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avian influenzae

Yongkun Chen, Tian Bai, Wenfei Zhu, Rongbao Gao, Zhihong Deng, Yi Shi, Shumei Zou, Yiwei Huang, Xiyan Li, Fangcai Li, Zhaomin Feng, Tao Chen, Jing Yang, Dayan Wang, Lidong Gao, Yuelong Shu
Human influenza viruses preferentially bind to sialic acid-α2,6-galactose (SAα2,6Gal) receptors, which are predominant in human upper respiratory epithelia, whereas avian influenza viruses preferentially bind to SAα2,3Gal receptors. However, variants with amino acid substitutions around the receptor-binding sites of the hemagglutinin (HA) protein can be selected after several passages of human influenza viruses from patients' respiratory samples in the allantoic cavities of embryonated chicken eggs. In this study, we detected an egg-adapted HA S190R mutation in the pandemic H1N1 virus 2009 (pdmH1N1), and evaluated the effects of this mutation on receptor binding affinity and pathogenicity in mice...
February 10, 2018: Science China. Life Sciences
Anne Dittrich, David Scheibner, Ahmed H Salaheldin, Jutta Veits, Marcel Gischke, Thomas C Mettenleiter, Elsayed M Abdelwhab
Wild birds are the reservoir for low-pathogenic avian influenza viruses, which are frequently transmitted to domestic birds and occasionally to mammals. In 2014, an H10N7 virus caused severe mortality in harbor seals in northeastern Europe. Although the hemagglutinin (HA) of this virus was closely related to H10 of avian H10N4 virus, it possessed unique nonsynonymous mutations, particularly in the HA1 subunit in or adjacent to the receptor binding domain and proteolytic cleavage site. Here, the impact of these mutations on virus replication was studied in vitro...
February 14, 2018: Viruses
Dan Xiang, Xuejuan Shen, Zhiqing Pu, David M Irwin, Ming Liao, Yongyi Shen
Background: Avian influenza A virus (AIV) H7N9 has caused five epidemic waves of human infections in China since 2013. AIVs may face strong selection to adapt to novel conditions when establishing themselves in humans. In this study, we sought to determine whether adaptive evolution had occurred in human-isolated H7N9 viruses. Methods: We evaluated all available genomes of H7N9 AIVs. Maximum likelihood trees were separately reconstructed for all eight genes. Signals of positive selection and convergent evolution were then detected on branches that lead to changes in host tropism (from avian to human)...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Pengxiang Chang, Yongxiu Yao, Na Tang, Jean-Remy Sadeyen, Joshua Sealy, Anabel Clements, Sushant Bhat, Muhammad Munir, Juliet E Bryant, Munir Iqbal
Duck-targeted vaccines to protect against avian influenza are critically needed to aid in influenza disease control efforts in regions where ducks are endemic for highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI). Duck enteritis virus (DEV) is a promising candidate viral vector for development of vaccines targeting ducks, owing to its large genome and narrow host range. The clustered regularly interspaced palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9 system is a versatile gene-editing tool that has proven beneficial for gene modification and construction of recombinant DNA viral vectored vaccines...
February 13, 2018: Viruses
Sorawot Sonthipet, Sakchai Ruenphet, Kazuaki Takehara
An acidic agent, potassium monopersulfate (PMPS), was evaluated for bactericidal and virucidal effects against Salmonella Infantis (SI), Escherichia coli, rifampicin-resistant Salmonella Infantis (SI-rif), Newcastle disease virus (NDV), and avian influenza virus (AIV), in the absence or presence of organic materials. In addition, inactivation activity toward a virus on virus-spiked clothes was also examined. PMPS could inactivate SI, E. coli, and SI-rif even in the presence of organic materials under various concentrations and exposure/contact time conditions...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
Mai-Juan Ma, Cheng Liu, Meng-Na Wu, Teng Zhao, Guo-Lin Wang, Yang Yang, Hong-Jing Gu, Peng-Wei Cui, Yuan-Yuan Pang, Ya-Yun Tan, Hui Hang, Bao Lin, Jiang-Chun Qin, Li-Qun Fang, Wu-Chun Cao, Li-Ling Cheng
Avian influenza A(H7N9) virus has caused 5 epidemic waves in China since its emergence in 2013. We investigated the dynamic changes of antibody response to this virus over 1 year postinfection in 25 patients in Suzhou City, Jiangsu Province, China, who had laboratory-confirmed infections during the fifth epidemic wave, Oct 1, 2016-February 14, 2017. Most survivors had relatively robust antibody responses that decreased but remained detectable at 1 year. Antibody response was variable; several survivors had low or undetectable antibody titers...
