katharesan, Martin David Lewis, Robert Vink, Ian Paul Johnson
An overall increase in inflammatory cytokines with age in both the blood and the central nervous system (CNS) has been proposed to explain many aspects of ageing, including decreased motor function and neurodegeneration. This study tests the hypothesis that age-related increases in inflammatory cytokines in the blood and CNS lead to facial motor neuron degeneration. Groups of 3-5 female Sprague-Dawley rats aged 3, 12-18, and 24 months were used. Twelve cytokines interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12p70, IL-13, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα), interferon-γ, and granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor were measured in blood plasma and compared with those in the brainstem after first flushing blood from its vessels...
2016: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867912/central-neurocytoma-a-review-of-clinical-management-and-histopathologic-features
#17
REVIEW
Seung J Lee, Timothy T Bui, Cheng Hao Jacky Chen, Carlito Lagman, Lawrance K Chung, Sabrin Sidhu, David J Seo, William H Yong, Todd L Siegal, Minsu Kim, Isaac Yang
Central neurocytoma (CN) is a rare, benign brain tumor often located in the lateral ventricles. CN may cause obstructive hydrocephalus and manifest as signs of increased intracranial pressure. The goal of treatment for CN is a gross total resection (GTR), which often yields excellent prognosis with a very high rate of tumor control and survival. Adjuvant radiosurgery and radiotherapy may be considered to improve tumor control when GTR cannot be achieved. Chemotherapy is also not considered a primary treatment, but has been used as a salvage therapy...
October 2016: Brain Tumor Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865543/patterns-of-care-and-survival-outcomes-in-patients-with-pineal-parenchymal-tumor-of-intermediate-differentiation-an-individual-patient-data-analysis
#18
Supriya Mallick, Rony Benson, G K Rath
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Pineal parenchymal tumor constitutes less than 1% of all CNS tumors. Pineal parenchymal tumor of intermediate differentiation is a rare tumor arising from the pineal parenchyma lying between the spectrum of Pineocytoma and Pineoblastoma. METHODS AND MATERIALS: We performed PubMed search with the following MesH terms: "pineal parenchymal tumor, pineal parenchymal tumor of intermediate differentiation, pineal parenchymal tumor of intermediate differentiation AND treatment, and pineal parenchymal tumor of intermediate differentiation AND survival" to find all possible publications pertaining to PPTID...
November 16, 2016: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863426/quantification-of-tumor-derived-cell-free-dna-cfdna-by-digital-pcr-digpcr-in-cerebrospinal-fluid-of-patients-with-brafv600-mutated-malignancies
#19
Parisa Momtaz, Elena Pentsova, Omar Abdel-Wahab, Eli Diamond, David Hyman, Taha Merghoub, Daoqi You, Billel Gasmi, Agnes Viale, Paul B Chapman
Tumor-derived cell free DNA (cfDNA) can be detected in plasma. We hypothesized that mutated BRAF V600 cfDNA could be quantified in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with central nervous system (CNS) metastases. We collected CSF from patients with BRAF V600E or K-mutated melanoma (N=8) or BRAF V600E mutated Erdheim-Chester Disease (ECD) (N=3) with suspected central nervous system (CNS) involvement on the basis of neurological symptoms (10/11), MRI imaging (8/11), or both. Tumor-derived cfDNA was quantified by digital PCR in the CSF of 6/11 patients (range from 0...
November 16, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863201/pooled-analysis-of-cns-response-to-alectinib-in-two-studies-of-pretreated-patients-with-alk-positive-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#20
Shirish M Gadgeel, Alice T Shaw, Ramaswamy Govindan, Leena Gandhi, Mark A Socinski, D Ross Camidge, Luigi De Petris, Dong-Wan Kim, Alberto Chiappori, Denis L Moro-Sibilot, Michael Duruisseaux, Lucio Crino, Tommaso De Pas, Eric Dansin, Antje Tessmer, James Chih-Hsin Yang, Ji-Youn Han, Walter Bordogna, Sophie Golding, Ali Zeaiter, Sai-Hong Ignatius Ou
Purpose Alectinib has shown activity in the CNS in phase I and II studies. To further evaluate this activity, we pooled efficacy and safety data from two single-arm phase II studies (NP28761 and NP28673; ClinicalTrials.gov identifiers: NCT01871805 and NCT01801111, respectively) in patients with ALK-positive non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Patients and Methods Both studies included patients with ALK-positive NSCLC who had previously received crizotinib; all patients received alectinib 600 mg twice per day...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
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