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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666618/reassortant-h5n1-avian-influenza-virus-bearing-pb2-gene-from-a-2009-pandemic-h1n1-exhibits-increased-pathogenicity-in-mice
#1
Xian Lin, Shiman Yu, Kelei Guo, Xin Sun, Haiming Yi, Meilin Jin
Reassortment is a key driving force of the evolution and host adaptation of the influenza virus. A(H1N1)pdm2009 (pdm09), a novel H1N1 influenza viral subtype, caused a pandemic in 2009. The strain was established in pig herds and cocirculated with the highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza virus. The coexistence of pdm09 with H5N1 raises concerns that reassortment may cause the development of novel viral strains with unpredictable virulence. Given that the viral polymerase subunit PB2 is a determinant of host range and pathogenicity, and that the substantial amino acid differences in PB2 between pdm09 and H5N1, including positions 590/591 and 271, which are shown to play key roles in enhanced polymerase activity in mammalian host cells, we generated a reassortant virus containing PB2 derived from a pdm09 (A/Liaoning/1/2009, LN/09) to investigate if pdm09-derived PB2 can function in a heterologous avian virus isolate as an adaptive strategy, with H5N1 (A/duck/Hubei/hangmei01/2006, HM/06) as the backbone...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29657407/intranasal-administration-of-inactivated-avian-influenza-virus-of-h5n1-subtype-vaccine-induced-systemic-immune-response-in-chicken-and-mice
#2
I N Suartha, G A A Suartini, I W Wirata, N M A R K Dewi, G N N Putra, G A Y Kencana, G N Mahardika
Aim: The need for non-parenteral administration of inactivated avian influenza virus of H5N1 subtype (AIV-H5N1) vaccine is paramount. Here, we provide preliminary data on the immune response of chicken and mice after intranasal administration of AIV-H5N1-inactivated vaccine with ISCOMS, Inmunair (INM), and combined ISCOMS and INM as an adjuvant. Materials and Methods: The AIV isolate of A/Chicken/Denpasar/01/2004 (H5N1) was cultivated in specific pathogen-free chicken eggs and inactivated with formaldehyde...
February 2018: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651056/evidence-of-exposure-of-domestic-pigs-to-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-h5n1-in-nigeria
#3
Clement Meseko, Anja Globig, Jeremiah Ijomanta, Tony Joannis, Chika Nwosuh, David Shamaki, Timm Harder, Donata Hoffman, Anne Pohlmann, Martin Beer, Thomas Mettenleiter, Elke Starick
Avian influenza viruses (AIV) potentially transmit to swine as shown by experiments, where further reassortment may contribute to the generation of pandemic strains. Associated risks of AIV inter-species transmission are greater in countries like Nigeria with recurrent epidemics of highly pathogenic AI (HPAI) in poultry and significant pig population. Analysis of 129 tracheal swab specimens collected from apparently healthy pigs at slaughterhouse during presence of HPAI virus H5N1 in poultry in Nigeria for influenza A by RT-qPCR yielded 43 positive samples...
April 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649578/emergence-and-multiple-reassortments-of-french-2015-2016-highly-pathogenic-h5-avian-influenza-viruses
#4
F X Briand, E Niqueux, A Schmitz, E Hirchaud, H Quenault, C Allée, A Le Prioux, C Guillou-Cloarec, K Ogor, M O Le Bras, H Gares, P Daniel, A Fediaevsky, C Martenot, P Massin, S Le Bouquin, Y Blanchard, N Eterradossi
From November 2015 to August 2016, 81 outbreaks of highly pathogenic (HP) H5 avian influenza virus were detected in poultry farms from South-Western France. These viruses were mainly detected in farms raising waterfowl, but also in chicken or guinea fowl flocks, and did not induce severe signs in waterfowl although they did meet the HP criteria. Three different types of neuraminidases (N1, N2 and N9) were associated with the HP H5 gene. Full genomes sequences of 24 H5HP and 6 LP viruses that circulated in the same period were obtained by next generation sequencing, from direct field samples or after virus isolation in SPF embryonated eggs...
