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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110204/new-classification-of-epilepsy-related-neoplasms-the-clinical-perspective
#1
REVIEW
Burkhard S Kasper, Ekkehard M Kasper
Neoplastic CNS lesions are a common cause of focal epilepsy refractory to anticonvulsant treatment, i.e. long-term epilepsy-associated tumors (LEATs). Epileptogenic tumors encompass a variety of intriguing lesions, e.g. dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors or gangliogliomas, which differ from more common CNS neoplasms in their clinical context as well as on histopathology. Long-term epilepsy-associated tumor classification is a rapidly evolving issue in surgical neuropathology, with new entities still being elucidated...
January 18, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102813/intramedullary-amputation-neuroma-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#2
Laura Stone McGuire, Mandana Behbahini, Sumit Das, David Loeffler, Peter Burger, Herbert Engelhard, Tibor Valyi-Nagy, Ankit Mehta
BACKGROUND AND IMPORTANCE: Amputation neuromas consist of non-neoplastic collections of myelinated axons and Schwann cells and typically arise in injured peripheral nerves. Rarely, however, neuromas occur within the spinal cord. Intramedullary amputation neuromas have been described both with and without a history of trauma within the peripheral nervous system. We report a rare case of an isolated intramedullary spinal cord amputation neuroma. CLINICAL PRESENTATION: This 43-year-old man presented with progressive and severe gait deterioration for ~ 7 years...
January 19, 2017: Clinical Neuropathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095679/non-naturally-occurring-small-molecule-microtubule-stabilizing-agents-a-potential-tactic-for-cns-directed-therapies
#3
Carlo Ballatore, Kurt R Brunden, John Q Trojanowski, Virginia M-Y Lee, Amos B Smith
Several independent studies indicate that microtubule (MT)-stabilizing agents hold considerable promise as candidate therapeutics for a wide spectrum of conditions of the central nervous system (CNS), from brain tumors to spinal cord injury, as well as a number of neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease, frontotemporal lobar degeneration, Parkinson's disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Although the identification and development of candidate compounds for CNS-directed MT-stabilizing therapies has been a challenge in drug discovery for many years, a growing number of molecules have now been identified that exhibit both MT-stabilizing activity and brain penetration...
18, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094402/mesoporous-carbon-nanoshells-for-high-hydrophobic-drug-loading-multimodal-optical-imaging-controlled-drug-release-and-synergistic-therapy
#4
Hui Wang, Kui Wang, Qingxin Mu, Zachary R Stephen, Yanyan Yu, Shuiqin Zhou, Miqin Zhang
Loading and controlled release of sufficient hydrophobic drugs to tumor cells has been the bottleneck in chemotherapy for decades. Herein we report the development of a fluorescent and mesoporous carbon nanoshell (FMP-CNS) that exhibits a loading capacity for the hydrophobic drug paclitaxel (PTX) as high as ∼80 wt% and releases the drug in a controllable fashion under NIR irradiation (825 nm) at an intensity of 1.5 W cm(-2). The high drug loading is primarily attributed to its mesoporous structure and to the supramolecular π-stacking between FMP-CNSs and PTX molecules...
January 17, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094316/somatostatin-receptor-expression-on-von-hippel-lindau-associated-hemangioblastomas-offers-novel-therapeutic-target
#5
Saman Sizdahkhani, Michael J Feldman, Martin G Piazza, Alexander Ksendzovsky, Nancy A Edwards, Abhik Ray-Chaudhury, Dragan Maric, Marsha J Merrill, Karel Pacak, Zhengping Zhuang, Prashant Chittiboina
Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL)-associated hemangioblastomas (VHL-HB) arise in the central nervous system (CNS), and are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in VHL disease. Currently, surgical resection is the most effective way to manage symptomatic VHL-HBs. Surgically unresectable VHL-HBs or those in frail patients are challenging problems. Therapies targeting oncologic and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) pathways have failed to demonstrate tumor control. Our experience and previous reports on VHL-HB avidity to somatostatin analogues suggested somatostatin receptor (SSTR) expression in VHL-HBs, offering an alternative therapeutic strategy...
