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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29517917/nanoscale-electrochemical-sensing-and-processing-in-microreactors
#1
Mathieu Odijk, Albert van den Berg
In this review, we summarize recent advances in nanoscale electrochemistry, including the use of nanoparticles, carbon nanomaterials, and nanowires. Exciting developments are reported for nanoscale redox cycling devices, which can chemically amplify signal readout. We also discuss promising high-frequency techniques such as nanocapacitive CMOS sensor arrays or heterodyning. In addition, we review electrochemical microreactors for use in (drug) synthesis, biocatalysis, water treatment, or to electrochemically degrade urea for use in a portable artificial kidney...
March 8, 2018: Annual Review of Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323395/self-powered-implantable-electronic-skin-for-in-situ-analysis-of-urea-uric-acid-in-body-fluids-and-the-potential-applications-in-real-time-kidney-disease-diagnosis
#2
Wenyan Yang, Wuxiao Han, Huiling Gao, Linlin Zhang, Shuai Wang, Lili Xing, Yan Zhang, Xinyu Xue
As the concentration of different biomarkers in human body fluids are an important parameter of chronic disease, wearable biosensors for in situ analysis of body fluids with high sensitivity, real-time detection, flexibility and biocompatibility have significant potential therapeutic applications. In this paper, a flexible self-powered implantable electronic-skin (e-skin) for in situ body fluids analysis (urea/uric-acid) as a real-time kidney-disease diagnoser has been proposed based on the piezo-enzymatic-reaction coupling process of ZnO nanowire arrays...
January 25, 2018: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250324/incorporating-patient-reported-symptom-assessments-into-routine-care-for-people-with-chronic-kidney-disease
#3
EDITORIAL
Sabine N van der Veer, Giovanni Aresi, Rachel Gair
In this issue of Clinical Kidney Journal , Brown and colleagues show that symptom burden is high across all stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Still, management of symptoms in kidney patients leaves room for improvement, which may partly stem from symptoms being underreported. The use of patient-reported questionnaires may facilitate a more systematic approach to symptom assessment, but to date, the majority of these instruments have been used only in the context of research studies. In this editorial, we review how systematic patient-reported symptom assessments can be incorporated in CKD care...
December 2017: Clinical Kidney Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29192717/in-vitro-trials-of-a-wearable-artificial-kidney-wak
#4
Nikolai A Bazaev, Nataliya I Dorofeeva, Nikita M Zhilo, Evgeniy V Streltsov
BACKGROUND: This paper presents results of in vitro trials of a wearable artificial kidney (WAK). MATERIALS AND METHODS: To carry out the trials, a test bench was developed. It consisted of a patient imitator, a tubing set and measuring equipment. RESULTS: Our WAK can eliminate urea, uric acid and creatinine from spent dialysate with mean mass rates of 0.85 ± 0.1 g/h, 0.10 ± 0.04 g/h and 0.05 ± 0.01 g/h, respectively. Concentrations of Na+, Cl- and Ca2+ ions were kept in the 10% range from initial values...
November 24, 2017: International Journal of Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924220/towards-addressing-the-body-electrolyte-environment-via-sweat-analysis-pilocarpine-iontophoresis-supports-assessment-of-plasma-potassium-concentration
#5
Donato Vairo, Laurie Bruzzese, Marion Marlinge, Lea Fuster, Nabil Adjriou, Nathalie Kipson, Philippe Brunet, Jennifer Cautela, Yves Jammes, Giovanna Mottola, Stephane Burtey, Jean Ruf, Regis Guieu, Emmanuel Fenouillet
Electrolyte concentration in sweat depends on environmental context and physical condition but also on the pathophysiological status. Sweat analyzers may be therefore the future way for biological survey although how sweat electrolyte composition can reflect plasma composition remains unclear. We recruited 10 healthy subjects and 6 patients to have a broad range of plasma electrolyte concentrations (chloride, potassium and sodium) and pH. These variables were compared to those found in sweat produced following cycling exercise or pilocarpine iontophoresis, a condition compatible with operating a wearable device...
