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Photoperiod cognition

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27630549/altered-electroencephalographic-activity-associated-with-changes-in-the-sleep-wakefulness-cycle-of-c57bl-6j-mice-in-response-to-a-photoperiod-shortening
#1
Stanislav V Rozov, Janneke C Zant, Kestutis Gurevicius, Tarja Porkka-Heiskanen, Pertti Panula
AIM: Under natural conditions diurnal rhythms of biological processes of the organism are synchronized with each other and to the environmental changes by means of the circadian system. Disturbances of the latter affect hormonal levels, sleep-wakefulness cycle and cognitive performance. To study mechanisms of such perturbations animal models subjected to artificial photoperiods are often used. The goal of current study was to understand the effects of circadian rhythm disruption, caused by a short light-dark cycle regime, on activity of the cerebral cortex in rodents...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27346738/photoperiodic-regulation-of-behavior-peromyscus-as-a-model-system
#2
Jeremy C Borniger, Randy J Nelson
Winter and summer present vastly different challenges to animals living outside of the tropics. To survive and reproduce, individuals must anticipate seasonal environmental changes and adjust physiology and behavior accordingly. Photoperiod (day length) offers a relatively 'noise free' environmental signal that non-tropical animals use to tell the time of year, and whether winter is approaching or receding. In some cases, photoperiodic signals may be fine-tuned by other proximate cues such as food availability or temperature...
June 23, 2016: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26139344/seasonal-variation-in-attention-and-spatial-performance-in-a-wild-population-of-the-african-striped-mouse-rhabdomys-pumilio
#3
Audrey Maille, Neville Pillay, Carsten Schradin
Cognitive flexibility describes the reversible changes of cognition in response to environmental changes. Although various environmental factors such as temperature, photoperiod and rainfall change seasonally, seasonal variation in cognitive performance has been reported in merely a few birds and mammals. We assessed whether cognitive performance in a wild population of African striped mice Rhabdomys pumilio, from the Succulent Karoo semidesert of South Africa, differed between summer and winter. In order to measure cognitive performance, striped mice were trapped in the field, tested under laboratory conditions at our research station and returned to the field within 5 h...
November 2015: Animal Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25615594/sleep-and-the-endogenous-melatonin-rhythm-of-high-arctic-residents-during-the-summer-and-winter
#4
Michel A Paul, Ryan J Love, Andrea Hawton, Josephine Arendt
The seasonal extremes of photoperiod in high latitudes place particular strain on the human circadian system. Arctic residence has been associated with poor sleep in both summer and winter. The goal of the work reported here was to study the circadian rhythms of individuals living in the high Arctic by measuring sleep variables and the timing of melatonin production. Two research trials were conducted in the built environment of CFS Alert (82° 29' 58″ N). Participants wore motion logging devices (actigraphs), which measure ambient light as well as motion, for 1week to provide data on sleep quantity, quality and light exposure...
March 15, 2015: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25497862/seasonal-change-in-the-avian-hippocampus
#5
REVIEW
David F Sherry, Scott A MacDougall-Shackleton
The hippocampus plays an important role in cognitive processes, including memory and spatial orientation, in birds. The hippocampus undergoes seasonal change in food-storing birds and brood parasites, there are changes in the hippocampus during breeding, and further changes occur in some species in association with migration. In food-storing birds, seasonal change in the hippocampus occurs in fall and winter when the cognitively demanding behaviour of caching and retrieving food occurs. The timing of annual change in the hippocampus of food-storing birds is quite variable, however, and appears not to be under photoperiod control...
April 2015: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25041744/-fear-of-the-dark-in-adolescence-and-emerging-adulthood-general-model-gender-and-age-differences
#6
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Krisztina Kopcsó, András Láng
INTRODUCTION: In our study we investigated fear of the dark in adolescence and emerging adulthood. First, we define fear and anxiety, which constitute together fear of the dark. We present the cognitive and interactionist models of fear, individual differences that affect the formation and maintenance of fear and the developmental aspects of this topic. The aim of our study was to map the phenomenon in adolescence and emerging adulthood, with respect to gender and age differences, and individual factors that affect the genesis of fear of the dark...
2014: Psychiatria Hungarica: A Magyar Pszichiátriai Társaság Tudományos Folyóirata
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25015557/spectral-modulation-of-light-wavelengths-using-optical-filters-effect-on-melatonin-secretion
#7
REVIEW
Robert F Casper, Shadab Rahman
Shiftwork has been identified as a risk factor for various medical problems, such as cancer, heart disease, metabolic disturbances, depression, and anxiety disorders, and as reviewed this month, adverse reproductive function. Shiftwork misaligns physiological rhythms with respect to each other and to external environmental rhythms such as the 24-hour light/dark cycle. Light is the strongest time cue for entraining circadian rhythms in mammals, and aberrant light exposure patterns during shiftwork is one of the key factors that induce circadian misalignment...
