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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050439/pathogenicity-and-immunosuppressive-potential-of-fowl-adenovirus-in-specific-pathogen-free-chickens
#1
Yujuan Niu, Qinqin Sun, Guihua Zhang, Wei Sun, Xingpo Liu, Yihong Xiao, Yingli Shang, Sidang Liu
To elucidate the effect of fowl adenovirus (FAdV)-C in specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chickens, we investigated the pathogenicity, body weights, enzymatic systems, and immune organs of chickens in response to Newcastle disease virus (NDV) and avian influenza virus subtype H9 (AIV-H9) vaccination. Chickens were divided randomly into four groups, which included injection groups (FAdV-C, vaccination, and FAdV-C plus vaccination) and a negative control group. The results indicated that FAdV-C was highly pathogenic in SPF chickens and led to a 40% mortality rate and growth retardation, compared with the control birds...
September 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047426/airborne-transmission-of-highly-pathogenic-influenza-virus-during-processing-of-infected-poultry
#2
Kateri Bertran, Charles Balzli, Yong-Kuk Kwon, Terrence M Tumpey, Andrew Clark, David E Swayne
Exposure to infected poultry is a suspected cause of avian influenza (H5N1) virus infections in humans. We detected infectious droplets and aerosols during laboratory-simulated processing of asymptomatic chickens infected with human- (clades 1 and 2.2.1) and avian- (clades 1.1, 2.2, and 2.1) origin H5N1 viruses. We detected fewer airborne infectious particles in simulated processing of infected ducks. Influenza virus-naive chickens and ferrets exposed to the air space in which virus-infected chickens were processed became infected and died, suggesting that the slaughter of infected chickens is an efficient source of airborne virus that can infect birds and mammals...
November 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046464/screening-for-neuraminidase-inhibitor-resistance-markers-among-avian-influenza-viruses-of-the-n4-n5-n6-and-n8-neuraminidase-subtypes
#3
Won-Suk Choi, Ju Hwan Jeong, Jin Jung Kwon, Su Jeong Ahn, Khristine Kaith S Lloren, Hyeok-Il Kwon, Hee Bok Chae, Jungwon Hwang, Myung Hee Kim, Chul-Joong Kim, Richard J Webby, Elena A Govorkova, Young Ki Choi, Yun Hee Baek, Min-Suk Song
Several subtypes of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) are emerging as novel human pathogens, and the frequency of related infections has increased in recent years. Although neuraminidase (NA) inhibitors (NAIs) are the only class of antiviral drugs available for therapeutic intervention for AIV-infected patients, studies on NAI resistance among AIVs have been limited and markers of resistance are poorly understood. Previously, we identified unique NAI-resistance substitutions in AIVs of N3, N7, and N9 NA subtypes...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044197/development-of-a-multiplex-probe-combination-based-one-step-real-time-reverse-transcription-pcr-for-na-subtype-typing-of-avian-influenza-virus
#4
Zhihao Sun, Tao Qin, Feifei Meng, Sujuan Chen, Daxin Peng, Xiufan Liu
Nine influenza virus neuraminidase (NA) subtypes have been identified in poultry and wild birds. Few methods are available for rapid and simple NA subtyping. Here we developed a multiplex probe combination-based one-step real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (rRT-PCR) to detect nine avian influenza virus NA subtypes. Nine primer-probe pairs were assigned to three groups based on the different fluorescent dyes of the probes (FAM, HEX, or Texas Red). Each probe detected only one NA subtype, without cross reactivity...
October 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042201/newcastle-disease-virus-ndv-recombinant-expressing-the-hemagglutinin-of-h7n9-avian-influenza-virus-protects-chickens-against-ndv-and-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-a-h7n9-virus-challenges
#5
Zenglei Hu, Xiaowen Liu, Xinan Jiao, Xiufan Liu
The emerged highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H7N9) (HPAI) viruses in China pose a dual challenge to public health and poultry industry. Thus H7N9 vaccines are in an urgent need. In this study, we constructed a Newcastle disease virus (NDV)-vectored vaccine (rLXHAF) expressing the hemagglutinin (HA) of H7N9 virus fused with the transmembrane/cytoplasmic tail domain of the NDV fusion protein. rLXHAF stably expressed the HA protein, exhibited similar growth kinetics and pathogenicity as the parental virus...
