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pregnancy outcomes

Winnie Huiyan Sim, Edward Araujo Júnior, Fabricio Da Silva Costa, Penelope Marie Sheehan
AIM: To assess the contemporary maternal and neonatal outcomes following expectant management of preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM) prior to 24 weeks' gestation and to identify prognostic indicators of this morbid presentation. METHODS: We performed a systematic review in the Pubmed and EMBASE databases to identify the primary (perinatal mortality, severe neonatal morbidity and serious maternal morbidity) and secondary (neonatal survival and morbidity) outcomes following expectant management of previable PPROM...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Perinatal Medicine
Jessica L Thomson, Lisa M Tussing-Humphreys, Melissa H Goodman, Sarah E Olender
OBJECTIVES: Delta Healthy Sprouts was designed to test the comparative impact of 2 home visiting curricula on weight status, dietary intake, physical activity, and other health behaviors of rural, southern African-American women and their infants. Results pertaining to physical activity outcomes in the gestational period are reported. METHODS: Eighty-two women, early in their second trimester of pregnancy, were enrolled and randomly assigned to one of 2 treatment arms...
November 2016: American Journal of Health Behavior
W K Chiu, W C Lam, N H Chu, C Km Mok, W K Tung, F Yl Leung, S M Ting
INTRODUCTION: Rainlily, the first one-stop crisis centre in Hong Kong, was set up in 2000 to protect female victims of sexual violence. This study aimed to analyse the characteristics of sexual assault cases and victims who presented to two hospitals in Hong Kong. The data are invaluable for health care professionals and policymakers to improve service provision to these victims. METHODS: This retrospective analysis of hospital records was conducted in two acute hospitals under the Hospital Authority in Hong Kong...
October 24, 2016: Hong Kong Medical Journal, Xianggang Yi Xue za Zhi
Karin Hammarberg, Rebecca Zosel, Caroline Comoy, Sarah Robertson, Carol Holden, Mandy Deeks, Louise Johnson
Some potentially modifiable factors adversely affect fertility and pregnancy health. To inform a fertility health promotion programme, this study investigated fertility knowledge and information-seeking behaviour among people of reproductive age. This was a qualitative study involving six focus group discussions with women and men who intended to have children in the future and eight paired interviews with couples who were actively trying to conceive. Participants (n = 74) themselves generally claimed 'low' to 'average' levels of knowledge about fertility...
October 25, 2016: Human Fertility: Journal of the British Fertility Society
Caroline M Taylor, Jean Golding, Alan M Emond
BACKGROUND/AIM: Studies on the effects of moderate prenatal exposure to cadmium (Cd) on birth outcomes have been contradictory and it has been suggested that effects may be partly masked by sex-specific effects. Our aim was to examine the association of Cd exposure in a large group of pregnant women with birth outcomes in the whole group of participants and by sex. METHODS: Pregnant women were enrolled in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC)...
October 25, 2016: Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology
Karin Hayashi, Yoichi Taira, Takamitsu Maeda, Yumie Matsuda, Yuki Kato, Kozue Hashi, Nobuo Kuroki, Shuichi Katsuragawa
BACKGROUND: It has been customary for working women in Japan to retire when they marry and to devote themselves to household work as well as having children. However, according to a report published by the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications in 2013, the number of working women has increased consistently. As more women are advancing into society, they have more options with respect to lifestyle but may encounter new psychological burdens. Therefore, we reviewed trends among participants in a re-work day care program (hereinafter referred to as "re-work program") to clarify various problems encountered by working women and the prevalence of mental disorders...
2016: BioPsychoSocial Medicine
Clive J Petry, Nuria Sanz Marcos, Gracielle Pimentel, M Geoffrey Hayes, Michael Nodzenski, Denise M Scholtens, Ieuan A Hughes, Carlo L Acerini, Ken K Ong, William L Lowe, David B Dunger
In addition to maternal genes and environmental exposures, variation in fetal imprinted genes could also affect maternal blood pressure during pregnancy. Our objective was to test the associations between polymorphic variants in 16 imprinted genes and maternal mean arterial blood pressures in 1160 DNA trios from 2 established birth cohorts (the Cambridge Baby Growth and Wellbeing Studies) and seek replication in 1367 Hyperglycemia and Adverse Pregnancy Outcome Study participants. Significant univariate associations, all independent of fetal sex, were observed in the Cambridge cohorts, including FAM99A rs1489945 transmitted from the mother (P=2×10(-)(4)), DLK1 rs10139403 (mother; P=9×10(-)(4)), DLK1 rs12147008 (mother; P=1×10(-)(3)), H19 rs217222 (father; P=1×10(-)(3)), SNRPN rs1453556 (father; P=1×10(-)(3)), IGF2 rs6356 (father; P=1×10(-)(3)), and NNAT rs6066671 (father; P=1×10(-)(3))...