August 2014: Fertility and Sterility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24699387/vitamin-d-folate-and-potential-early-lifecycle-environmental-origin-of-significant-adult-phenotypes
#8
Mark Lucock, Zoë Yates, Charlotte Martin, Jeong-Hwa Choi, Lyndell Boyd, Sa Tang, Nenad Naumovski, John Furst, Paul Roach, Nina Jablonski, George Chaplin, Martin Veysey
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Vitamin D and folate are highly UV sensitive, and critical for maintaining health throughout the lifecycle. This study examines whether solar irradiance during the first trimester of pregnancy influences vitamin D receptor (VDR) and nuclear folate gene variant occurrence, and whether affected genes influence late-life biochemical/clinical phenotypes. METHODOLOGY: 228 subjects were examined for periconceptional exposure to solar irradiance, variation in vitamin D/folate genes (polymerase chain reaction (PCR)), dietary intake (food frequency questionnaire (FFQ)) and important adult biochemical/clinical phenotypes...
January 2014: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24663672/gestational-chronodisruption-impairs-hippocampal-expression-of-nmda-receptor-subunits-grin1b-grin3a-and-spatial-memory-in-the-adult-offspring
#9
Nelson Vilches, Carlos Spichiger, Natalia Mendez, Lorena Abarzua-Catalan, Hugo A Galdames, David G Hazlerigg, Hans G Richter, Claudia Torres-Farfan
Epidemiological and experimental evidence correlates adverse intrauterine conditions with the onset of disease later in life. For a fetus to achieve a successful transition to extrauterine life, a myriad of temporally integrated humoral/biophysical signals must be accurately provided by the mother. We and others have shown the existence of daily rhythms in the fetus, with peripheral clocks being entrained by maternal cues, such as transplacental melatonin signaling. Among developing tissues, the fetal hippocampus is a key structure for learning and memory processing that may be anticipated as a sensitive target of gestational chronodisruption...
2014: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24509892/effects-of-dawn-simulation-on-markers-of-sleep-inertia-and-post-waking-performance-in-humans
#10
Andrew Thompson, Helen Jones, Warren Gregson, Greg Atkinson
PURPOSE: To examine the effects of a simulated dawn during the last 30 min of sleep on the subsequent dissipation of sleep inertia and changes in simulated work and physical performance. METHODS: Eight participants, who reported difficulty with morning waking, were administered in a random order to a control (C) and a dawn simulation (DS) trial (starting 30 min prior to waking). Subjective ratings of sleep quality and alertness were obtained alongside measures of cognitive performance (addition and reaction time tasks measured at 5, 30 and 75 min after waking at habitual workday times)...
May 2014: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24482155/acute-and-chronic-psychostimulant-treatment-modulates-the-diurnal-rhythm-activity-pattern-of-wky-female-adolescent-rats
#11
Cathleen G Jones, Pamela B Yang, Victor T Wilcox, Keith D Burau, Nachum Dafny
The psychostimulants considered the gold standard in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, one of the most common childhood disorders, are also finding their way into the hands of healthy young adults as brain augmentation to improve cognitive performance. The possible long-term effects of psychostimulant exposure in adolescence are considered controversial, and thus, the objective of this study was to investigate whether the chronic exposure to the psychostimulant amphetamine affects the behavioral diurnal rhythm activity patterns of female adolescent Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rat...
May 2014: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24304407/day-night-contrast-as-source-of-health-for-the-human-circadian-system
#12
Antonio Martinez-Nicolas, Juan Antonio Madrid, Maria Angeles Rol
Modern societies are characterized by a 24/7 lifestyle (LS) with no environmental differences between day and night, resulting in weak zeitgebers (weak day light, absence of darkness during night, constant environmental temperature, sedentary LS and frequent snacking), and as a consequence, in an impaired circadian system (CS) through a process known as chronodisruption. Both weak zeitgebers and CS impairment are related to human pathologies (certain cancers, metabolic syndrome and affective and cognitive disorders), but little is known about how to chronoenhance the CS...
April 2014: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24058881/estradiol-differentially-affects-auditory-recognition-and-learning-according-to-photoperiodic-state-in-the-adult-male-songbird-european-starling-sturnus-vulgaris
#13
Rebecca M Calisi, Daniel P Knudsen, Jesse S Krause, John C Wingfield, Timothy Q Gentner
Changes in hormones can affect many types of learning in vertebrates. Adults experience fluctuations in a multitude of hormones over a temporal scale, from local, rapid action to more long-term, seasonal changes. Endocrine changes during development can affect behavioral outcomes in adulthood, but how learning is affected in adults by hormone fluctuations experienced during adulthood is less understood. Previous reports have implicated the sex steroid hormone estradiol (E2) in both male and female vertebrate cognitive functioning...
2013: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24025745/the-reuniens-and-rhomboid-nuclei-neuroanatomy-electrophysiological-characteristics-and-behavioral-implications
#14
REVIEW
Jean-Christophe Cassel, Anne Pereira de Vasconcelos, Michaël Loureiro, Thibault Cholvin, John C Dalrymple-Alford, Robert P Vertes
The reuniens and rhomboid nuclei, located in the ventral midline of the thalamus, have long been regarded as having non-specific effects on the cortex, while other evidence suggests that they influence behavior related to the photoperiod, hunger, stress or anxiety. We summarise the recent anatomical, electrophysiological and behavioral evidence that these nuclei also influence cognitive processes. The first part of this review describes the reciprocal connections of the reuniens and rhomboid nuclei with the medial prefrontal cortex and the hippocampus...