April 9, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648602/factors-associated-with-prolonged-viral-shedding-in-patients-with-avian-influenza-a-h7n9-virus-infection
#5
Yeming Wang, Qiang Guo, Zheng Yan, Daming Zhou, Wei Zhang, Shujun Zhou, Yu-Ping Li, Jing Yuan, Timothy M Uyeki, Xinghua Shen, Wenjuan Wu, Hui Zhao, Yun-Fu Wu, Jia Shang, Zhengguang He, Yi Yang, Hongsheng Zhao, Yongqing Hong, Zehua Zhang, Min Wu, Tiemin Wei, Xilong Deng, Yijun Deng, Li-Hua Cai, Weihua Lu, Hongmei Shu, Lin Zhang, Hong Luo, Y Ing Zhou, Heng Weng, Keyi Song, Li Yao, Mingguang Jiang, Boliang Zhao, Ruibin Chi, Boqi Guo, Lin Fu, Long Yu, Haiyan Min, Pu Chen, Shuifang Chen, Liang Hong, Wei Mao, Xiaoping Huang, Lijun Gu, Hui Li, Chen Wang, Bin Cao
Background: Data are limited on the impact of neuraminidase inhibitor (NAI) treatment on avian influenza A(H7N9) virus RNA shedding. Methods: In this multicenter, retrospective study, data were collected from adults hospitalized with A(H7N9) infection during 2013-2017 in China. We compared clinical features and A(H7N9) shedding among patients with different NAI doses and combination therapies and evaluated factors associated with A(H7N9) shedding, using Cox proportional hazards regression...
April 10, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642453/glycosylation-of-hemagglutinin-and-neuraminidase-of-influenza-a-virus-as-signature-for-ecological-spillover-and-adaptation-among-influenza-reservoirs
#6
Paul Kim, Yo Han Jang, Soon Bin Kwon, Chung Min Lee, Gyoonhee Han, Baik Lin Seong
Glycosylation of the hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) of the influenza provides crucial means for immune evasion and viral fitness in a host population. However, the time-dependent dynamics of each glycosylation sites have not been addressed. We monitored the potential N-linked glycosylation (NLG) sites of over 10,000 HA and NA of H1N1 subtype isolated from human, avian, and swine species over the past century. The results show a shift in glycosylation sites as a hallmark of 1918 and 2009 pandemics, and also for the 1976 "abortive pandemic"...
April 7, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625417/the-role-of-conserved-qxg-and-binding-affinity-of-s23g-s26g-receptors-on-avian-h5-swine-h1-and-human-h1-of-influenza-a-virus-hemagglutinin
#7
Panita Kongsune, Supot Hannongbua
Outbreaks of avian, human and swine influenza are a serious concern for public health. In the reproductive cycle of the influenza virus, hemagglutinin (HA) is the primary protein responsible for binding to glycan receptor sites on the host cell surface. MD simulations of avian H5, swine H1 and human H1 complexed with S23G and S26G receptors were performed to study the role of key residues on the receptor conformational behaviors, hydrogen bond formation, binding free energy and residue-wise energy contribution...
March 29, 2018: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625056/influenza-infection-in-humans-induces-broadly-cross-reactive-and-protective-neuraminidase-reactive-antibodies
#8
Yao-Qing Chen, Teddy John Wohlbold, Nai-Ying Zheng, Min Huang, Yunping Huang, Karlynn E Neu, Jiwon Lee, Hongquan Wan, Karla Thatcher Rojas, Ericka Kirkpatrick, Carole Henry, Anna-Karin E Palm, Christopher T Stamper, Linda Yu-Ling Lan, David J Topham, John Treanor, Jens Wrammert, Rafi Ahmed, Maryna C Eichelberger, George Georgiou, Florian Krammer, Patrick C Wilson
Antibodies to the hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) glycoproteins are the major mediators of protection against influenza virus infection. Here, we report that current influenza vaccines poorly display key NA epitopes and rarely induce NA-reactive B cells. Conversely, influenza virus infection induces NA-reactive B cells at a frequency that approaches (H1N1) or exceeds (H3N2) that of HA-reactive B cells. NA-reactive antibodies display broad binding activity spanning the entire history of influenza A virus circulation in humans, including the original pandemic strains of both H1N1 and H3N2 subtypes...