January 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072736/von-hippel-lindau-disease-involving-pancreas-and-biliary-system-a-rare-case-report
#6
Xu-Ting Zhi, Qi-Yu Bo, Feng Zhao, Dong Sun, Tao Li
RATIONALE: Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease is a rare inherited, autosomal-dominant syndrome caused by heterozygous germline mutations in the VHL gene. VHL patients are prone to develop benign and malignant tumors and cysts in multiple organ systems involving kidneys, pancreas and central nervous system (CNS). The varied and complex clinical manifestations and radiological findings of VHL are of interest. PATIENT CONCERNS: We report a 38-year-old woman with a ten-year history of VHL disease involving both pancreas and biliary system...
January 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070930/pituitary-adenoma-with-adipose-tissue-a-new-metaplastic-variant
#7
Chiara Caporalini, Anna Maria Buccoliero, Luigi Pansini, Selene Moscardi, Luca Novelli, Gianna Baroni, Lorenzo Bordi, Franco Ammannati, Gian Luigi Taddei
Pituitary adenomas are benign tumors representing approximately 15-20% of intracranial neoplasms. There have been few reports of metaplastic osseous transformation and about 60 cases of neuronal metaplasia in pituitary adenoma but adipose metaplasia has not been previously described in the English literature. Here we report a case of pituitary adenoma with metaplastic adipose tissue in a 58-year-old male patient. Histologically this case fulfilled the criteria of a non-functioning pituitary adenoma, and moreover a central area of adipose tissue, made by mature adipocytes, and many tumor cells, containing fat droplet were evident...
January 9, 2017: Neuropathology: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066629/orchestration-of-the-crosstalk-between-astrocytes-and-cancer-cells-affects-the-treatment-and-prognosis-of-lung-cancer-sufferers-with-brain-metastasis
#8
COMMENT
Wangshu Dai, Hongcheng Zhu, Guangzong Chen, Hao Gu, Yihang Gu, Xinchen Sun, Xiaoning Zeng
Brain metastasis is an inauspicious consequence of lung cancer. However, the majority of cancer cells that seep into the brain died of unknown causes, only a few survived and developed into metastatic brain tumor. Communication between cancer cells and host tissue is viewed as an essential event during metastasis, but little is known about the accurate control of this processes. Within the lesion of brain metastasis, abundant activated astrocytes are observed with lung cancer cells. Previous studies have demonstrated that the astrocyte network served a protective role in the central nervous system (CNS) and most malignant cells that seep into the brain perish were rejected by astrocytes...
November 2016: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063167/conditional-knockout-of-tog-results-in-cns-hypomyelination
#9
Michael J Maggipinto, Joshay Ford, Kristine H Le, Jessica W Tutolo, Miki Furusho, John W Wizeman, Rashmi Bansal, Elisa Barbarese
The tumor overexpressed gene (TOG) protein is present in RNA granules that transport myelin basic protein (MBP) mRNA in oligodendrocyte processes to the myelin compartment. Its role was investigated by conditionally knocking it out (KO) in myelinating glia in vivo. TOG KO mice have severe motor deficits that are already apparent at the time of weaning. This phenotype correlates with a paucity of myelin in several CNS regions, the most severe being in the spinal cord. In the TOG KO optic nerve <30% of axons are myelinated...
January 7, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060678/canine-central-nervous-system-neoplasm-phenotyping-using-tissue-microarray-technique
#10
I Spitzbarth, F Heinrich, V Herder, T Recker, P Wohlsein, W Baumgärtner
Tissue microarrays (TMAs) represent a useful technique for the simultaneous phenotyping of large sample numbers and are particularly suitable for histopathologic tumor research. In this study, TMAs were used to evaluate semiquantitatively the expression of multiple antigens in various canine central nervous system (CNS) neoplasms and to identify markers with potential discriminative diagnostic relevance. Ninety-seven canine CNS neoplasms, previously diagnosed on hematoxylin and eosin sections according to the World Health Organization classification, were investigated on TMAs, with each tumor consisting of 2 cylindrical samples from the center and the periphery of the neoplasm...
