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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222218/reduced-inflammatory-responses-of-follicular-helper-t-cell-promote-the-development-of-regulatory-b-cells-after-roux-en-y-gastric-bypass
#1
Junfang Zhan, Liyu Huang, Haiyong Ma, Huan Chen, Yuan Yang, Sheng Tan, Wendy Song, Weiguo Zhao, Xiaojiang Dai
Bariatric surgery is currently the most effective strategy in treating severe obesity and its comorbidities, such as type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, the mechanism through which bariatric surgery mediates its benefits is not completely understood. Since obesity and T2D represent yet another inflammatory disease, and follicular helper T (Tfh) cells play important roles in inflammatory disorders, we investigated whether the Tfh activity was altered after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), one of the most common bariatric surgery procedures...
February 21, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222098/multicenter-study-of-skin-rashes-and-hepatotoxicity-in-antiretroviral-na%C3%A3-ve-hiv-positive-patients-receiving-non-nucleoside-reverse-transcriptase-inhibitor-plus-nucleoside-reverse-transcriptase-inhibitors-in-taiwan
#2
Pei-Ying Wu, Chien-Yu Cheng, Chun-Eng Liu, Yi-Chien Lee, Chia-Jui Yang, Mao-Song Tsai, Shu-Hsing Cheng, Shih-Ping Lin, De-Yu Lin, Ning-Chi Wang, Yi-Chieh Lee, Hsin-Yun Sun, Hung-Jen Tang, Chien-Ching Hung
OBJECTIVES: Two nucleos(t)ide reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) plus 1 non-NRTI (nNRTI) remain the preferred or alternative combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) for antiretroviral-naive HIV-positive patients in Taiwan. The three most commonly used nNRTIs are nevirapine (NVP), efavirenz (EFV) and rilpivirine (RPV). This study aimed to determine the incidences of hepatotoxicity and skin rashes within 4 weeks of initiation of cART containing 1 nNRTI plus 2 NRTIs. METHODS: Between June, 2012 and November, 2015, all antiretroviral-naive HIV-positive adult patients initiating nNRTI-containing cART at 8 designated hospitals for HIV care were included in this retrospective observational study...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219704/%C3%AE-lactam-hypersensitivity-involves-expansion-of-circulating-and-skin-resident-th22-cells
#3
Andrew Sullivan, Eryi Wang, John Farrell, Paul Whitaker, Lee Faulkner, Daniel Peckham, B Kevin Park, Dean J Naisbitt
BACKGROUND: β-lactam hypersensitivity has been classified according to the phenotype and function of drug-specific T-cells; however, new T-cell subsets have not been considered. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was use piperacillin as a model of β-lactam hypersensitivity to study the nature of the drug-specific T-cell response induced in the blood and skin of hypersensitive patients and healthy volunteers. METHODS: Drug-specific T-cells were cloned from blood and inflamed skin and cellular phenotype and function was explored...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218521/monoterpenoid-indole-alkaloids-from-kopsia-officinalis-and-the-immunosuppressive-activity-of-rhazinilam
#4
Ting Zeng, Xiu-Yin Wu, Shu-Xia Yang, Wei-Chun Lai, Shun-Dong Shi, Qiang Zou, Yang Liu, Li-Mei Li
Six new monoterpenoid indole alkaloids, kopsinidines C-E (1-3), 11,12-methylenedioxychanofruticosinic acid (4), 12-methoxychanofruticosinic acid (5), and N(4)-methylkopsininate (7), as well as chanofruticosinic acid (6, as a natural product) and 23 known alkaloids, were obtained from the twigs and leaves of Kopsia officinalis. Their structures were characterized by physical data analysis. All isolated compounds were evaluated for their immunosuppressive activity on human T cell proliferation. Rhazinilam (29) significantly inhibited human T cell proliferation activated by anti-CD3/anti-CD28 antibodies (IC50 = 1...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Natural Products
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216262/efis-lecture-understanding-the-ctla-4-checkpoint-in-the-maintenance-of-immune-homeostasis
#5
REVIEW
Lucy S K Walker
The past 20 years have heralded fascinating developments in the field of CTLA-4 biology. The CTLA-4 protein is a critical negative regulator of T cell immunity and its absence provokes severe lymphoproliferative disease. In a surprising twist, the generation of mixed bone marrow chimeric mice revealed that CTLA-4 predominantly functions in a cell-extrinsic manner, suggesting that CTLA-4 expressed on one cell can modify the behaviour of another cell. This was followed by the demonstration that CTLA-4 is highly expressed in regulatory T cells and can contribute to their suppressive activity...