October 24, 2016: Hypertension
Guillermo J Pons-Estel, Laura Andreoli, Francesco Scanzi, Ricard Cervera, Angela Tincani
The antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is an autoimmune disease characterized by the occurrence of venous and/or arterial thrombosis and pregnancy morbidity in the presence of pathogenic autoantibodies known as antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL). APS may be associated with other diseases, mainly systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The presence or absence of SLE might modify the clinical or serological expression of APS. Apart from the classical manifestations, APS patients with associated SLE more frequently display a clinical profile with arthralgias, arthritis, autoimmune hemolytic anemia, livedo reticularis, epilepsy, glomerular thrombosis, and myocardial infarction...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Autoimmunity
Lisa S Callegari, Abigail R A Aiken, Christine Dehlendorf, Patty Cason, Sonya Borrero
Engaging women in discussions about reproductive goals in health care settings is increasingly recognized as an important public health strategy to reduce unintended pregnancy and improve pregnancy outcomes. "Reproductive Life Planning" has gained visibility as a framework for these discussions, endorsed by public health and professional organizations and integrated into practice guidelines. However, women's health advocates and researchers have voiced the concern that aspects of the reproductive life planning framework may have the unintended consequence of alienating rather than empowering some women...
October 21, 2016: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
E Azria
OBJECTIVES: To identify clinical situations in which progestatives used to reduce the risk of spontaneous preterm delivery and/or reduced adverse neonatal outcomes have been evaluated and identify situations in which 17OHPC or vaginal progesterone might be recommended. METHODS: Bibliographic searches were performed in the Medline and Cochrane databases with the use of a combination of keywords and text words related to "progesterone", "tocolysis", and "preterm labor" from 1956 through July 2016...
October 21, 2016: Journal de Gynécologie, Obstétrique et Biologie de la Reproduction
Kathleen E Morrison, C Neill Epperson, Mary D Sammel, Grace Ewing, Jessica S Podcasy, Liisa Hantsoo, Deborah R Kim, Tracy L Bale
BACKGROUND: Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are one of the greatest predictors of affective disorders for women. Periods of dynamic hormonal flux, including pregnancy, exacerbate the risk for affective disturbance and promote hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis dysregulation, a key feature of affective disorders. Little is understood as to how stress experienced in late childhood, defined as preadolescence, alters the programming unique to this period of brain maturation and its interaction with the hormonal changes of pregnancy and postpartum...
August 26, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
Theresa W Gauthier, David M Guidot, Michael S Kelleman, Courtney E McCracken, Lou Ann S Brown
BACKGROUND: We hypothesized that maternal alcohol use occurs in pregnancies that end prematurely and that in utero alcohol exposure is associated with an increased risk of morbidities of premature newborns. METHODS: In an observational study of mothers who delivered very low birth weight newborns (VLBW) ≤1,500 g, maternal alcohol use was determined via a standardized administered questionnaire. We compared the effect of maternal drinking on the odds of developing late-onset sepsis (LOS), bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), death, BPD or death, days on oxygen or any morbidity (either LOS, BPD or death)...
October 2016: American Journal of the Medical Sciences
T H Mina, M Lahti, A J Drake, K Räikkönen, H Minnis, F C Denison, J E Norman, R M Reynolds
BACKGROUND: Prenatal maternal obesity has been linked to adverse childhood neuropsychiatric outcomes, including increased symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), internalizing and externalizing problems, affective disorders and neurodevelopmental problems but few studies have studied neuropsychiatric outcomes among offspring born to very severely obese women or assessed potential familial confounding by maternal psychological distress. METHOD: We evaluated neuropsychiatric symptoms in 112 children aged 3-5 years whose mothers had participated in a longitudinal study of obesity in pregnancy (50 very severe obesity, BMI ⩾40 kg/m2, obese class III and 62 lean, BMI 18...
October 25, 2016: Psychological Medicine
Daveena Meeks, Susan E Robinson, David Macleod, Eugene Oteng-Ntim
Pregnancy in women with Sickle Cell Disease (SCD) has been linked with an increased incidence of adverse foetal outcomes when compared to women without haemoglobinopathies (HbAA). There's a paucity of data into foetal outcomes for infants born to women with SCD. Customised growth charts have been demonstrated to be better than population-based growth charts at identifying unhealthy small babies. We analysed the mean birth weight and customised birth weight centiles of infants born to mothers with SCD versus mothers with HbAA genotype, to quantify the risk of having a smaller baby...
