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CNS tumors

Guro Jahr, Michele Da Broi, Harald Holte, Klaus Beiske, Torstein R Meling
Objectives: To evaluate the validity of Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) and International Extranodal Lymphoma Study Group (IELSG) prognostic scoring systems for Overall Survival (OS) in intracranial Primary CNS lymphoma (PCNSL) of all patients diagnosed at a single center. Material and Methods: Pretreatment clinical factors including tumor characteristics and histology, treatment, and survival of PCNSL patients with diagnostic biopsies over a 12-year period (2003-2014) were retrieved from a prospective database at Oslo University Hospital...
March 2018: Brain and Behavior
Istvan Bodi, Anastasios Giamouriadis, Naomi Sibtain, Ross Laxton, Andrew King, Francesco Vergani
Background: Primary CNS malignant rhabdoid tumors are very rare in adults and much less is known about their biological behavior than in children. Recently, two adult cases of SMARCB1 (also known as INI1)-deficient tumor with rhabdoid cells have been described, suggesting an emerging group of primary meningeal SMARCB1-deficient tumors. We have recently encountered a case of INI1-deficient tumor with similar histology and immunophenotype to the above cases, but with a superficial cerebral, yet apparent intra-axial origin...
2018: Surgical Neurology International
Zhimin Li, Jun Gao, Tianyu Wang, Xiangyi Kong, Jian Guan, Yongning Li
Central neurocytomas (CNs) are rare benign tumors located in the central nervous system with a good prognosis. These tumors are predominantly located in the lateral ventricle near the foramen of Monro or in the third ventricle. Similar tumors that are located outside the ventricle are also called extraventricular neurocytomas, and have an even lower morbidity. Until now, several tumors have been identified in the thalamus, cerebellum, pons, medulla oblongata and spinal cord. In total, 24 cases of neurocytomas located in the spinal cord have been reported in English journals...
April 2018: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
Sarah E Kohe, Christopher D Bennett, Simrandip K Gill, Martin Wilson, Carmel McConville, Andrew C Peet
The rare pediatric embryonal tumors retinoblastoma, medulloblastoma and neuroblastoma derive from neuroectodermal tissue and share similar histopathological features despite different anatomical locations and diverse clinical outcomes. As metabolism can reflect genetic and histological features, we investigated whether the metabolism of embryonal tumors reflects their similar histology, shared developmental and neural origins, or tumor location. We undertook metabolic profiling on 50 retinoblastoma, 39 medulloblastoma and 70 neuroblastoma using high resolution magic angle spinning magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS)...
February 16, 2018: Oncotarget
Aletta Ann Frazier
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
Robert Y Shih, Kelly K Koeller
Embryonal tumors of the central nervous system (CNS) are highly malignant undifferentiated or poorly differentiated tumors of neuroepithelial origin and have been defined as a category in the World Health Organization (WHO) classification since the first edition of the "Blue Book" in 1979. This category has evolved over time to reflect our ever-improving understanding of tumor biology and behavior. With the most recent update in 2016, many previous histologic diagnoses incorporate molecular parameters for the first time (genetically defined entities)...
March 2018: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
Debajyoti Chatterjee, Bishan Dass Radotra, Narendra Kumar, Rakesh Kumar Vasishta, Sunil Kumar Gupta
Background: According to the current World Health Organization (WHO) classification of central nervous system (CNS) tumors (2016), histological diagnosis of gliomas should be supplemented by molecular information. This study was carried out to determine the frequency of isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 ( IDH 1), ATRX , and BRAF V600E mutations in different grade astrocytomas and their prognostic value. Methods: Eighty cases of astrocytoma (15 pilocytic astrocytoma, 25 diffuse astrocytoma, 15 anaplastic astrocytoma, and 25 glioblastoma) with follow-up information were analyzed using immunohistochemistry for IDH1 mutant protein, ATRX, p53, and BRAF...
