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avian influenzae

Wei Cheng, Xiaoxiao Wang, Ye Shen, Zhao Yu, Shelan Liu, Jian Cai, Enfu Chen
BACKGROUND: The sudden increase of the number of human cases infected with avian influenza A(H7N9) virus after September, 2016 raised global concern. OBJECTIVES: To assess the changes of epidemiological characteristics of H7N9 cases since the massive closure of live poultry markets (LPMs)in the main urban areas in Zhejiang province. METHODS: We used descriptive statistics to compare epidemiological characteristics of the three distinct waves of H7N9 cases in Zhejiang province...
December 15, 2017: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Daniel Stadlbauer, Arvind Rajabhathor, Fatima Amanat, Daniel Kaplan, Abusaleh Masud, John J Treanor, Ruvim Izikson, Manon M Cox, Raffael Nachbagauer, Florian Krammer
Human influenza virus infections with avian subtype H7N9 viruses are a major public health concern and have encouraged the development of effective H7 prepandemic vaccines. In this study, baseline and postvaccination serum samples of individuals aged 18 years and older who received a recombinant H7 hemagglutinin vaccine with and without an oil-in-water emulsion (SE) adjuvant were analyzed using a panel of serological assays. While only a small proportion of individuals seroconverted to H7N9 as measured by the conventional hemagglutination inhibition assay, our data show strong induction of anti-H7 hemagglutinin antibodies as measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)...
November 2017: MSphere
Sisi Luo, Zhixun Xie, Zhiqin Xie, Liji Xie, Li Huang, Jiaoling Huang, Xianwen Deng, Tingting Zeng, Sheng Wang, Yanfang Zhang, Jiabo Liu
Infections with low pathogenic avian influenza viruses (LPAIVs) can be mild or asymptomatic in poultry; however, in humans, LPAIVs can cause severe infections and death, as demonstrated by the H7N9 and H10N8 human infection outbreaks in 2013 in China. In this study, we conducted an epidemiological survey of LPAIVs at live poultry markets (LPMs) in Guangxi Province, Southern China, which is near several Southeast Asian countries. From January 2012 to December 2015, we collected 3,813 swab samples from poultry at LPMs in Guangxi...
December 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
C Chauché, A Nogales, H Zhu, D Goldfarb, A I Ahmad Shanizza, Q Gu, C R Parrish, L Martínez-Sobrido, J F Marshall, P R Murcia
Influenza A viruses (IAVs) are common pathogens of birds that occasionally establish endemic infections in mammals. The processes and mechanisms that result in IAV mammalian adaptation are poorly understood. The viral non-structural 1 (NS1) protein counteracts the interferon (IFN) response, a central component of the host-species barrier.We characterised the NS1 proteins of equine influenza virus (EIV), a mammalian IAV lineage of avian origin. We showed that evolutionary distinct NS1s counteract the IFN response using different and mutually exclusive mechanisms: while the NS1s of early EIVs block general gene expression by binding to the cellular polyadenylation specific factor 30 (CPSF30), NS1s from more evolved EIVs specifically block the induction of IFN-stimulated genes by interfering with the JAK/STAT pathway...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Virology
Hannah L Turkington, Mindaugas Juozapaitis, Nikos Tsolakos, Eugenia Corrales-Aguilar, Martin Schwemmle, Benjamin G Hale
Recently, two influenza A virus (FLUAV) genomes were identified in Central and South American bats. These sequences exhibit notable divergence from classical FLUAV counterparts, and functionally, bat FLUAV glycoproteins lack canonical receptor binding and destroying activity. Nevertheless, other features that distinguish these viruses from classical FLUAVs have yet to be explored. Here, we studied the viral non-structural protein, NS1, a virulence factor that modulates host signaling to promote efficient propagation...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Virology
Sukhyun Ryu, Jun-Sik Lim, Benjamin J Cowling, Byung Chul Chun
An outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H5N6) virus occurred between November 20, 2016 and March 1, 2017 in poultry farms, in the Gyeonggi Province, Republic of Korea. To identify the risk of transmission of H5N6 to depopulation workers, active and passive surveillance was conducted. Virological testing of respiratory swabs with real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was performed for workers who reported respiratory symptoms. Among 4633 depopulation workers, 25 reported respiratory symptoms, but all tested negative for H5N6...