October 14, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039335/anti-avian-influenza-virus-h9n2-activity-of-aqueous-extracts-of-zingiber-officinalis-ginger-and-allium-sativum-garlic-in-chick-embryos
#6
Amir Rasool, Muti-Ur-Rehman Khan, Muhammad Asad Ali, Aftab Ahmad Anjum, Ishtiaq Ahmed, Asim Aslam, Ghulam Mustafa, Saima Masood, Muhammad Amjad Ali, Muhammad Nawaz
In the present study, anti-Avian influenza virus H9N2 activity of aqueous extracts (5, 10, 15, 20, 25%) of Zingiber officinalis and Allium sativum was evaluated. Embryo-toxicity was evaluated by histopathological scoring of Chorio-allantoic membrane of chick embryos. Cytotoxicity of extracts was determined by MTT assay on Vero cells. Aqueous extract of ginger had antiviral activity at 10, 15, 20 and 25% while garlic had activity at 15, 20 and 25%. Histopathological scoring of chorio-allantoic membrane for aqueous extracts (5, 10, 15, 20, 25%) of ginger (0...
July 2017: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035344/a-phase-intensity-surface-plasmon-resonance-biosensor-for-avian-influenza-a-h5n1-detection
#7
Chi Lok Wong, Marissa Chua, Heather Mittman, Li Xian Choo, Hann Qian Lim, Malini Olivo
In this paper, we present a phase-intensity surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor and demonstrate its use for avian influenza A (H5N1) antibody biomarker detection. The sensor probes the intensity variation produced by the steep phase response at surface plasmon excitation. The prism sensor head is fixed between a pair of polarizers with a perpendicular orientation angle and a forbidden transmission path. At SPR, a steep phase change is introduced between the p- and s-polarized light, and this rotates the polarization ellipse of the transmission beam...
October 16, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035328/pterodontic-acid-isolated-from-laggera-pterodonta-inhibits-viral-replication-and-inflammation-induced-by-influenza-a-virus
#8
Wenda Guan, Jing Li, Qiaolian Chen, Zhihong Jiang, Rongping Zhang, Xinhua Wang, Zifeng Yang, Xiping Pan
Laggera pterodonta (DC.) Benth. is a traditional Chinese medicine. The previous study revealed that the crude extracts of this herb could inhibit influenza virus infection, but its anti-influenza components and underlying mechanism of action remain unknown. Column chromatography was performed to isolate components from the plant. Activity against influenza virus of the compound was determined by CPE inhibition assay. Neuraminidase (NA) inhibition was measured by chemiluminescence assay. The anti-virus and anti-inflammation effects were determined using dual-luciferase reporter assay, immunofluorescence, quantitative real-time PCR and luminex assay...
October 16, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034617/isolation-and-characterization-of-avian-influenza-viruses-from-raw-poultry-products-illegally-imported-to-japan-by-international-flight-passengers
#9
A Shibata, T Hiono, H Fukuhara, R Sumiyoshi, A Ohkawara, K Matsuno, M Okamatsu, H Osaka, Y Sakoda
The transportation of poultry and related products for international trade contributes to transboundary pathogen spread and disease outbreaks worldwide. To prevent pathogen incursion through poultry products, many countries have regulations about animal health and poultry product quarantine. However, in Japan, animal products have been illegally introduced into the country in baggage and confiscated at the airport. Lately, the number of illegally imported poultry and the incursion risk of transboundary pathogens through poultry products have been increasing...
October 16, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034326/bacterial-lipopolysaccharide-destabilizes-influenza-viruses
#10
Christopher Bandoro, Jonathan A Runstadler
Depending on the specific viral pathogen, commensal bacteria can promote or reduce the severity of viral infection and disease progression in their hosts. Influenza A virus (IAV) has a broad host range, comprises many subtypes, and utilizes different routes of transmission, including the fecal-oral route in wild birds. It has been previously demonstrated that commensal bacteria can interact with the host's immune system to protect against IAV pathogenesis. However, it is unclear whether bacteria and their products may be interacting directly with IAV to impact virion stability...