April 5, 2018: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624615/efficacy-and-synergy-of-live-attenuated-and-inactivated-influenza-vaccines-in-young-chickens
#9
Hyesun Jang, Mohamed Elaish, Mahesh Kc, Michael C Abundo, Amir Ghorbani, John M Ngunjiri, Chang-Won Lee
Outbreaks of novel highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses have been reported in poultry species in the United States since 2014. These outbreaks have proven the limitations of biosecurity control programs, and new tools are needed to reinforce the current avian influenza control arsenal. Some enzootic countries have implemented inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV) in their control programs, but there are serious concerns that a long-term use of IIV without eradication may result in the selection of novel antigenically divergent strains...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624487/avian-influenza-is-a-catalyst-for-economic-and-political-destabilization-in-iran
#10
Gene G Olinger, Kenneth B Yeh
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Health Security
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623433/microevolution-and-independent-incursions-as-main-forces-shaping-h5-hemagglutinin-diversity-during-a-h5n8-h5n5-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-outbreak-in-czech-republic-in-2017
#11
Alexander Nagy, Ádám Dán, Lenka Černíková, Eliška Vitásková, Vlastimil Křivda, Jitka Horníčková, Roman Masopust, Kamil Sedlák
Here, we present a comprehensive analysis of the H5N8/H5N5 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus strains detected in the Czech Republic during an outbreak in 2017. Network analysis of the H5 Hemagglutinin (HA) from 99% of the outbreak localities suggested that the diversity of the Czech H5N8/H5N5 viruses was influenced by two basic forces: local microevolution and independent incursions. The geographical occurrence of the central node H5 HA sequences revealed three eco-regions, which apparently played an important role in the origin and further spread of the local H5N8/HPAI variants across the country...
April 5, 2018: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623073/ns-segment-of-a-1918-influenza-a-virus-descendent-enhances-replication-of-h1n1pdm09-and-virus-induced-cellular-immune-response-in-mammalian-and-avian-systems
#12
Henning Petersen, Ahmed Mostafa, Mohamed A Tantawy, Azeem A Iqbal, Donata Hoffmann, Aravind Tallam, Balachandar Selvakumar, Frank Pessler, Martin Beer, Silke Rautenschlein, Stephan Pleschka
The 2009 pandemic influenza A virus (IAV) H1N1 strain (H1N1pdm09) has widely spread and is circulating in humans and swine together with other human and avian IAVs. This fact raises the concern that reassortment between H1N1pdm09 and co-circulating viruses might lead to an increase of H1N1pdm09 pathogenicity in different susceptible host species. Herein, we explored the potential of different NS segments to enhance the replication dynamics, pathogenicity and host range of H1N1pdm09 strain A/Giessen/06/09 (Gi-wt)...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620470/study-of-an-outbreak-of-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-h5n8-in-commercial-pekin-ducks-anas-platyrhynchos-domesticus-in-california
#13
Simone Stoute, Beate Crossley, H L Shivaprasad
A February 2015 outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N8 in a flock of commercial Pekin ducks ( Anas platyrhynchos domesticus) in California was investigated in detail. Approximately 17,349 five-wk-old ducks experienced an increased mortality from a normal of eight birds per day to 24, 18, 24, 33, and 61 birds per day, respectively, in the last 5 days prior to flock depopulation. Clinically, there was decreased water and feed consumption, and approximately 1.0% of the affected flock exhibited neurologic signs...
March 2018: Avian Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620467/the-effect-of-infectious-bursal-disease-virus-induced-immunosuppression-on-vaccination-against-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-virus
#14
Erica Spackman, Christopher B Stephens, Mary J Pantin-Jackwood
Poor efficacy of avian influenza virus (AIV) vaccines in chickens has been documented in the field in spite of good results in experimental settings. Although the causes are multifactorial and complex, one contributing factor may be prior infection with immunosuppressive viruses. In an effort to evaluate the role of immunosuppressive agents on AIV pathogenesis and vaccine efficacy, the effect of prior infection with infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), a ubiquitous immunosuppressive virus of chickens, was evaluated...
March 2018: Avian Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620463/biosecurity-assessment-and-seroprevalence-of-respiratory-diseases-in-backyard-poultry-flocks-located-close-to-and-far-from-commercial-premises
#15
T Derksen, R Lampron, R Hauck, M Pitesky, R A Gallardo
Raising backyard chickens is an ever-growing hobby in the United States. These flocks can be a substrate for respiratory disease amplification and transmission to commercial facilities. Five hundred fifty-four chickens from 41 backyard flocks were sampled in this study. ELISA kits were used to detect antibodies against avian influenza (AI), infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT), Newcastle disease (ND), infectious bronchitis (IB), Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale (ORT), Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG), and Mycoplasma synoviae (MS)...
