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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332155/cerebellopontine-angle-tumors-in-young-children-displaying-cranial-nerve-deficits-and-restricted-diffusion-on-diffusion-weighted-imaging-a-new-clinical-triad-for-atypical-teratoid-rhabdoid-tumors
#1
Joel S Katz, Pier Paolo Peruzzi, Christopher R Pierson, Jonathan L Finlay, Jeffrey R Leonard
Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors (AT/RT) of the central nervous system (CNS) are rare, highly malignant neoplasms that carry a poor prognosis. Even with prompt diagnosis, gross total resection and early initiation of intensive adjuvant therapy, the majority of patients will succumb within 9-12 months of diagnosis. The CPA location in children harbors lesions along a wide spectrum varying from benign to highly malignant. Imaging features of lesions within the CPA that aid the diagnostic process will help to initiate early treatment in higher-grade lesions...
March 22, 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331947/-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-of-brain-tumors
#2
P Ditter, E Hattingen
BACKGROUND: Conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) under consideration of clinical information enables the correct diagnosis and therapy for the majority of cerebral space-occupying lesions. Some important differential diagnoses, e. g. low vs. high-grade tumors, require additional MRI methods. OBJECTIVE: This article critically discusses the importance of magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) in brain tumors. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The concentration of normal and pathological brain metabolites can be non-invasively measured by (1)H-MRS...
March 22, 2017: Der Radiologe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326824/osteopontin-its-potential-role-in-cancer-of-children-and-young-adults
#3
Gabrielle Karpinsky, Aleksandra Fatyga, Malgorzata Anna Krawczyk, Madeleine Chamera, Natalia Sande, Dagmara Szmyd, Ewa Izycka-Swieszewska, Ewa Bien
OBJECTIVE: Osteopontin (OPN) is aglyco-phosphoprotein, involved in tissue remodeling, inflammation and boneresorption. In various adult neoplasms OPN was shown to correlate with cancer progression, invasiveness and metastasis. AIM: to define the role of OPN in malignancies of children and young adults. MATERIAL AND METHODS: a structured PubMed and Google Scholar literature analysis based on reports published in English between I'1995 and XII'2015...
March 14, 2017: Biomarkers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325997/a-comprehensive-approach-in-high-grade-glioma-management-position-statement-from-the-neuro-oncology-scientific-club-nosc-shiraz-iran
#4
REVIEW
Mansour Ansari, Ahmad Mosalaei, Niloufar Ahmadloo, Alireza Rasekhi, Bita Geramizadeh, Ali Razmkon, Kazem Anvari, Mohammad Afarid, Ali Dadras, Leila Nafarieh, Mohammad Mohammadianpanah, Hamid Nasrolahi, Seyed Hasan Hamedi, Shapour Omidvari, Mohammad Nami
Establishing a robust teamwork model in the practice of neuro-oncology requires continued interdisciplinary efforts. The Neuro-Oncology Scientific Club (NOSC) initiative is an interdisciplinary clinical forum promoting the comprehensive approach across involved disciplines in the management of central nervous system (CNS) malignancies. With its provincial founding panels and national steering board, NOSC has been operational in Iran since 2011. This initiative has pursued its mission through interval strategic meetings, tumor boards, case discussions as well as publishing neuro-oncology updates, case study periodicals, and newsletters...
2017: German Medical Science: GMS E-journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325133/outcome-for-children-treated-for-medulloblastoma-and-supratentorial-primitive-neuroectodermal-tumor-cns-pnet-a-retrospective-analysis-spanning-40-years-of-treatment
#5
Einar Stensvold, Bård Kronen Krossnes, Tryggve Lundar, Bernt J Due-Tønnessen, Radek Frič, Paulina Due-Tønnessen, Anne Grete Bechensteen, Tor Åge Myklebust, Tom Børge Johannesen, Petter Brandal
BACKGROUND: Medulloblastoma (MB) and supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the central nervous system (CNS-PNET) are among the most common pediatric brain tumors. The diagnosis, treatment, and outcome of MB/CNS-PNET patients treated during the last four decades at Oslo University Hospital (OUH) are described. MATERIAL AND METHODS: All patients younger than 20 years of age diagnosed and treated for MB/CNS-PNET at OUH between 1 January 1974 and 31 December 2013 were identified...