December 2013: Progress in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23879697/photoperiod-affects-the-diurnal-rhythm-of-hippocampal-neuronal-morphology-of-siberian-hamsters
#15
Tomoko Ikeno, Zachary M Weil, Randy J Nelson
Individuals of many species can regulate their physiology, morphology, and behavior in response to annual changes of day length (photoperiod). In mammals, the photoperiodic signal is mediated by a change in the duration of melatonin, leading to alterations in gene expressions, neuronal circuits, and hormonal secretion. The hippocampus is one of the most plastic structures in the adult brain and hippocampal neuronal morphology displays photoperiod-induced differences. Because the hippocampus is important for emotional and cognitive behaviors, photoperiod-driven remodeling of hippocampal neurons is implicated in seasonal differences of affect, including seasonal affective disorder (SAD) in humans...
November 2013: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23841684/effects-of-artificial-dawn-and-morning-blue-light-on-daytime-cognitive-performance-well-being-cortisol-and-melatonin-levels
#16
MULTICENTER STUDY
Virginie Gabel, Micheline Maire, Carolin F Reichert, Sarah L Chellappa, Christina Schmidt, Vanja Hommes, Antoine U Viola, Christian Cajochen
Light exposure elicits numerous effects on human physiology and behavior, such as better cognitive performance and mood. Here we investigated the role of morning light exposure as a countermeasure for impaired cognitive performance and mood under sleep restriction (SR). Seventeen participants took part of a 48h laboratory protocol, during which three different light settings (separated by 2 wks) were administered each morning after two 6-h sleep restriction nights: a blue monochromatic LED (light-emitting diode) light condition (BL; 100 lux at 470 nm for 20 min) starting 2 h after scheduled wake-up time, a dawn-simulating light (DsL) starting 30 min before and ending 20 min after scheduled wake-up time (polychromatic light gradually increasing from 0 to 250 lux), and a dim light (DL) condition for 2 h beginning upon scheduled wake time (<8 lux)...
October 2013: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23475735/vitamin-d-homeostasis-bone-mineral-metabolism-and-seasonal-affective-disorder-during-1%C3%A2-year-of-antarctic-residence
#17
M Premkumar, T Sable, D Dhanwal, R Dewan
UNLABELLED: Low serum vitamin D and increased parathormone levels were found to be associated with depression and stress in a wintering expedition of 20 healthy male subjects over a period of 1 year in Antarctica. The continuous daylight during summer and the dark polar winter affect endogenous vitamin D production. Long-term effects on bone health need to be studied further. PURPOSE: Vitamin D plays a significant role in calcium and bone mineral metabolism and also affects cardiovascular, psychological, and cognitive functions...
2013: Archives of Osteoporosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23151476/aberrant-light-directly-impairs-mood-and-learning-through-melanopsin-expressing-neurons
#18
Tara A LeGates, Cara M Altimus, Hui Wang, Hey-Kyoung Lee, Sunggu Yang, Haiqing Zhao, Alfredo Kirkwood, E Todd Weber, Samer Hattar
The daily solar cycle allows organisms to synchronize their circadian rhythms and sleep-wake cycles to the correct temporal niche. Changes in day-length, shift-work, and transmeridian travel lead to mood alterations and cognitive function deficits. Sleep deprivation and circadian disruption underlie mood and cognitive disorders associated with irregular light schedules. Whether irregular light schedules directly affect mood and cognitive functions in the context of normal sleep and circadian rhythms remains unclear...
November 22, 2012: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23099547/persistent-impairments-in-hippocampal-dorsal-striatal-and-prefrontal-cortical-function-following-repeated-photoperiod-shifts-in-rats
#19
Erin L Zelinski, Amanda V Tyndall, Nancy S Hong, Robert J McDonald
Cognitive impairments are observed when learned associations are being acquired or retrieved during a period of circadian disruption. However, the extent of the functional impacts on previously acquired associations following circadian rhythm re-entrainment is unknown. The impacts of repeated photoperiod shifts on learning and memory in male and female rats were examined. For these experiments, rats were trained on a spatial version of the Morris water task (MWT) and a visual discrimination task designed for the 8-arm radial maze...
January 2013: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22855576/dim-nighttime-light-impairs-cognition-and-provokes-depressive-like-responses-in-a-diurnal-rodent
#20
Laura K Fonken, Emily Kitsmiller, Laura Smale, Randy J Nelson
Circadian disruption is a common by-product of modern life. Although jet lag and shift work are well-documented challenges to circadian organization, many more subtle environmental changes cause circadian disruption. For example, frequent fluctuations in the timing of the sleep/wake schedule, as well as exposure to nighttime lighting, likely affect the circadian system. Most studies of these effects have focused on nocturnal rodents, which are very different from diurnal species with respect to their patterns of light exposure and the effects that light can have on their activity...
August 2012: Journal of Biological Rhythms
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