January 1, 2017: Veterinary Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056167/filter-paper-assisted-cell-transfer-fact-technique-a-novel-cell-sampling-technique-for-intraoperative-diagnosis-of-central-nervous-system-tumors
#11
Jumpei Kawamura, Shingo Kamoshida, Takaaki Shimakata, Yurie Hayashi, Kuniko Sakamaki, Tamami Denda, Kenji Kawai, Sadahito Kuwao
BACKGROUND: Intraoperative diagnosis of central nervous system (CNS) tumors provides critical guidance to surgeons in the determination of surgical resection margins and treatment. The techniques and preparations used for the intraoperative diagnosis of CNS tumors include frozen sectioning and cytologic methods (squash smear and touch imprint). Cytologic specimens, which do not have freezing artifacts, are important as an adjuvant tool to frozen sections. However, if the amount of submitted tissue samples is limited, then it is difficult to prepare both frozen sections and squash smears or touch imprint specimens from a single sample at the same time...
January 5, 2017: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052249/opposing-functions-of-microglial-and-macrophagic-tnfr2-in-the-pathogenesis-of-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis
#12
Han Gao, Matt C Danzi, Claire S Choi, Mehran Taherian, Camilla Dalby-Hansen, Ditte G Ellman, Pernille M Madsen, John L Bixby, Vance P Lemmon, Kate L Lambertsen, Roberta Brambilla
In multiple sclerosis (MS), soluble tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is detrimental via activation of TNF receptor 1 (TNFR1), whereas transmembrane TNF is beneficial primarily by activating TNF receptor 2 (TNFR2). Here, we investigate the role of TNFR2 in microglia and monocytes/macrophages in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a model of MS, by cell-specific gene targeting. We show that TNFR2 ablation in microglia leads to early onset of EAE with increased leukocyte infiltration, T cell activation, and demyelination in the central nervous system (CNS)...
January 3, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051344/trends-in-cancer-mortality-among-adolescents-and-young-adults-in-brazil
#13
Nathalie Vieira Balmant, Rejane de Souza Reis, Marceli de Oliveira Santos, Julio Pinto Oliveira, Beatriz de Camargo
PURPOSE: Adolescents and young adults (AYA) with cancer comprise an intermediate age group between pediatric and adult oncology, and have a spectrum of different types of cancers. Survival among this group has not improved as much as in younger children with cancer. The aim of this study was evaluate the trends in cancer mortality of AYA aged 15-29 years in Brazil. METHODS: Data were extracted from the Atlas of Cancer Mortality databases from 1979 to 2013. Age-specific mortality rates were calculated based on the deaths from each type of cancer and the period via a direct method using the proposed world population age groups...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Adolescent and Young Adult Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042970/targeted-next-generation-sequencing-in-molecular-subtyping-of-lower-grade-diffuse-gliomas-application-of-the-world-health-organization-s-2016-revised-criteria-for-cns-tumors
#14
Jamal H Carter, Samantha N McNulty, Patrick J Cimino, Catherine E Cottrell, Jonathan W Heusel, Katinka A Vigh-Conrad, Eric J Duncavage
The 2007 World Health Organization Classification of Tumours of the Central Nervous System classifies lower-grade gliomas [LGGs (grades II to III diffuse gliomas)] morphologically as astrocytomas or oligodendrogliomas, and tumors with unclear ambiguous morphology as oligoastrocytomas. The World Health Organization's newly released (2016) classification incorporates molecular data. A single, targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) panel was used for detecting single-nucleotide variation and copy number variation in 50 LGG cases originally classified using the 2007 criteria, including 36 oligoastrocytomas, 11 oligodendrogliomas, 2 astrocytomas, and 1 LGG not otherwise specified...
December 30, 2016: Journal of Molecular Diagnostics: JMD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042941/ph-responsive-self-sacrificial-nanotheranostic-agent-for-potential-in-vivo-and-in-vitro-dual-modal-mri-ct-imaging-real-time-and-in-situ-monitoring-of-cancer-therapy
#15
Ludan Yue, Jinlong Wang, Zhichao Dai, Zunfu Hu, Xue Chen, Yafei Qi, Xiuwen Zheng, Dexin Yu
Multifunctional nanotheranostic agents have been highly commended due to the application to image-guided cancer therapy. Herein, based on the chemically disordered face centered cubic (fcc) FePt nanoparticles (NPs) and graphene oxide (GO), we develop a pH-responsive FePt-based multifunctional theranostic agent for potential in vivo and in vitro dual modal MRI/CT imaging and in situ cancer inhibition. The fcc-FePt will release highly active Fe ions due to the low pH in tumor cells, which would catalyze H2O2 decomposition into reactive oxygen species (ROS) within the cells and further induce cancer cell apoptosis...