February 16, 2017: Immunology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215175/cd4-t-cell-count-may-not-be-a-useful-strategy-to-monitor-antiretroviral-therapy-response-in-htlv-1-hiv-co-infected-patients
#6
Alain Vandormael, Filipe Rego, Siva Danaviah, Luiz Alcantara, David Boulware, Tulio de Oliveira
BACKGROUND: HTLV-1/HIV co-infection is known to elevate the CD4+ T-cell counts of treatment-naïve persons. We investigated whether HTLV-1/HIV co-infected patients continued to have elevated CD4+ T-cell counts after developing virologic failure on antiretroviral therapy (ART). METHODS: The data comes from a drug resistance study located in the KwaZulu-Natal province of South Africa. All participants (N=383) presented for repeated CD4+ T-cell count and HIV viral load level testing between January 2006 and March 2014...
February 16, 2017: Current HIV Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214951/inhibition-of-jak-stat-pathway-restrains-tslp-activated-dendritic-cells-mediated-inflammatory-t-helper-type-2-cell-response-in-allergic-rhinitis
#7
Zhaohui Shi, Weihong Jiang, Min Wang, Xiaocheng Wang, Xiaoyuan Li, Xiaodong Chen, Li Qiao
Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) has recently been implicated as a key molecule for initiating allergic rhinitis (AR) at the cell-dendritic cell (DC) interface. Previous studies demonstrated that TSLP activated DCs to express more OX40 ligand (OX40L), which is associated with the initiation of T helper type 2 (Th2) cell responses. STAT phosphorylation has been reported to be promoted by TSLP. Thus, we investigated if the JAK/STAT pathway inhibitor CYT387 could affect TSLP-DC-mediated Th2 cell response in naive T cell and AR mice model...
February 18, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212502/a-new-mechanism-shapes-the-na%C3%A3-ve-cd8-t-cell-repertoire-the-selection-for-full-diversity
#8
Pedro Gonçalves, Marco Ferrarini, Carmen Molina-Paris, Grant Lythe, Florence Vasseur, Annik Lim, Benedita Rocha, Orly Azogui
During thymic T cell differentiation, TCR repertoires are shaped by negative, positive and agonist selection. In the thymus and in the periphery, repertoires are also shaped by strong inter-clonal and intra-clonal competition to survive death by neglect. Understanding the impact of these events on the T cell repertoire requires direct evaluation of TCR expression in peripheral naïve T cells. Several studies have evaluated TCR diversity, with contradictory results. Some of these studies had intrinsic technical limitations since they used material obtained from T cell pools, preventing the direct evaluation of clone sizes...
February 14, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209722/long-term-outcome-of-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-for-il2rg-jak3-scid-a-cohort-report
#9
Intan Juliana Abd Hamid, Mary A Slatter, Fiona McKendrick, Mark S Pearce, Andrew R Gennery
Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) cures the T-lymphocyte, B-lymphocyte and Natural Killer (NK) cell differentiation defect in IL2RG/JAK3 SCID. We evaluated long-term clinical features, longitudinal immunoreconstitution, donor chimerism and quality of life (QoL) of IL2RG/JAK3 SCID patients >2 years post-HSCT at our center. Clinical data were collated and patients/families answered PedsQL Generic Core Scale v4.0 questionnaires. We performed longitudinal analyses of CD3+, CD4+ naïve T-lymphocyte, CD19+ and NK cell numbers from pre-transplant until 15 years post-transplant...
February 16, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205451/sialylation-of-porphyromonas-gingivalis-lps-and-its-effect-on-bacterial-host-interactions
#10
Svetislav S Zaric, Mark J Lappin, Catherine R Fulton, Fionnuala T Lundy, Wilson A Coulter, Christopher R Irwin
Porphyromonas gingivalis produces different LPS isoforms with significant structural variations of their lipid A and O-antigen moieties that can affect its pro-inflammatory and bone-resorbing potential. We show here, for the first time, that P. gingivalis LPS isolated from W83 strain is highly sialylated and possesses significantly reduced inflammatory potential compared with less sialylated ATCC 33277 strain LPS. Nevertheless, the reduction in the endotoxin activity is not mediated by the presence of sialic acid LPS moieties as the sialic acid-free LPS produced by the mutant W83 strain exhibits a similar inflammatory potential to the wild type strain...