September 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031164/productive-replication-of-avian-influenza-viruses-in-chicken-endothelial-cells-is-determined-by-hemagglutinin-cleavability-and-is-related-to-innate-immune-escape
#11
Adrien Lion, Mathilde Richard, Evelyne Esnault, Emmanuel Kut, Denis Soubieux, Vanaïque Guillory, Mélody Germond, Caroline Blondeau, Rodrigo Guabiraba, Kirsty R Short, Daniel Marc, Pascale Quéré, Sascha Trapp
Endotheliotropism is a hallmark of gallinaceous poultry infections with highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses and a feature that distinguishes HPAI from low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) viruses. Here, we used chicken aortic endothelial cells (chAEC) as a novel in vitro infection model to assess the susceptibility, permissiveness, and host response of chicken endothelial cells (EC) to infections with avian influenza (AI) viruses. Our data show that productive replication of AI viruses in chAEC is critically determined by hemagglutinin cleavability, and is thus an exclusive trait of HPAI viruses...
October 11, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028432/coadministration-of-recombinant-adenovirus-expressing-gm-csf-with-inactivated-h5n1-avian-influenza-vaccine-increased-the-immune-responses-and-protective-efficacy-against-a-wild-bird-source-of-h5n1-challenge
#12
Xiangwei Wang, Xinglong Wang, Yanqing Jia, Chongyang Wang, Qiuxia Tang, Qingsong Han, Sa Xiao, Zengqi Yang
Wild birds play a key role in the spread of avian influenza virus (AIV). There is a continual urgent requirement for AIV vaccines to address the ongoing genetic changes of AIV. In the current study, we trialed a novel AIV vaccine against the wild bird source of H5N1 type AIV with recombinant adenovirus expressing granulocyte monocyte colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) as an adjuvant. A total of 150-day-old commercial chicks, with AIV-maternal-derived antibody, were divided into 6 groups. The primary vaccination was performed at day 14 followed by a subsequent boosting and intramuscular challenge on day 28 and 42, respectively...
October 2017: Journal of Interferon & Cytokine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027604/prevalence-of-avian-influenza-h9n2-in-commercial-quail-partridge-and-turkey-farms-in-iran-2014-2015
#13
Mohammad Hosein Fallah Mehrabadi, Alireza Bahonar, Kamran Mirzaei, Aidin Molouki, Arash Ghalyanchilangeroudi, Seyed Ali Ghafouri, Farshad Tehrani, Swee Hua Erin Lim
Avian influenza virus (AIV) H9N2 subtype is endemic in Iran and causes substantial economic loss to the growing poultry industry within the country. In this study, a cross-sectional analysis was carried out to determine the sero-prevalence of H9N2 in several commercial farms between the years 2014 and 2015. The comparison of the mean of serum titers and the ratio of sero-positive birds between all units were analyzed using one-way ANOVA test. In 2014, a total of 77 farms (58 turkey farms, 14 quail farms, and 5 partridge farms) and 894 birds (682 turkeys, 154 quails, and 58 partridges) were sampled while in 2015, a total of 69 farms (54 turkey farms, 8 quail farms, and 7 partridge farms) and 856 birds (675 turkeys, 105 quails, and 76 partridges) were sampled...
October 13, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024492/experimental-infection-of-clade-1-1-2-h5n1-clade-2-3-2-1c-h5n1-and-clade-2-3-4-4-h5n6-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-viruses-in-dogs
#14
K S Lyoo, W Na, L V Phan, S W Yoon, M Yeom, D Song, D G Jeong
Since the emergence of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 in Asia, the haemagglutinin (HA) gene of this virus lineage has continued to evolve in avian populations, and H5N1 lineage viruses now circulate concurrently worldwide. Dogs may act as an intermediate host, increasing the potential for zoonotic transmission of influenza viruses. Virus transmission and pathologic changes in HPAI clade 1.1.2 (H5N1)-, 2.3.2.1c (H5N1)- and 2.3.4.4 (H5N6)-infected dogs were investigated. Mild respiratory signs and antibody response were shown in dogs intranasally infected with the viruses...