April 17, 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Pauline Terebuh, Akini Adija, Lindsay Edwards, Thomas Rowe, Suzanne Jenkins, Jennifer Kleene, Keiji Fukuda, Jacqueline M Katz, Carolyn B Bridges
BACKGROUND: In March 2002, an outbreak of low-pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) A(H7N2) was detected among commercial poultry operations in Virginia. METHODS: We performed a serosurvey of 80 government workers involved in efforts to control the outbreak. RESULTS: One study participant who assisted with disposal of infected birds tested positive for neutralizing antibodies to influenza A(H7N2) by microneutralization assay and H7-specific IgM antibodies by ELISA...
February 11, 2018: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Enguang Rong, Jiaxiang Hu, Chenghuai Yang, Hualan Chen, Zeng Wang, Xiaojuan Liu, Wenjie Liu, Chang Lu, Penghua He, Xiaoxue Wang, Xiaoyun Chen, Jinhua Liu, Ning Li, Yinhua Huang
Mammalian interferon-induced proteins with tetratricopeptide repeats (IFITs) play important roles in many cellular processes and host innate immune response to viruses. However, the functions of IFIT proteins in birds are largely unknown. Here, we first describe that the only one avian IFIT protein is orthologous to ancestor of mammalian IFITs. We find that the predicted structure of duck AvIFIT protein is similar to that of human IFIT5. We also find that duck AvIFIT protein shows antiviral activity to a broad range of specific RNA and DNA viruses like mammalian IFIT proteins...
February 8, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Jose L Gonzales, Guus Koch, Armin R W Elbers, Jeanet A van der Goot
The transmissibility of the H7N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV), which caused a large epidemic in commercial poultry in Italy in 1999-2000, was studied in chickens and compared with that of the low pathogenic precursor virus (LPAIV). Group transmission experiments using the HPAIV were executed to estimate the infectious period (IP), the transmission parameter (β) and the basic reproduction number (R0). These estimates were then compared with those reported for the LPAIV. The estimated β and R0 were similar for both viruses, whilst the IP of the LPAIV was longer than that of the HPAIV...
February 2018: Veterinary Journal
Soon-Hwan Kwon, Sujin Lee, Jeyoun Jang, Yujin Seo, Hee-Young Lim
In order to diagnose the infectious disease from clinical samples, the various protocols such as culturing microorganism, rapid diagnostic test using chromatographic method, ELISA, conventional PCR are developed. Since a novel strain of avian influenza can be cross-infected human as well as birds and livestock due to genetic reassortment, some strains of influenza such as H7N9 and H5N1 have emerged as a severe virus which can be threaten the health of poultry as well as human. Therefore we explored the development of simultaneously and rapid diagnostic tool for seasonal influenza (A/H1N1, A/H3N2, B) and highly pathogenic avian influenza (A/H5N1, A/H7N9)...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
Emma Youngs, John Tasker, Philip Hammond
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 3, 2018: Veterinary Record
Ramesh Prasad Pandey, Dae Hee Kim, Jinsuk Woo, Jaeyoung Song, Sang Ho Jang, Joon Bae Kim, Kwang Myun Cheong, Jin Sik Oh, Jae Kyung Sohng
Two sialylated human milk oligosaccharides (SHMOs) 3'-sialyllactose (3'-SL) and 6'-sialyllactose (6'-SL) were accessed for their possible antiviral activity against six different subtypes of thirteen avian influenza (AI) viruses in vitro. 3'-SL exhibited promising antiviral activity against almost all subtypes of tested AI viruses in hemagglutination inhibition assay, whereas 6'-SL showed activity against few selected H1N1, H1N2, and H3N2 subtype strains. 3'-SL has minimum inhibitory concentration values of 15...
February 7, 2018: Scientific Reports
Damarys Relova, Liliam Rios, Ana M Acevedo, Liani Coronado, Carmen L Perera, Lester J Pérez
The current global conditions, which include intensive globalization, climate changes, and viral evolution among other factors, have led to an increased emergence of viruses and new viral diseases; RNA viruses are key drivers of this evolution. Laboratory networks that are linked to central reference laboratories are required to conduct both active and passive environmental surveillance of this complicated global viral environment. These tasks require a continuous exchange of strains or field samples between different diagnostic laboratories...
February 6, 2018: Veterinary Sciences
Jiafa Liu, Junqiang Xu, Linlin Liu, Xiaoman Wei, Yi Song, Bin Fang, Xiao Yu, Xiang Li, Guojun Ye, Yingying Du, Mingyue Chen, Weifeng Shi, Di Liu, Edward C Holmes, Jie Cui
There have been five waves of H7N9 avian influenza virus (AIV) infection in humans since its initial emergence in China in 2013, posing a significant threat to public health. Hubei province was free local transmission during the first four waves of H7N9 AIV. However, multiple cases of human H7N9 infection were reported in Hubei during January 2017. To understand the molecular epidemiology that underlies this sudden emergence, we collected samples from 14 human cases of H7N9 influenza virus from Hubei province, along with environmental samples from different locations in Hubei...