September 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920174/features-and-effects-of-information-technology-based-interventions-to-improve-self-management-in-chronic-kidney-disease-patients-a-systematic-review-of-the-literature
#6
Fateme Rangraz Jeddi, Ehsan Nabovati, Shahrzad Amirazodi
Slowing down the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and its adverse health outcomes requires the patient's self-management and attention to treatment recommendations. Information technology (IT)-based interventions are increasingly being used to support self-management in patients with chronic diseases such as CKD. We conducted a systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to assess the features and effects of IT-based interventions on self-management outcomes of CKD patients. A comprehensive search was conducted in Medline, Scopus, and the Cochrane Library to identify relevant papers that were published until May 2016...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Medical Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698169/effectiveness-of-digital-medicines-to-improve-clinical-outcomes-in-patients-with-uncontrolled-hypertension-and-type-2-diabetes-prospective-open-label-cluster-randomized-pilot-clinical-trial
#7
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Juan Frias, Naunihal Virdi, Praveen Raja, Yoona Kim, George Savage, Lars Osterberg
BACKGROUND: Hypertension and type 2 diabetes mellitus are major modifiable risk factors for cardiac, cerebrovascular, and kidney diseases. Reasons for poor disease control include nonadherence, lack of patient engagement, and therapeutic inertia. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the impact on clinic-measured blood pressure (BP) and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) using a digital medicine offering (DMO) that measures medication ingestion adherence, physical activity, and rest using digital medicines (medication taken with ingestible sensor), wearable sensor patches, and a mobile device app...
July 11, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682572/carmelo-giordano-1930-2016-a-giant-in-nephrology
#8
Natale De Santo, Carlo De Pascale, Ernesto Quarto, Malcolm E Phillips, Biagio Di Iorio
Carmelo Giordano (Carmine, Louis, Joseph Giordano) was born in Naples on August 23, 1930 in the house of Rafael and Anna Tirone He received the MD cum laude in 1954. He was Fellow and assistant to Professor Flaviano Magrassi and studied nephrology at the Peter Bent Brigham Hospital, University of Harvard in Boston, under the guidance of John P. Merrill (1958-1960). He was nominated Professor of Nephrology at the University Federico II, Naples in 1975 and Professor of Medicine at the Second University of Naples (1986-2002)...
April 2017: Giornale Italiano di Nefrologia: Organo Ufficiale Della Società Italiana di Nefrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612635/wearable-sensors-can-they-benefit-patients-with-chronic-kidney-disease
#9
REVIEW
Fokko Pieter Wieringa, Natascha Juliana Hendrika Broers, Jeroen Peter Kooman, Frank M Van Der Sande, Chris Van Hoof
This article ponders upon wearable medical measurement devices in relation to Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) and its' associated comorbidities - and whether these might benefit CKD-patients. We aimed to map the intersection(s) of nephrology and wearable sensor technology to help technologists understand medical aspects, and clinicians to understand technological possibilities that are available (or soon will become so). Areas covered: A structured literature search on main comorbidities and complications CKD patients suffer from, was used to steer mini-reviews on wearable sensor technologies clustered around 3 themes being: Cardiovascular-related, diabetes-related and physical fitness/frailty...