2018: Surgical Neurology International
Kyoung Su Sung, Ju Hyung Moon, Eui Hyun Kim, Seok-Gu Kang, Se Hoon Kim, Chang-Ok Suh, Sun Ho Kim, Kyu-Sung Lee, Won Seok Chang, Jong Hee Chang
OBJECTIVE Solitary fibrous tumor/hemangiopericytoma (SFT/HPC) is a new combined entity for which a soft-tissue-type grading system, ranging from grades I to III, has been introduced in the 2016 WHO classification of tumors of the CNS. The results of the treatment of this new disease entity require evaluation. METHODS The authors retrospectively reevaluated the pathological findings and medical records of patients with SFT/HPC. This study included 60 patients (27 men and 33 women, median age 42.5 years, range 13-69 years) treated at Severance Hospital between February 1981 and February 2016...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery
Shuang-Lin Deng, Yun-Qian Li, Gang Zhao
Objective: Gliomas are the most common neoplasm of the central nervous system (CNS); however, traditional imaging techniques do not show the boundaries of tumors well. Some researchers have found a new therapeutic mode to combine nanoparticles, which are nanosized particles with various properties for specific therapeutic purposes, and stem cells for tracing gliomas. This review provides an introduction of the basic understanding and clinical applications of the combination of stem cells and nanoparticles as a contrast agent for glioma imaging...
March 20, 2018: Chinese Medical Journal
Nan Yang, Zhenyang Gu, Zhanxiang Liu, Wenrong Huang, Shuhong Wang, Lili Wang, Chunji Gao
Multi-kinase inhibitor sorafenib showed dramatic effects in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells harboring fms-related tyrosine kinase 3-internal tandem duplication(FLT3-ITD) mutation. However, little is known about its therapeutic effects and underlying mechanisms on AML without this mutation. In this report, sorafenib monotherapy was utilized as a salvage treatment in two relapse/refractory AML patients without FLT3-ITD mutation. A central nervous system(CNS) relapsed patient exhibited significant shrink of tumor volume, the other patient with refractory AML, arising from chronic myelomonocytic leukemia, achieved hematological improvements...
March 7, 2018: Anti-cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
Federico Bianchi, Gianpiero Tamburrini, Marco Gessi, Paolo Frassanito, Luca Massimi, Massimo Caldarelli
BACKGROUND: Primary central nervous system (CNS) neuroblastoma is a rare intracranial tumor affecting children mainly in the first years of life. It is usually a supratentorial tumor with a wide spectrum of clinical presentation, seizures, and focal neurological deficits being the most common presenting signs. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 2-year-old child was admitted to our ward after a generalized seizure. Neurological examination was normal. Radiological studies showed a small DWI hyperintense lesion of the right rectus gyrus...
March 8, 2018: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
L Holmes, P Chavan, T Blake, K Dabney
BACKGROUND: While survival in overall pediatric malignancy has improved during recent decades, brain/central nervous system (CNS) tumors has not demonstrated comparable survival advantage. Incidence and mortality data in this malignancy continue to illustrate race and sex differences; however, there are few data in the pediatric setting. This study sought to characterize brain/CNS tumors by socio-demographic and assess racial and sex variances in both cumulative incidence and mortality...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
Anna Kovalchuk, Lilit Nersisyan, Rupasri Mandal, David Wishart, Maria Mancini, David Sidransky, Bryan Kolb, Olga Kovalchuk
Cancer survivors experience numerous treatment side effects that negatively affect their quality of life. Cognitive side effects are especially insidious, as they affect memory, cognition, and learning. Neurocognitive deficits occur prior to cancer treatment, arising even before cancer diagnosis, and we refer to them as "tumor brain." Metabolomics is a new area of research that focuses on metabolome profiles and provides important mechanistic insights into various human diseases, including cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, and aging...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
Wen-Tsung Huang, Na-Mi Lu, Wen-Yuan Hsu, Shih-En Chang, Alex Atkins, Rui Mei, Manana Javey
Brain metastases are the most common neurological complications of adult cancers, accounting for more than half of brain tumors. The incidence of brain metastases may be increasing due to improved detection of small lesions by advanced imaging technologies. Given the fast evolution of targeted and immunotherapy regimens, it is essential to serially assess brain malignancies during the disease course for disease monitoring and tailoring of the therapeutic management. For such serial and repetitive assessment, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) could be the biological fluid of choice to supplement cytology examination for the presence or absence of CNS malignancy, as well as provide extensive information on tumor mutational profile for personalization of treatment...