January 1, 2017: Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203230/the-major-immediate-early-protein-ie2-of-human-cytomegalovirus-is-sufficient-to-induce-proteasomal-degradation-of-cd83-on-mature-dendritic-cells
#11
Christiane S Heilingloh, Linda Grosche, Mirko Kummer, Petra Mühl-Zürbes, Lisa Kamm, Myriam Scherer, Melanie Latzko, Thomas Stamminger, Alexander Steinkasserer
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is the prototypic beta-herpesvirus and widespread throughout the human population. While infection is asymptomatic in healthy individuals, it can lead to high morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised persons. Importantly, HCMV evolved multiple strategies to interfere with immune cell function in order to establish latency in infected individuals. As mature DCs (mDCs) are antigen-presenting cells able to activate naïve T cells they play a crucial role during induction of effective antiviral immune responses...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199305/sterile-protection-against-human-malaria-by-chemoattenuated-pfspz-vaccine
#12
Benjamin Mordmüller, Güzin Surat, Heimo Lagler, Sumana Chakravarty, Andrew S Ishizuka, Albert Lalremruata, Markus Gmeiner, Joseph J Campo, Meral Esen, Adam J Ruben, Jana Held, Carlos Lamsfus Calle, Juliana B Mengue, Tamirat Gebru, Javier Ibáñez, Mihály Sulyok, Eric R James, Peter F Billingsley, K C Natasha, Anita Manoj, Tooba Murshedkar, Anusha Gunasekera, Abraham G Eappen, Tao Li, Richard E Stafford, Minglin Li, Phil L Felgner, Robert A Seder, Thomas L Richie, B Kim Lee Sim, Stephen L Hoffman, Peter G Kremsner
A highly protective malaria vaccine would greatly facilitate the prevention and elimination of malaria and containment of drug-resistant parasites. A high level (more than 90%) of protection against malaria in humans has previously been achieved only by immunization with radiation-attenuated Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) sporozoites (PfSPZ) inoculated by mosquitoes; by intravenous injection of aseptic, purified, radiation-attenuated, cryopreserved PfSPZ ('PfSPZ Vaccine'); or by infectious PfSPZ inoculated by mosquitoes to volunteers taking chloroquine or mefloquine (chemoprophylaxis with sporozoites)...
February 15, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197387/ciita-driven-mhc-class-ii-expressing-tumor-cells-can-efficiently-prime-naive-cd4-th-cells-in-vivo-and-vaccinate-the-host-against-parental-mhc-ii-negative-tumor-cells
#13
Farah Bou Nasser Eddine, Greta Forlani, Letizia Lombardo, Alessandra Tedeschi, Giovanna Tosi, Roberto S Accolla
Our previous studies showed that non-immunogenic H-2(d) tumor cells of distinct epithelial histotypes can become highly immunogenic, induce a protective CD4(+) T cell response and vaccinate the animals against parental MHC-II-negative cells if they are rendered MHC class II-positive by stable transfection with the Air-1-encoded MHC-II transcriptional activator CIITA. These studies did not establish, however, whether tumor immunity was the consequence of a direct priming of naive CD4(+) T lymphocytes by CIITA-driven MHC-II-expressing tumor cells or by MHC-II-tumor antigen complexes engulfed by dendritic cells (DC) and exposed on the surface of these professional antigen presenting cells (APC)...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197386/deficiency-of-the-immunostimulatory-cytokine-il-21-promotes-intestinal-neoplasia-via-dysregulation-of-the-th1-th17-axis
#14
Mia Shapiro, Bisweswar Nandi, Gabriel Gonzalez, Rao H Prabhala, Hiroshi Mashimo, Qin Huang, Natasha Y Frank, Nikhil C Munshi, Jason S Gold
IL-21 has reported activity in promoting both Th1 and Th17 immune responses. Its role in sporadic human colorectal cancer is unknown. We aimed to delineate the role of IL-21 in a model of sporadic intestinal carcinogenesis. We found that in APC(MIN/+) mice, ablation of IL-21 increased intestinal tumorigenesis. Expression of pro-inflammatory Th17-associated genes, including RORγt and IL-17A, was increased in the intestine in the absence of IL-21, while expression of antitumor Th1-associated genes Tbet, IFNγ, granzyme B, and perforin was decreased...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196763/il-33-dysregulates-regulatory-t-treg-cells-and-impairs-established-immunological-tolerance-in-the-lungs
#15
Chien-Chang Chen, Takao Kobayashi, Koji Iijima, Fan-Chi Hsu, Hirohito Kita
BACKGROUND: Airway exposure to environmental antigens generally leads to immunological tolerance. A fundamental question remains: why is airway tolerance compromised in patients with allergic airway diseases? Interleukin (IL)-33 promotes innate and adaptive type 2 immunity and may provide the answer to this question. OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to investigate the roles IL-33 plays in altering regulatory T (Treg) cells in the lungs and in affecting previously established airway immunological tolerance...