2016: PloS One
Suzanne McMurtry Baird, Nan H Troiano, Margaret Betsy Babb Kennedy
"Morbidly adherent placenta" is a term that describes the continuum of placenta accreta, increta, and percreta. The incidence of this type of abnormal placentation has increased significantly over recent decades. The reason is probably multifactorial but, partly, because of factors such as the increasing number of cesarean births. Women at greatest risk are those who have myometrial damage caused by a previous cesarean birth, with either anterior or posterior placenta previa overlying the uterine scar. This condition poses significant risks of morbidity and/or mortality to the pregnant woman and her fetus...
October 2016: Journal of Perinatal & Neonatal Nursing
Joel E Gallant, Graeme Moyle, Juan Berenguer, Peter Shalit, Huyen Cao, Ya-Pei Liu, Joel Myers, Lisa Rosenblatt, Lingfeng Yang, Javier Szwarcberg
OBJECTIVES: Cobicistat (COBI) enhances atazanavir (ATV) pharmacokinetic parameters similarly to ritonavir (RTV) in both healthy volunteers and HIV-infected adults. Primary efficacy and safety outcomes of this Phase 3, international, randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, active-controlled trial in HIV-1-infected treatment-naïve adults (GS-US-216-0114/NCT01108510) demonstrated that ATV+COBI was non-inferior to ATV+RTV, each in combination with emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (FTC/TDF), at Weeks 48 and 144, with high rates of virologic success for both regimens (85...
October 21, 2016: Current HIV Research
Jonas F Ludvigsson, Benjamin Lebwohl, Anders Ekbom, Ravi Kiran, Peter Hr Green, Jonas Höijer, Olof Stephansson
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Endoscopy is an integral part of the investigation and management of gastrointestinal disease. We aimed to examine outcomes of pregnancies for women who underwent endoscopy during their pregnancy. METHODS: We performed a nationwide population-based cohort study, linking data from the Swedish Medical Birth Registry (for births from 1992 through 2011) with those from the Swedish Patient Registry. We identified 3052 pregnancies exposed to endoscopy (2025 upper endoscopies, 1109 lower endoscopies, 58 endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatographies)...
October 20, 2016: Gastroenterology
Julia M Goodman, Sylvia Guendelman, Kristen H Kjerulff
BACKGROUND: Most employed American women work during pregnancy and continue working through the month they deliver. Yet, few studies estimate the relationship between maternity leave taken during pregnancy and maternal health. We evaluate the association of antenatal leave (ANL) uptake with obstetric outcomes, assessing the potential role of protective and adverse selection pathways on this relationship. METHODS: We sample 1,740 employed women who delivered at term from the First Baby Study, a prospective cohort of nulliparous women in Pennsylvania...
October 20, 2016: Women's Health Issues: Official Publication of the Jacobs Institute of Women's Health
Rafaela S C Takeshita, Michael A Huffman, Keiko Mouri, Keiko Shimizu, Fred B Bercovitch
Dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEAS) is the main steroid product of the primate fetal adrenal during mid to late gestation and it plays a major role in providing estrogens needed for parturition. We tested the hypothesis that this hormone can indicate fetal health status and attempted to use fecal DHEAS (fDHEAS) to predict pregnancy outcome in Japanese macaques. The subjects were 16 adult females and 3 neonatal Japanese macaques living in captivity at the Primate Research Institute, Kyoto University. We classified females that gave birth to healthy infants as successful and females that gave birth to dead infants as stillbirth (late fetal loss) and miscarriage (early fetal loss)...
October 19, 2016: Animal Reproduction Science
Vasileios Charalampakis, Abd A Tahrani, Ahmed Helmy, Janesh K Gupta, Rishi Singhal
One of the most effective methods to tackle obesity and its related comorbidities is bariatric surgery. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and endometrial hyperplasia (EH), which are associated with increased risk of endometrial carcinoma, have been identified as potentially new indications for bariatric surgery. PCOS is the most common endocrine disorder in women in the reproductive age and is associated with several components of the metabolic syndrome such as obesity, insulin resistance and hypertension. EH is a pre-cancerous condition which arises in the presence of chronic exposure to estrogen unopposed by progesterone such as both in PCOS and obesity...
October 17, 2016: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
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