March 21, 2017: Acta Oncologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320516/l-f001-a-novel-multifunctional-rock-inhibitor-suppresses-neuroinflammation-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-involvement-of-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-inhibition-and-nrf2-pathway-activation
#6
Jingkao Chen, Wei Yin, Yalin Tu, Shengnan Wang, Xiaohong Yang, Qiuhe Chen, Xiao Zhang, Yifan Han, Rongbiao Pi
Microglia and astrocytes are largely responsible for inflammatory injury in the brain of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Increasing evidence has indicated that Rho kinase (ROCK) plays an important role in the regulation of neuroinflammation. Previously, we synthesized a new chemical entity L-F001 and proved its potential inhibitory effects on ROCK and oxidative stress. Here, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects and the molecular mechanisms of L-F001 in vitro and in vivo. L-F001 remarkably suppressed lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-elevated expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) as well as LPS-induced production of nitric oxide (NO), reactive oxygen species, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necreactive oxygen speciesis factor-α (TNF-α) in microglial BV-2 cells and in cultured astrocytes...
March 16, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319103/microglia-activation-due-to-obesity-programs-metabolic-failure-leading-to-type-two-diabetes
#7
REVIEW
R Maldonado-Ruiz, L Montalvo-Martínez, L Fuentes-Mera, A Camacho
Obesity is an energy metabolism disorder that increases susceptibility to the development of metabolic diseases. Recently, it has been described that obese subjects have a phenotype of chronic inflammation in organs that are metabolically relevant for glucose homeostasis and energy. Altered expression of immune system molecules such as interleukins IL-1, IL-6, IL-18, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), serum amyloid A (SAA), and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), among others, has been associated with the development of chronic inflammation in obesity...
March 20, 2017: Nutrition & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316070/the-involvement-of-thrombin-in-the-pathogenesis-of-glioblastoma
#8
REVIEW
Harald Krenzlin, Viola Lorenz, Beat Alessandri
Prothrombin and its active derivative thrombin are key members of the coagulation system. The only site of extra-hepatic thrombin expression is the central nervous system (CNS), where it is involved in brain development, protection, and regeneration. Thrombin affects various degenerative and ischemic CNS diseases like Alzheimer's, multiple sclerosis, cerebral ischemia, and hemorrhage in a dose dependent manner. Additionally, the association of thrombin with various malignancies has recently become evident. Thrombin facilitates the interaction between tumor cells with platelets, endothelial cells, and the adhesion to matrix proteins in various tumor types...
March 19, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315338/lymphatic-and-vascular-markers-in-an-optic-nerve-crush-model-in-rat
#9
A Trost, D Bruckner, A Kaser-Eichberger, K Motloch, B Bogner, C Runge, C Strohmaier, S Couillard-Despres, H A Reitsamer, F Schroedl
Only few tissues lack lymphatic supply, such as the CNS or the inner eye. However, if the scleral border is compromised due to trauma or tumor, lymphatics are detected in the eye. Since the situation in the optic nerve (ON), part of the CNS, is not clear, the aim of this study is to screen for the presence of lymphatic markers in the healthy and lesioned ON. Brown Norway rats received an unilateral optic nerve crush (ONC) with defined force, leaving the dura intact. Lesioned ONs and unlesioned contralateral controls were analyzed 7 days (n = 5) and 14 days (n = 5) after ONC, with the following markers: PDGFRb (pericyte), Iba1 (microglia), CD68 (macrophages), RECA (endothelial cell), GFAP (astrocyte) as well as LYVE-1 and podoplanin (PDPN; lymphatic markers)...
March 14, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315265/sigma-1-receptor-and-ion-channel-dynamics-in-cancer
#10
Olivier Soriani, Raphaël Rapetti-Mauss
SigmaR1 is a multitasking chaperone protein which has mainly been studied in CNS physiological and pathophysiological processes such as pain, memory, neurodegenerative diseases (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis , Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases, retinal neurodegeneration ), stroke and addiction . Strikingly, G-protein and ion channels are the main client protein fami lies of this atypical chaperone and the recent advances that have been performed for the last 10 years demonstrate that SigmaR1 is principally activated following tissue injury and disease development to promote cell survival...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315230/clinical-outcome-and-molecular-characterization-of-brain-metastases-from-esophageal-and-gastric-cancer-a-systematic-review
#11
REVIEW
Michele Ghidini, Fausto Petrelli, Jens Claus Hahne, Annamaria De Giorgi, Laura Toppo, Claudio Pizzo, Margherita Ratti, Sandro Barni, Rodolfo Passalacqua, Gianluca Tomasello
The aim of the study was to collect the available data on central nervous system (CNS) metastases from esophageal and gastric cancer. A PubMed, EMBASE, SCOPUS, Web of Science, LILACS, Ovid and Cochrane Library search was performed. Thirty-seven studies including 779 patients were considered. Among the data extracted, treatment of tumor and brain metastases (BMs), time to BMs development, number and subsite, extracerebral metastases rate, median overall survival (OS) and prognostic factors were included. For esophageal cancer, the median OS from diagnosis of BMs was 4...