February 11, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195569/rare-damaging-variants-in-dna-repair-and-cell-cycle-pathways-are-associated-with-hippocampal-and-cognitive-dysfunction-a-combined-genetic-imaging-study-in-first-episode-treatment-naive-patients-with-schizophrenia
#16
Z Yang, M Li, X Hu, B Xiang, W Deng, Q Wang, Y Wang, L Zhao, X Ma, P C Sham, G Northoff, T Li
Schizophrenia is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder where changes in both hippocampus and memory-related cognitive functions are central. However, the exact relationship between neurodevelopmental-genetic factors and hippocampal-cognitive dysfunction remains unclear. The general aim of our study is to link the occurrence of rare damaging mutations involved in susceptibility gene pathways to the structure and function of hippocampus in order to define genetically and phenotypically based subgroups in schizophrenia...
February 14, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193736/down-regulation-of-cd73-on-b-cells-of-patients-with-viremic-hiv-correlates-with-b-cell-activation-and-disease-progression
#17
Eun-Seong Kim, Christin Ackermann, Ilona Tóth, Patrick Dierks, Johanna M Eberhard, Raluca Wroblewski, Felix Scherg, Matthias Geyer, Reinhold E Schmidt, Claudia Beisel, Maximilian Bockhorn, Friedrich Haag, Jan van Lunzen, Julian Schulze Zur Wiesch
Recently, alterations of the T cell expression of the ectonucleotidases, CD39 and CD73, during HIV infection have been described. Here, peripheral (n = 70) and lymph nodal B cells (n = 10) of patients with HIV at different stages of disease as well as uninfected individuals were analyzed via multicolor flow cytometry with regard to expression of CD39 and CD73 and differentiation, proliferation, and exhaustion status. Patients with chronic, untreated HIV showed a significantly decreased frequency of CD73-expressing B cells (P < 0...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190517/calcium-mobilizing-treatment-acts-as-a-co-signal-for-tlr-mediated-induction-of-interleukin-12-il-12p70-secretion-by-murine-bone-marrow-derived-dendritic-cells
#18
Emily Huang, Loral Showalter, Shuwen Xu, Brian J Czernliecki, Gary K Koski
We sought to determine whether pharmacological calcium-mobilizing agents could act in cooperation with Toll-like receptor (TLR) signals to induce high-level IL-12 production from murine bone marrow-derived dendritic cells. We found that calcium mobilization alone induced no IL-12, yet dramatically enhanced IL-12p70 secretion elicited by TLR ligands. Enhanced IL-12 production induced by calcium ionophore plus single TLR ligands, but not through dual TLR ligands, was inhibited by the calcineurin antagonist cyclosporine A, suggesting divergent mechanisms of IL-12 induction...
February 1, 2017: Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190471/plant-lectins-conbr-and-cfl-modulate-expression-toll-like-receptors-pro-inflammatory-cytokines-and-reduce-the-bacterial-burden-in-macrophages-infected-with-salmonella-enterica-serovar-typhimurium
#19
Jec Batista, M T Ralph, R V Vaz, Pfc Souza, A B Silva, Dco Nascimento, L T Souza, M V Ramos, P Mastroeni, J V Lima-Filho
BACKGROUND: Plant lectins have long been used in biomedical research as immunomodulators against tumor cells and microbial infections. PURPOSE: To test the ability of plant lectins ConBr (Canavalia brasiliensis) and CFL (Cratylia argentea) to activate antimicrobial and immunomodulatory activities of murine peritoneal macrophages (pMØ) infected with a virulent strain of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (STm). METHODS: We incubated pMØ with non-toxic amounts of ConBr and CFL either before (preventive schedule) or after (curative schedule) exposure to STm...
February 15, 2017: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28184969/augmented-anti-tumor-activity-of-nk-92-cells-expressing-chimeric-receptors-of-tgf-%C3%AE-r-ii-and-nkg2d
#20
Zhongjuan Wang, Linghua Guo, Yuan Song, Yinsheng Zhang, Dandan Lin, Bo Hu, Yu Mei, Dedy Sandikin, Haiyan Liu
The capacity of natural killer (NK) cells to kill tumor cells without specific antigen recognition provides an advantage over T cells and makes them potential effectors for tumor immunotherapy. However, the efficacy of NK cell adoptive therapy can be limited by the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment. Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) is a potent immunosuppressive cytokine that can suppress NK cell function. To convert the suppressive signal induced by TGF-β to an activating signal, we genetically modified NK-92 cells to express a chimeric receptor with TGF-β type II receptor extracellular and transmembrane domains and the intracellular domain of NK cell-activating receptor NKG2D (TN chimeric receptor)...
February 9, 2017: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
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