July 2017: Expert Review of Medical Devices
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28269690/smartsock-a-wearable-platform-for-context-aware-assessment-of-ankle-edema
#10
Ramin Fallahzadeh, Mahdi Pedram, Hassan Ghasemzadeh
Ankle edema an important symptom for monitoring patients with chronic systematic diseases. It is an important indicator of onset or exacerbation of a variety of diseases that disturb cardiovascular, renal, or hepatic system such as heart, liver, and kidney failure, diabetes, etc. The current approaches toward edema assessment are conducted during clinical visits. In-clinic assessments, in addition to being burdensome and expensive, are sometimes not reliable and neglect important contextual factors such as patient's physical activity level and body posture...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227951/smartsock-a-wearable-platform-for-context-aware-assessment-of-ankle-edema
#11
Ramin Fallahzadeh, Mahdi Pedram, Hassan Ghasemzadeh, Ramin Fallahzadeh, Mahdi Pedram, Hassan Ghasemzadeh
Ankle edema an important symptom for monitoring patients with chronic systematic diseases. It is an important indicator of onset or exacerbation of a variety of diseases that disturb cardiovascular, renal, or hepatic system such as heart, liver, and kidney failure, diabetes, etc. The current approaches toward edema assessment are conducted during clinical visits. In-clinic assessments, in addition to being burdensome and expensive, are sometimes not reliable and neglect important contextual factors such as patient's physical activity level and body posture...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860413/development-of-a-wearable-bioartificial-kidney-using-the-bioartificial-renal-epithelial-cell-system-brecs
#12
Kimberly A Johnston, Angela J Westover, Alvaro Rojas-Pena, Deborah A Buffington, Christopher J Pino, Peter L Smith, H David Humes
Cell therapy for the treatment of renal failure in the acute setting has proved successful, with therapeutic impact, yet development of a sustainable, portable bioartificial kidney for treatment of chronic renal failure has yet to be realized. Challenges in maintaining an anticoagulated blood circuit, the typical platform for solute clearance and support of the biological components, have posed a major hurdle in advancement of this technology. This group has developed a Bioartificial Renal Epithelial Cell System (BRECS) capable of differentiated renal cell function while sustained by body fluids other than blood...
November 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27636771/cardiovascular-complications-in-chronic-dialysis-patients
#13
REVIEW
Thomas A Mavrakanas, David M Charytan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review article focuses on the most significant cardiovascular complications in dialysis patients [sudden cardiac death (SCD), acute coronary syndromes, heart failure, and atrial fibrillation]. RECENT FINDINGS: Current and ongoing research aims to quantify the rate and pattern of significant arrhythmia in dialysis patients and to determine the predominant mechanism of SCD. Preliminary findings from these studies suggest a high rate of atrial fibrillation and that bradycardia and asystole may be more frequent than ventricular arrhythmia as a cause of sudden death...
November 2016: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27417290/novel-fabrication-method-of-the-peritoneal-dialysis-filter-using-silk-fibroin-with-urease-fixation-system
#14
Bo Mi Moon, Myung-Jin Choi, Md Tipu Sultan, Jae Won Yang, Hyung Woo Ju, Jung Min Lee, Hyun Jung Park, Ye Ri Park, Soo Hyeon Kim, Dong Wook Kim, Min Chae Lee, Ju Yeon Jeong, Ok Joo Lee, Gun Yong Sung, Chan Hum Park
During the last decade, there has been a great advance in the kidney dialysis system by wearable artificial kidney (WAK) system for end-stage renal disease patients. Uremic solute removal and water regeneration system are the most prerequisite for WAK to work properly. In this study, we designed a filtering membrane system by using immobilized urease silk fibroin filter and evaluated its comparative effectiveness with a PVDF filtering system in peritoneal dialysate regeneration system by urea removal efficacy...
October 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27398407/a-wearable-artificial-kidney-for-patients-with-end-stage-renal-disease
#15
Victor Gura, Matthew B Rivara, Scott Bieber, Raj Munshi, Nancy Colobong Smith, Lori Linke, John Kundzins, Masoud Beizai, Carlos Ezon, Larry Kessler, Jonathan Himmelfarb
BACKGROUND: Stationary hemodialysis machines hinder mobility and limit activities of daily life during dialysis treatments. New hemodialysis technologies are needed to improve patient autonomy and enhance quality of life. METHODS: We conducted a FDA-approved human trial of a wearable artificial kidney, a miniaturized, wearable hemodialysis machine, based on dialysate-regenerating sorbent technology. We aimed to determine the efficacy of the wearable artificial kidney in achieving solute, electrolyte, and volume homeostasis in up to 10 subjects over 24 hours...