February 6, 2018: Scientific Reports
Liping Ma, Tao Jin, Hanzhong Wang, Haizhou Liu, Runkun Wang, Yong Li, Guoxiang Yang, Yanping Xiong, Jing Chen, Jun Zhang, Guang Chen, Wei Li, Di Liu, Peng Lin, Yueying Huang, George F Gao, Quanjiao Chen
Since 2016, the highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N8 virus has emerged in the Central Asian flyway and Europe, causing massive deaths in poultry and wild birds. In this study, we isolated and identified three H5N8 viruses from swan goose and black swans in Hubei province during the 2016/2017 winter season. Whole-genome sequencing and phylogenetic analysis revealed that the three viruses clustered into a group of H5N8 viruses from Qinghai Lake and Europe. A novel reassortment virus from swan goose was distinguished from that of black swans, in that its PA and NP genes were distinct from those of Qinghai Lake viruses...
February 7, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Kaijian Luo, Kai Zhang, Lu Liu, Xuejuan Shen, Peirong Jiao, Yafen Song, Jiamin Lv, Mei Wang, Yongfa Liu, Wenbao Qi, Tao Ren, David M Irwin, Ming Liao, Yongyi Shen
The H5N6 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs) have circulated within poultry in China since 2013. Infections of H5N6 in wild birds were reported since 2014. In order to investigate the infection history of H5N6 in wild birds, we conducted a retrospective analysis of H5 positive wild bird samples collected in 2013, the year H5N6 was discovered in poultry. We isolated a new HPAI H5N6 virus from a dead heron collected in 2013. The virus had high identity in all eight gene sequences to those collected from poultry in 2013 (for example, A/chicken/Shenzhen/1845/2013, 99...
January 30, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Anu S Helin, Michelle Wille, Clara Atterby, Josef D Järhult, Jonas Waldenström, Joanne R Chapman
The vertebrate innate immune system provides hosts with a rapid, non-specific response to a wide range of invading pathogens. However, the speed and duration of innate responses will be influenced by the co-evolutionary dynamics of specific host-pathogen combinations. Here, we show that low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAI) subtype H1N1 elicits a strong but extremely transient innate immune response in its main wildlife reservoir, the mallard (Anas platyrhynchos). Using a series of experimental and methodological improvements over previous studies, we followed the expression of retinoic acid inducible gene 1 (RIG-I) and myxovirus resistance gene (Mx) in mallards semi-naturally infected with low pathogenic H1N1...
February 2, 2018: Molecular Immunology
Hien Dang Thanh, Van Trung Tran, Duc Tan Nguyen, Vu-Khac Hung, Wonyong Kim
Avian influenza A H5N6 virus is a highly contagious infectious agent that affects domestic poultry and humans in South Asian countries. Vietnam may be an evolutionary hotspot for influenza viruses and therefore could serve as a source of pandemic strains. In 2015, two novel reassortant H5N6 influenza viruses designated as A/quail/Vietnam/CVVI01/2015 and A/quail/Vietnam/CVVI03/2015 were isolated from dead quails during avian influenza outbreaks in central Vietnam, and the whole genome sequences were analyzed...
February 2018: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
Yue Teng, Dehua Bi, Xiaocan Guo, Dingwen Hu, Dan Feng, Yigang Tong
An early steep increase in the number of humans infected with avian influenza A(H7N9) virus was observed in China, raising great public concern domestically and internationally. Little is known about the dynamics of the transmission contacts between poultry and human populations, although such understanding is essential for developing effective strategies to control this zoonosis. In this study, we evaluated the effects of contact reductions from live poultry markets (LPMs) closures on the transmission of H7N9 virus during epidemics in Guangdong Province, China...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Infection
Petrus Malo Bulu, Ian D Robertson, Maria Geong
In early 2004 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus caused major outbreaks of disease in poultry in Indonesia. The disease was first reported in West Timor in eastern Indonesia in the same year, resulting in the death of approximately one hundred chickens from both commercial and backyard farms; however no evidence of disease has subsequently been reported in West Timor since 2007. A targeted survey was undertaken in 2013 in 2 districts of West Timor. Three hundred village and commercial poultry (292 chickens and 8 Muscovy ducks) from 10 villages and 5 live bird markets (LBMs) were sampled between August and October 2013...
February 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
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