April 2017: Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315063/the-effect-of-regadenoson-on-the-integrity-of-the-human-blood-brain-barrier-a-pilot-study
#12
Sadhana Jackson, Richard T George, Martin A Lodge, Anna Piotrowski, Richard L Wahl, Sachin K Gujar, Stuart A Grossman
Regadenoson is an FDA approved adenosine receptor agonist which increases blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability in rodents. Regadenoson is used clinically for pharmacologic cardiac stress testing using SPECT or CT imaging agents that do not cross an intact BBB. This study was conducted to determine if standard doses of regadenoson transiently disrupt the human BBB allowing higher concentrations of systemically administered imaging agents to enter the brain. Patients without known intracranial disease undergoing clinically indicated pharmacologic cardiac stress tests were eligible for this study...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303729/case-of-glioblastoma-patient-treated-with-tumor-treating-fields-therapy-at-recurrence-degenerating-to-sarcoma
#13
Pejman Majd, Daniel E O'Connell, Ronald C Kim, Daniela A Bota, Jose A Carrillo
Optune(®) treatment is a US FDA-approved treatment for glioblastoma (GBM) that employs alternating electric fields. Tumor treating field (TTF) therapy can exert its effects on GBM via cell cycle mitosis disruption and cytokinesis. We describe a patient with recurrent GBM who had disease progression following standard surgical treatment and concomitant chemoradiotherapy, and was found to have sarcomatous transformation after initiation of TTF therapy with bevacizumab. Upon tumor progression, repeat surgical resection revealed transformation into a GFAP-negative, reticulin-positive sarcoma with rhabdomyoid features...
March 17, 2017: CNS Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300714/biomarkers-and-immunotherapeutic-targets-in-glioblastoma
#14
REVIEW
Alice L Hung, Tomas Garzon-Muvdi, Michael Lim
Glioblastoma (GBM) is an aggressive central nervous system (CNS) cancer with poor prognosis despite maximal therapy. The recent advent of immunotherapy holds great promise for improving GBM survival and has already made great strides towards changing current management strategies. A diverse set of biomarkers has been implicated as immunotherapeutic targets and prognostic indicators in other cancers. Some of the more extensively studied examples include cytokines (IL-4, IL-13, and TGF-ß), checkpoint molecules (PD-1, CTLA-4, TIM-3, LAG-3, CD137, GITR, OX40), and growth/angiogenesis proteins (endoglin and EGFR)...
March 11, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299759/optimizing-the-benefit-of-cns-radiation-therapy-in-the-pediatric-population-part-2-novel-methods-of-radiation-delivery
#15
REVIEW
Lindsay S Rowe, Andra V Krauze, Holly Ning, Kevin A Camphausen, Aradhana Kaushal
Newer approaches in the field of radiation therapy have raised the bar in the treatment of central nervous system (CNS) malignancies, with recognized advances that have aimed to increase the therapeutic index by improving conformality of the radiation dose to the planned target volume. Beyond these advances, the continued evolution of more effective systems for delivery of radiation to the CNS may offer further benefit not only to adults but also to pediatric patients, a cohort of the population that may be more sensitive to the long-term effects of radiation...