October 11, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023947/genetic-characterization-of-an-avian-h4n6-influenza-virus-isolated-from-the-izumi-plain-japan
#15
Kosuke Okuya, Norihiro Kanazawa, Takehiro Kanda, Masakazu Kuwahara, Aya Matsuu, Masayuki Horie, Tatsunori Masatani, Shigehisa Toda, Makoto Ozawa
An influenza A virus of H4N6 subtype was isolated from the Izumi plain, Japan, in 2013. Genetic analyses revealed that two viral genes (M and NS gene segments) of this isolate were genetically distinct from those of the H4N6 virus isolated from the same place in 2012. Furthermore, three viral genes (PB2, PB1, and M gene segments) of our isolate share high similarity with those of the North American isolates of 2014. These results suggest a high frequency of the genetic reassortment of avian influenza viruses in Asian waterfowl and intercontinental movements of avian influenza viruses via migratory waterfowl...
October 12, 2017: Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023601/adenovirus-vector-based-multi-epitope-vaccine-provides-partial-protection-against-h5-h7-and-h9-avian-influenza-viruses
#16
Ahmed O Hassan, Omar Amen, Ekramy E Sayedahmed, Sai V Vemula, Samuel Amoah, Ian York, Shivaprakash Gangappa, Suryaprakash Sambhara, Suresh K Mittal
The emergence of H5, H7, and H9 avian influenza virus subtypes in humans reveals their pandemic potential. Although human-to-human transmission has been limited, the genetic reassortment of the avian and human/porcine influenza viruses or mutations in some of the genes resulting in virus replication in the upper respiratory tract of humans could generate novel pandemic influenza viruses. Current vaccines do not provide cross protection against antigenically distinct strains of the H5, H7, and H9 influenza viruses...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020187/outbreak-of-influenza-a-h7n2-among-cats-in-an-animal-shelter-with-cat-to-human-transmission-new-york-city-2016
#17
Christopher T Lee, Sally Slavinski, Corinne Schiff, Mario Merlino, Demetre Daskalakis, Dakai Liu, Jennifer L Rakeman, Mark Misener, Corinne Thompson, Yin Ling Leung, Jay K Varma, Alicia Fry, Fiona Havers, Todd Davis, Sandra Newbury, Marcelle Layton
We describe the first case of cat-to-human transmission of influenza A(H7N2), an avian-lineage influenza A virus, that occurred during an outbreak among cats in New York City animal shelters. We describe the public health response and investigation.
July 28, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020163/influenza-a-h5n1-virus-infection-in-a-child-with-encephalitis-complicated-by-obstructive-hydrocephalus
#18
Gannon Chun Kit Mak, Mike Yat-Wah Kwan, Chris Ka Pun Mok, Janice Yee Chi Lo, Malik Peiris, Chi Wai Leung
A two-year-old boy with highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A(H5N1) virus infection with minimal respiratory symptoms developed encephalitis complicated by obstructive hydrocephalus. Viral RNA was detectable in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The virus belonged to H5N1 clade 2.3.2.1b and had acquired a mammalian adaptation mutation PB2 Q591K.
August 7, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018438/antibody-immunity-induced-by-h7n9-avian-influenza-vaccines-evaluation-criteria-affecting-factors-and-implications-for-rational-vaccine-design
#19
Zenglei Hu, Xinan Jiao, Xiufan Liu
Severe H7N9 avian influenza virus (AIV) infections in humans have public health authorities around the world on high alert for the potential development of a human influenza pandemic. Currently, the newly-emerged highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H7N9) virus poses a dual challenge for public health and poultry industry. Numerous H7N9 vaccine candidates have been generated using various platforms. Immunization trials in animals and humans showed that H7N9 vaccines are apparently poorly immunogenic because they induced low hemagglutination inhibition and virus neutralizing antibody titers...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018431/depression-of-vaccinal-immunity-to-marek-s-disease-by-infection-with-chicken-infectious-anemia-virus
#20
Yankun Zhang, Ning Cui, Ni Han, Jiayan Wu, Zhizhong Cui, Shuai Su
Marek's disease (MD) has been occurring with increasing frequency in chickens in recent years. To our knowledge, however, there has been no report of the very virulent plus (vv+) MD virus (MDV) field isolate in China. Studies have shown that dual infection with immunosuppressive viruses such as chicken infectious anemia virus (CIAV) occurs frequently in chickens developing MD. In this study, we performed a designed set of in vivo experiments, which comprised five different groups of chickens, including the group of CVI988/Rispens-vaccinated chickens, the groups of CVI988/Rispens-vaccinated chickens infected with MDV or CIAV or both viruses (MDV and CIAV), and the group of MDV-challenged chickens...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
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