March 2018: Avian Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619922/westward-spread-of-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-a-h7n9-virus-among-humans-china
#16
Qiqi Yang, Wei Shi, Lei Zhang, Yi Xu, Jing Xu, Shen Li, Junjun Zhang, Kan Hu, Chaofeng Ma, Xiang Zhao, Xiyan Li, Feng Liu, Xin Tong, Guogang Zhang, Pengbo Yu, Oliver G Pybus, Huaiyu Tian
We report infection of humans with highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H7N9) virus in Shaanxi, China, in May 2017. We obtained complete genomes for samples from 5 patients and from live poultry markets or farms in 4 cities. Results indicate that H7N9 is spreading westward from southern and eastern China.
June 17, 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619666/effectiveness-of-different-avian-influenza-h5-vaccination-regimens-in-layer-chickens-on-the-humoral-immune-response-and-interferon-alpha-signalling-immune-marker
#17
Mustafa Hamad, Omar Amen, Mohamed Mahmoud, Ola Hassanin, Mostafa Saif-Edin
Avian influenza (AI) vaccines are widely used to control and eliminate the ongoing avian influenza virus epidemic in Egypt. A strict vaccination policy with inactivated AI vaccines has been widely applied, however the virus still circulating, evolving and causing great negative impact to the poultry sector in Egypt. Therefore, an updated poultry vaccination policy using different vaccine technologies might be valuable as an innovative additional control strategy of AIV in Egypt. In the present study, the effectiveness of different avian influenza (AI) vaccination schedules was evaluated in 300 commercial layer chicks (ISA White) using either the oil-emulsion baculovirus-H5-prototype vaccine (baculovirus-H5 prototype) or turkey herpesvirus (HVT) vector vaccine containing the hemagglutinin (HA) gene from H5N1 strain (rHVT-H5), applied alone or in combination and in different settings...
April 4, 2018: Veterinary Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618816/the-evolutionary-history-of-vertebrate-rna-viruses
#18
Mang Shi, Xian-Dan Lin, Xiao Chen, Jun-Hua Tian, Liang-Jun Chen, Kun Li, Wen Wang, John-Sebastian Eden, Jin-Jin Shen, Li Liu, Edward C Holmes, Yong-Zhen Zhang
Our understanding of the diversity and evolution of vertebrate RNA viruses is largely limited to those found in mammalian and avian hosts and associated with overt disease. Here, using a large-scale meta-transcriptomic approach, we discover 214 vertebrate-associated viruses in reptiles, amphibians, lungfish, ray-finned fish, cartilaginous fish and jawless fish. The newly discovered viruses appear in every family or genus of RNA virus associated with vertebrate infection, including those containing human pathogens such as influenza virus, the Arenaviridae and Filoviridae families, and have branching orders that broadly reflected the phylogenetic history of their hosts...
April 4, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618780/risk-factors-for-avian-influenza-h9-infection-of-chickens-in-live-bird-retail-stalls-of-lahore-district-pakistan-2009-2010
#19
Mamoona Chaudhry, Hamad B Rashid, Angélique Angot, Michael Thrusfield, Barend M deC Bronsvoort, Ilaria Capua, Giovanni Cattoli, Susan C Welburn, Mark C Eisler
This study was conducted to identify risk factors associated with AIV infections in live bird retail stalls (LBRS) in Lahore District, Pakistan. A cross-sectional survey of LBRS was conducted from December 2009-February 2010 using two-stage cluster sampling based on probability proportional to size. A total of 280 oropharyngeal swab sample pools were collected from 1400 birds in 8 clusters and tested by qRT-PCR for the matrix (M) gene of type A influenza virus and HA gene subtypes H9, H5 and H7. Thirty-four (34) samples were positive for the M gene, of which 28 were also positive for H9...
April 4, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617900/development-and-application-of-a-sybr-green-real-time-pcr-for-detection-of-the-emerging-avian-leukosis-virus-subgroup-k
#20
Jian Chen, Zijun Zhao, Yangyijun Chen, Jie Zhang, Lifu Yan, Xiaocui Zheng, Ming Liao, Weisheng Cao
Avian leukosis virus subgroup K (ALV-K) is an emerging ALV tumor virus of chickens. We developed a SYBR green-based real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for the rapid and economical detection of ALV-K in chicken flocks. The assay was specific for ALV-K and did not cross-react with other ALV subgroup or avian influenza virus, Newcastle disease virus, or Marek's Disease virus. The method was 100 times more sensitive than conventional PCR and 10 times more sensitive than the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the P27 antigen...
March 28, 2018: Poultry Science
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