March 15, 2017: Oncology (Williston Park, NY)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298040/noninvasive-assessment-of-isocitrate-dehydrogenase-mutation-status-in-cerebral-gliomas-by-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-in-a-clinical-setting
#16
Anna Tietze, Changho Choi, Bruce Mickey, Elizabeth A Maher, Benedicte Parm Ulhøi, Ryan Sangill, Yasmin Lassen-Ramshad, Slavka Lukacova, Leif Østergaard, Gorm von Oettingen
OBJECTIVE Mutations in the isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) genes are of proven diagnostic and prognostic significance for cerebral gliomas. The objective of this study was to evaluate the clinical feasibility of using a recently described method for determining IDH mutation status by using magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) to detect the presence of 2-hydroxyglutarate (2HG), the metabolic product of the mutant IDH enzyme. METHODS By extending imaging time by 6 minutes, the authors were able to include a point-resolved spectroscopy (PRESS) MRS sequence in their routine glioma imaging protocol...
March 3, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298014/effect-of-granulocyte-colony-stimulating-factor-on-the-cochlear-nuclei-after-creation-of-a-partial-nerve-lesion-an-experimental-study-in-rats
#17
Guilherme Ramina Montibeller, Benjamin Schackmann, Steffi Urbschat, Joachim M K Oertel
OBJECTIVE The risk of injury of the cochlear nerve during angle (CPA) surgery is high. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) has been found in various experimental models of peripheral and CNS injury to have a neuroprotective effect by inhibiting apoptosis and inflammation. However, to the authors' knowledge, the influence of G-CSF on cochlear nerve regeneration has not been reported. This study investigated the neuroprotective effect of G-CSF after a partial cochlear nerve lesion in rats. METHODS A lesion of the right cochlear nerve in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats was created using a water-jet dissector with a pressure of 8 bar...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296680/primitive-neuroectodermal-tumors-of-the-female-genital-tract-a-morphologic-immunohistochemical-and-molecular-study-of-19-cases
#18
Sarah Chiang, Matija Snuderl, Sakiko Kojiro-Sanada, Ariadna Quer Pi-Sunyer, Dean Daya, Tohru Hayashi, Luisanna Bosincu, Fumihiro Ogawa, Andrew E Rosenberg, Lars-Christian Horn, Lu Wang, A John Iafrate, Esther Oliva
Primary primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET) of the female genital tract is rare, and its proper classification remains unclear. The clinical, histologic, and immunophenotypic features as well as EWSR1 rearrangement status of 19 gynecologic PNETs, including 10 ovarian, 8 uterine, and 1 vulvar tumors, are herein reported. Patient age ranged from 12 to 68 years, with a median age of 20 and 51 years among those with ovarian and uterine PNETs, respectively. Morphologic features of central nervous system (CNS) tumors were seen in 15 PNETs, including 9 medulloblastomas, 3 ependymomas, 2 medulloepitheliomas, and 1 glioblastoma, consistent with central PNET...
March 14, 2017: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296581/three-year-follow-up-of-an-alectinib-phase-i-ii-study-in-alk-positive-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-af-001jp
#19
Tomohide Tamura, Katsuyuki Kiura, Takashi Seto, Kazuhiko Nakagawa, Makoto Maemondo, Akira Inoue, Toyoaki Hida, Hiroshige Yoshioka, Masao Harada, Yuichiro Ohe, Naoyuki Nogami, Haruyasu Murakami, Hiroshi Kuriki, Tadashi Shimada, Tomohiro Tanaka, Kengo Takeuchi, Makoto Nishio
Purpose Alectinib is an anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) -specific kinase inhibitor that seems to be effective against non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with a variety of ALK mutations. The primary analysis of AF-001JP reported a promising overall response rate. To assess progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS), patients from the phase II part of AF-001JP were followed up for approximately 3 years. Patients and Methods Oral alectinib 300 mg was administered twice per day to patients with ALK inhibitor-naïve, ALK-positive NSCLC who had progressed after one or more regimens of previous chemotherapy...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296539/high-salt-induced-activation-and-expression-of-inflammatory-cytokines-in-cultured-astrocytes
#20
Zhezhi Deng, Yuge Wang, Li Zhou, Yilong Shan, Sha Tan, Wei Cai, Siyuan Liao, Lisheng Peng, Zhengqi Lu
Salt (sodium chloride, NaCl) accumulation in the brain is associated with various diseases of central nervous system (CNS). Activation of astrocytes is an important manifestation of pathophysiological processes in the CNS. However, the direct impact of high salt (HS) environment on astrocytes is unclear. In the current study, we found that high salt treatment can induce activation of astrocytes both in vivo and in vitro, manifested as morphological alteration coupled with increased expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)...
March 15, 2017: Cell Cycle
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