June 2, 2016: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27380446/a-wearable-electrochemical-platform-for-noninvasive-simultaneous-monitoring-of-ca-2-and-ph
#16
Hnin Yin Yin Nyein, Wei Gao, Ziba Shahpar, Sam Emaminejad, Samyuktha Challa, Kevin Chen, Hossain M Fahad, Li-Chia Tai, Hiroki Ota, Ronald W Davis, Ali Javey
Homeostasis of ionized calcium in biofluids is critical for human biological functions and organ systems. Measurement of ionized calcium for clinical applications is not easily accessible due to its strict procedures and dependence on pH. pH balance in body fluids greatly affects metabolic reactions and biological transport systems. Here, we demonstrate a wearable electrochemical device for continuous monitoring of ionized calcium and pH of body fluids using a disposable and flexible array of Ca(2+) and pH sensors that interfaces with a flexible printed circuit board...
July 26, 2016: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26913694/nanoporous-biomaterials-for-uremic-toxin-adsorption-in-artificial-kidney-systems-a-review
#17
REVIEW
Wee-Keat Cheah, Kunio Ishikawa, Radzali Othman, Fei-Yee Yeoh
Hemodialysis, one of the earliest artificial kidney systems, removes uremic toxins via diffusion through a semipermeable porous membrane into the dialysate fluid. Miniaturization of the present hemodialysis system into a portable and wearable device to maintain continuous removal of uremic toxins would require that the amount of dialysate used within a closed-system is greatly reduced. Diffused uremic toxins within a closed-system dialysate need to be removed to maintain the optimum concentration gradient for continuous uremic toxin removal by the dialyzer...
February 23, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26859220/prehabilitation-in-our-most-frail-surgical-patients-are-wearable-fitness-devices-the-next-frontier
#18
REVIEW
Kristen K Rumer, Anirudh Saraswathula, Marc L Melcher
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Frailty is the concept of accumulating physiologic declines that make people less able to deal with stressors, including surgery. Prehabilitation is intervention to enhance functional capacity before surgery. Frailty and prehabilitation among transplant populations and the role of wearable fitness tracking devices (WFTs) in delivering fitness-based interventions will be discussed. RECENT FINDINGS: Frailty is associated with increased complications, longer length of hospital stay and increased mortality after surgery...
April 2016: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26245302/calculation-of-the-clearance-requirements-for-the-development-of-a-hemodialysis-based-wearable-artificial-kidney
#19
Dong Ki Kim, Jung Chan Lee, Hajeong Lee, Kwon Wook Joo, Kook-Hwan Oh, Yon Su Kim, Hyung-Jin Yoon, Hee Chan Kim
Wearable artificial kidney (WAK) has been considered an alternative to standard hemodialysis (HD) for many years. Although various novel WAK systems have been recently developed for use in clinical applications, the target performance or standard dose of dialysis has not yet been determined. To calculate the appropriate clearance for a HD-based WAK system for the treatment of patients with end-stage renal disease with various dialysis conditions, a classic variable-volume two-compartment kinetic model was used to simulate an anuric patient with variable target time-averaged creatinine concentration (TAC), daily water intake volume, daily dialysis pause time, and patient body weight...
April 2016: Hemodialysis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26076370/creating-a-wearable-artificial-kidney-where-are-we-now
#20
EDITORIAL
Jeroen P Kooman, Jaap A Joles, Karin G F Gerritsen
A wearable and, ultimately, an implantable artificial kidney is a long-held aim in the treatment of patients with end-stage renal disease, provided that it would combine continuous blood purification, preventing the fluctuations in the internal environment associated with hemodialysis, while maintaining a high efficiency for removal of uremic toxins. Sorbent and enzyme technology, allowing for the regeneration of dialysis fluid, have played a vital role in the development of present prototypes, although the development of a low-weight regeneration module as well as safety and control issues still need to be solved...
July 2015: Expert Review of Medical Devices
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