December 13, 2017: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Elena K Schneider, Jian Li, Tony Velkov
Pandemic influenza is a constant global threat to human health. In particular, the pandemic potential of novel avian influenza viruses such as the H10N7 and H10N8 avian strains, which recently managed to cross the species barrier from birds to humans, are always of great concern as we are unlikely to have any prior immunity. Human and avian isolates of H10 influenza display the ability to rapidly adapt to replication in mammalian hosts. Fortunately, so far there is no evidence of efficient human-to-human transmission of any avian influenza virus...
December 13, 2017: Vaccines
Khristine Kaith S Lloren, Taehyung Lee, Jin Jung Kwon, Min-Suk Song
In the last decade, a wide range of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) have infected various mammalian hosts and continuously threaten both human and animal health. It is a result of overcoming the inter-species barrier which is mostly associated with gene reassortment and accumulation of mutations in their gene segments. Several recent studies have shed insights into the phenotypic and genetic changes that are involved in the interspecies transmission of AIVs. These studies have a major focus on transmission from avian to mammalian species due to the high zoonotic potential of the viruses...
December 13, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
E S Giotis, C S Ross, R C Robey, A Nohturfft, S Goodbourn, M A Skinner
The spontaneously immortalised DF-1 cell line is rapidly replacing its progenitor primary chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEFs) for studies on avian viruses such as avian influenza but no comprehensive study has as yet been reported comparing their innate immunity phenotypes. We conducted microarray analyses of DF-1 and CEFs, under both normal and stimulated conditions using chicken interferon-α (chIFN-α) and the attenuated infectious bursal disease virus vaccine strain PBG98. We found that DF-1 have an attenuated innate response compared to CEFs...
December 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
Jin Xiao, Lei Zhang, Zhenbao Wang, Wangzhen Xiang, Ping Lu, Yingze Zhao, Min Han, Airong Ma, Peng Qi, Ming Wang, George F Gao, William J Liu
Avian influenza viruses (AIVs) such as H5N1 and H7N9 are a great threat to poultry economics and public health. Vaccination can effectively inhibit the spread of AIV in poultry, which is also a viable strategy for controlling virus transmission from poultry to human. Adjuvants that are commonly used in current inactivated vaccines to provide stronger anti-AIV immune responses are often limited in their capacity to quantitatively induce both humoral and cellular immune responses. Herein, we assessed the levels of immune responses generated by a vaccine formulation comprising inactivated H5N1 antigen and synthetic peptides covering conserved CD4+, CD8+ T cell, and B cell epitopes...
September 8, 2017: Science China. Life Sciences
Peipei Wu, Jihu Lu, Xuehua Zhang, Mei Mei, Lei Feng, Daxin Peng, Jibo Hou, Sang-Moo Kang, Xiufan Liu, Yinghua Tang
The H5 subtype highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus is one of the greatest threats to global poultry industry. To develop broadly protective H5 subunit vaccine, a recombinant consensus HA sequence (rHA) was constructed and expressed in virus-like particles (rHA VLPs) in the baculovirus-insect cell system. The efficacy of the rHA VLPs vaccine with or without immunopotentiator (CVCVA5) was assessed in chickens. Compared to the commercial Re6 or Re6-CVCVA5 vaccines, single dose immunization of chickens with rHA VLPs or rHA-CVCVA5 vaccines induced higher levels of serum hemagglutinin inhibition titers and neutralization titers, mucosal antibodies, IFN-γ and IL-4 cytokines in sera, and cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
P K Biswas, M Giasuddin, P Chowdhury, H Barua, N C Debnath, M Yamage
In the absence of robust active surveillance of avian influenza viruses (AIV) affecting poultry in South Asian countries, monitoring of live bird markets (LBMs) can be an alternative. In a longitudinal study of 32 LBM, five environments were sampled as follows: market floor, stall floor, slaughter area, poultry holding cage and water used for meat processing. Samples were taken monthly for 5 months, September 2013-January 2014. Incidence rates (IRs) of LBM contamination with AIV and its subtypes H5, H7 and H9 were assessed...
December 10, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Nacira Laamiri, Rim Aouini, Boutheina Marnissi, Abdeljelil Ghram, Issam Hmila
A one-step multiplex real-time reverse transcription-PCR (rRT-PCR) assay was developed for simultaneous detection and quantification of four avian respiratory viruses: avian influenza virus (AIV), infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), Newcastle disease virus (NDV) and infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV). In comparison with the singleplex rRT-PCR, the specificity, the sensitivity and the reproducibility of the new assay were evaluated and validated using 70 clinical samples. The optimal cutoff point, the corresponding limit of quantification (LoQ) and the limit of detection (LoD) were statistical established based on receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis...