January 20, 2017: Bioconjugate Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041961/expression-of-angiopoietins-in-central-nervous-system-hemangioblastomas-is-associated-with-cyst-formation
#16
Xiang Li, Wenke Liu, Jianping Liu, Weiya Wang, Si Zhang, Jian Chen, Xuhui Hui
PURPOSE: This study aimed to determine the expression of angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1), angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2), and endothelial tyrosine kinase receptor (Tie-2) in central nervous system (CNS) hemangioblastomas (HBs) and explore the correlation with peritumoral cyst formation. METHOD: A total of 22 paraffin-embedded specimens derived from 11 cyst-associated and 11 solid solitary CNS HBs were collected for streptavidin-peroxidase immunohistochemical staining. The expression levels of Ang-1, Ang-2 and Tie-2 in cystic and solid HBs were estimated and compared according to the integrated optical density (IOD) of staining in the sections...
December 29, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040793/tert-promoter-mutations-but-not-the-alternative-lengthening-of-telomeres-phenotype-are-present-in-a-subset-of-ependymomas-and-are-associated-with-adult-onset-and-progression-to-ependymosarcoma
#17
Fabienne Brügger, Matthias S Dettmer, Maja Neuenschwander, Aurel Perren, Ilaria Marinoni, Ekkehard Hewer
Genetic signatures related to telomere maintenance have emerged as powerful classifiers among CNS tumors. These include the alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) phenotype associated with mutations in the ATRX and DAXX genes and recurrent point mutations in the TERT gene promoter. We investigated a patient cohort covering the entire spectrum of childhood and adult ependymomas (n = 128), including subependymomas and myxopapillary ependymomas, for the presence of TERT promoter mutations, for loss of ATRX or DAXX expression by immunohistochemistry (as surrogates as underlying gene mutations), and for the ALT phenotype by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH)...
December 31, 2016: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031322/extranuclear-partners-of-androgen-receptor-at-the-crossroads-of-proliferation-migration-and-neuritogenesis
#18
REVIEW
Gabriella Castoria, Ferdinando Auricchio, Antimo Migliaccio
In this review, we focus on the role played by the protein partners of ligand-activated extranuclear androgen receptor (AR) in the final effects of hormone action, such as proliferation, migration and neuritogenesis. The choice of AR partner, at least in part, depends on cell type. Androgen-activated receptor directly associates with cytoplasmic Src tyrosine kinase in epithelial cells, whereas in mesenchymal and neuronal cells, it prevalently interacts with filamin A. In the former, proliferation represents the final hormonal outcome, whereas in the latter, either migration or neuritogenesis, respectively, occur...
December 28, 2016: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028445/long-standing-lumbosacral-dermoid-tumor-and-intracranial-fat-droplet-dissemination-a-case-report
#19
Ali Babashahi, Morteza Taheri, Arash Fattahi
BACKGROUND: Dermoid tumors are slow growing, benign CNS lesions. CASE DESCRIPTION: This case study concerns a 29-year-old female with a 6-year history of lower extremity paresthesias attributed to magnetic resonance (MR)/computed tomography (CT) documented intradural dermoid tumor that extended from L1 to S1. On MR, it was hypointense on T1, hyperintense on T2, and did not enhance with gadolinium. CT showed hyperdensity at the L1-L2 levels. The craniocervical MR imaging showed small hyperintense foci in the cisternal space favoring "fat dissemination...
2016: Surgical Neurology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028335/utility-of-squash-smear-cytology-in-intraoperative-diagnosis-of-central-nervous-system-tumors
#20
Savita S Patil, Jyoti K Kudrimoti, Rachana D Agarwal, Meenal V Jadhav, Ashish Chuge
BACKGROUND: Central nervous system (CNS) squash cytology (CSC) has established itself as a technically simple, rapid, inexpensive, fairly accurate, and dependable intraoperative diagnostic tool. It helps neurosurgeons immensely when management is dependent on it. AIMS: This study aimed at finding out the utility of CSC as an intraoperative diagnostic tool from a neurosurgeon's perspective. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty prospectively registered patients with clinical diagnosis of CNS tumors were enrolled in the study...
October 2016: Journal of Cytology
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