January 2018: Case Reports in Oncology
Katarzyna Pogoda, Paul A Janmey
Understanding the mechanical behavior of human brain is critical to interpret the role of physical stimuli in both normal and pathological processes that occur in CNS tissue, such as development, inflammation, neurodegeneration, aging, and most common brain tumors. Despite clear evidence that mechanical cues influence both normal and transformed brain tissue activity as well as normal and transformed brain cell behavior, little is known about the links between mechanical signals and their biochemical and medical consequences...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Fangjie Shao, Chong Liu
High-grade glioma, particularly, glioblastoma, is the most aggressive cancer of the central nervous system (CNS) in adults. Due to its heterogeneous nature, glioblastoma almost inevitably relapses after surgical resection and radio-/chemotherapy, and is thus highly lethal and associated with a dismal prognosis. Identifying the cell of origin has been considered an important aspect in understanding tumor heterogeneity, thereby holding great promise in designing novel therapeutic strategies for glioblastoma. Taking advantage of genetic lineage-tracing techniques, performed mainly on genetically engineered mouse models (GEMMs), multiple cell types in the CNS have been suggested as potential cells of origin for glioblastoma, among which adult neural stem cells (NSCs) and oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) are the major candidates...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
Julien Puntonet, Volodia Dangouloff-Ros, Raphaël Saffroy, Mélanie Pagès, Felipe Andreiuolo, Jacques Grill, Stéphanie Puget, Nathalie Boddaert, Pascale Varlet
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Molecular alterations were recently added to the WHO 2016 classification of central nervous system (CNS) tumors. We correlated the histological and radiological features of G34R-mutant high-grade gliomas, a recently described hemispheric and supratentorial glioma of children and young adults. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective multicenter study on the histopathological and MRI results of 12 patients. RESULTS: All tumors were supratentorial...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Neuroradiology. Journal de Neuroradiologie
Vahid Reza Askari, Narges Fereydouni, Vafa Baradaran Rahimi, Nafiseh Askari, Amir Hossein Sahebkar, Pouria Rahmanian-Devin, Alireza Samzadeh-Kermani
BACKGROUND: Inflammation is a primary response to infection that can pathologically lead to various diseases including neurodegenerative diseases. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of β-Amyrin, a naturally occurring pentacyclic triterpenoid compound, on inflammation induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and interferone-γ (IFN-γ) in rat microglial cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cytotoxicity of β-Amyrin (3-100) μM on microglial cells was evaluated using the MTT assay...
March 1, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Erik Ladomersky, Lijie Zhai, Alicia Lenzen, Kristen L Lauing, Jun Qian, Denise M Scholtens, Galina Gritsina, Xuebing Sun, Ye Liu, Fenglong Yu, Wenfeng Gong, Yong Liu, Beibei Jiang, Zhiyu Tang, Ricky Patel, Leonidas C Platanias, C David James, Roger Stupp, Rimas V Lukas, David C Binder, Derek A Wainwright
PURPOSE: Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most aggressive primary brain tumor in adults with a median survival of 15-20 months. Numerous approaches and novel therapeutics for treating GBM have been investigated in the setting of phase III clinical trials, including a recent analysis of the immune checkpoint inhibitor, Nivolumab (anti-PD-1), which failed to improve recurrent GBM patient survival. However, rather than abandoning immune checkpoint inhibitor treatment for GBM, which has shown promise in other types of cancer, ongoing studies are currently evaluating this therapeutic class when combined with other agents...
March 2, 2018: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
Irini Papazian, Vasiliki Kyrargyri, Maria Evangelidou, Anda Voulgari-Kokota, Lesley Probert
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) provide therapeutic effects in experimental CNS disease models and show promise as cell-based therapies for humans, but their modes of action are not well understood. We previously show that MSC protect rodent neurons against glutamate excitotoxicity in vitro, and in vivo in an epilepsy model. Neuroprotection is associated with reduced NMDA glutamate receptor (NMDAR) subunit expression and neuronal glutamate-induced calcium (Ca2+ ) responses, and increased expression of stem cell-associated genes...
February 25, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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