December 7, 2017: Virology
David Welchman, Anna Brzozowska
This article has been prepared by David Welchman, veterinary lead of the Avian Expert Group, and Anna Brzozowska, surveillance data scientist, of the APHA's Surveillance Intelligence Unit.
December 2017: Veterinary Record
Marni E Cueno, Izuho Suzuki, Shiori Shimotomai, Takuma Yokoyama, Kai Nagahisa, Kenichi Imai
Avian influenza viruses easily spread allowing viral re-assortment to simply occur which in-turn increases the potential for a pandemic. A novel 2013 H5N6 influenza strain was detected among the avian population and was reported to continuously evolve, however, this was never structurally demonstrated. Here, we elucidated the putative structural evolution of the novel H5N6 influenza strain. Throughout this study, we analyzed 2013-2017 H5N6 HA protein models. Model quality was first verified before further analyses and structural comparison was made using superimposition...
November 28, 2017: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
Xuefeng Qi, Huizhu Zhang, Tianxia Xue, Bo Yang, Meiyu Deng, Jingyu Wang
The pathogenesis of H9N2 subtype avian influenza virus (AIV) infection in hens is often related to oviduct tissue damage. Our previous study suggested that H9N2 AIV induces cellular apoptosis by activating reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation and mitochondria-mediated apoptotic signalling in chicken oviduct epithelial cells (COECs). Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is an inducible enzyme that exerts protective effects against oxidative stress and activated HO-1 was recently shown to have antiviral activity. To study the potential involvement of HO-1 in H9N2 AIV proliferation, the role of its expression in H9N2-infected COECs was further investigated...
December 8, 2017: Journal of General Virology
Yongxia Guo, Qiang Zhang, Zonghui Zuo, Jun Chu, Hongzhi Xiao, M Tariq Javed, Cheng He
Protocatechuic acid (PCA) is an antiviral agent against Avian Influenza virus (AIV) and Infectious Bursal Disease (IBD) virus but its antiviral mechanism is unknown. In this study, we evaluated the humoral and cellular responses to PCA in specific pathogen-free (SPF) chickens. One hundred forty 35-day-old SPF chickens were randomly divided into 7 groups. The birds were inoculated with the commercial, attenuated Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) vaccine and then received orally with 10, 20 or 40 mg/kg body weight of PCA for 21 days...
December 4, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
Cong Chen, Liguo Liu, Yan Xiao, Sheng Cui, Jianmin Wang, Qi Jin
Since its first emergence in East China in early 2013, many cases of avian influenza A H7N9 have been reported. The disease has extended to 22 provinces in mainland China and some surrounding areas. Strategies to combat viral infection are urgently needed. We previously isolated a human monoclonal antibody, HNIgGA6, that neutralized H7N9 virus both in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we determined the crystal structure of viral hemagglutinin (HA) globular head bound to the Fab fragment of HNIgGA6. The crystal structure shows that the tip of the HNIgGA6 heavy-chain complementarity determining region 3 (HCDR3) directly interposes into the receptor binding site (RBS) and mimics, in many respects, the interaction of the sialic acid receptor...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Virology
Gongxun Zhong, Mai Quynh Le, Tiago J S Lopes, Peter Halfmann, Masato Hatta, Shufang Fan, Gabriele Neumann, Yoshihiro Kawaoka
To study the influenza viral determinants of pathogenicity, we characterized two highly pathogenic avian H5N1 influenza viruses isolated in Vietnam in 2012 (A/duck/Vietnam/QT1480/2012; QT1480) and 2013 (A/duck/Vietnam/QT1728/2013; QT1728) and found that the activity of their polymerase complexes differed significantly, even though both viruses were highly pathogenic in mice. Further studies revealed that the PA-S343A/E347D mutations reduced viral polymerase activity and mouse virulence when tested in the genetic background of QT1728 virus...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Virology
Amy Pinsent, Kim M Pepin, Huachen Zhu, Yi Guan, Michael T White, Steven Riley
Multiple subtypes of avian influenza (AI) and novel reassortants are frequently isolated from live bird markets (LBMs). However, our understanding of the drivers of persistence of multiple AI subtypes is limited. We propose a stochastic model of AI transmission within an LBM that incorporates market size, turnover rate and the balance of direct versus environmental transmissibility. We investigate the relationship between these factors and the critical community size (CCS) for the persistence of single and multiple AI strains within an LBM...
December 6, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
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