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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346537/deep-mutational-scanning-identifies-sites-in-influenza-nucleoprotein-that-affect-viral-inhibition-by-mxa
#1
Orr Ashenberg, Jai Padmakumar, Michael B Doud, Jesse D Bloom
The innate-immune restriction factor MxA inhibits influenza replication by targeting the viral nucleoprotein (NP). Human influenza virus is more resistant than avian influenza virus to inhibition by human MxA, and prior work has compared human and avian viral strains to identify amino-acid differences in NP that affect sensitivity to MxA. However, this strategy is limited to identifying sites in NP where mutations that affect MxA sensitivity have fixed during the small number of documented zoonotic transmissions of influenza to humans...
March 27, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344402/preparation-of-mucosal-nanoparticles-and-polymer-based-inactivated-vaccine-for-newcastle-disease-and-h9n2-ai-viruses
#2
Heba M El Naggar, Mohamed Sayed Madkour, Hussein Ali Hussein
AIM: To develop a mucosal inactivated vaccines for Newcastle disease (ND) and H9N2 viruses to protect against these viruses at sites of infections through mucosal immunity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, we prepared two new formulations for mucosal bivalent inactivated vaccine formulations for Newcastle and Avian Influenza (H9N2) based on the use of nanoparticles and polymer adjuvants. The prepared vaccines were delivered via intranasal and spray routes of administration in specific pathogen-free chickens...
February 2017: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341742/ph-regulation-in-early-endosomes-and-interferon-inducible-transmembrane-proteins-control-avian-retrovirus-fusion
#3
Tanay M Desai, Mariana Marin, Caleb Mason, Gregory B Melikyan
Enveloped viruses infect host cells by fusing their membranes with those of the host cell, a process mediated by viral glycoproteins upon binding to cognate host receptors or entering into acidic intracellular compartments. Whereas the effect of receptor density on viral infection has been well studied, the role of cell type-specific factors/processes, such as pH regulation, has not been characterized in sufficient detail. Here, we examined the effects of cell-extrinsic factors (buffer environment) and cell-intrinsic factors (interferon-inducible transmembrane proteins, IFITMs), on the pH regulation in early endosomes and on the efficiency of acid-dependent fusion of the Avian Sarcoma and Leukosis Virus, ASLV, with endosomes...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337492/flock-based-surveillance-for-low-pathogenic-avian-influenza-virus-in-commercial-breeders-and-layers-southwest-nigeria
#4
Daniel Oladimeji Oluwayelu, Ayoyimika Omolanwa, Adebowale Idris Adebiyi, Oluladun Comfort Aiki-Raji
BACKGROUND: Flock surveillance systems for avian influenza (AI) virus play a critical role in countries where vaccination is not practiced so as to establish the epidemiological characteristics of AI needed for the development of prevention and control strategies in such countries. MATERIALS AND METHODS: As part of routine AI monitoring in southwest Nigeria, a competitive ELISA was used for detecting influenza A virus antibodies in the sera of 461 commercial breeder and layer birds obtained from different flocks in Oyo State, Nigeria while haemagglutination inhibiting antibodies against low pathogenic AI viruses (LPAIVs) were detected using H5N2, H7N7 and H9N2 subtype-specific antigens...
2017: African Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336367/new-real-time-and-conventional-rt-pcrs-for-updated-molecular-diagnosis-of-infectious-bronchitis-virus-infection-ibv-in-chickens-in-egypt-associated-with-frequent-co-infections-with-avian-influenza-and-newcastle-disease-viruses
#5
Mahmoud M Naguib, Magdy F El-Kady, Dörte Lüschow, Kareem E Hassan, Abdel-Satar Arafa, Ali El-Zanaty, Mohamed K Hassan, Hafez M Hafez, Christian Grund, Timm C Harder
In Egypt, currently two geographically restricted genotypes of the infectious bronchitis coronavirus (IBV) are circulating with detrimental effects for poultry industry. A sensitive real-time RT-PCR assay targeting the IBV nucleocapsid gene (N) was developed to screen clinical samples for presence of IBV. Conventional RT-PCRs amplifying hypervariable regions (HVRs 1-2 and 3) of the IBV S1 gene were developed and amplificates used for nucleotide sequence-based typing of IBV field strains in Egyptian chickens directly from clinical samples...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Virological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333986/building-the-road-to-a-regional-zoonoses-strategy-a-survey-of-zoonoses-programmes-in-the-americas
#6
Melody J Maxwell, Mary H Freire de Carvalho, Armando E Hoet, Marco A N Vigilato, Julio C Pompei, Ottorino Cosivi, Victor J Del Rio Vilas
BACKGROUND: In recent years, global public health security has been threatened by zoonotic disease emergence as exemplified by outbreaks of H5N1 and H1N1 influenza, SARS, and most recently Ebola and Zika. Additionally, endemic zoonoses, such as rabies, burden countries year after year, placing demands on limited finances and personnel. To survey the baseline status of the emerging and endemic zoonoses programmes of the Latin American and the Caribbean (LAC) countries, the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) conducted a survey of priority emerging and endemic zoonoses, countries´ prioritization criteria and methodologies, and suggestions to strengthen countries capacities and regional approaches to zoonoses control...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332646/the-role-of-animal-reservoirs-in-social-environmental-landscapes-remarks-on-the-control-of-avian-influenza-and-preparedness-for-pandemics
#7
M P Ortiz-Rodríguez, G C Ramírez-Nieto, L C Villamil-Jiménez
Influenza viruses are well known for their ability to infect and cause disease in a broad range of hosts. Modern advances in reverse genetics have enabled scientists to probe the mutations that allow influenza viruses to perform host switching. Despite this detailed understanding of the molecular modifications that allow host switching and adaptation, there is a gap in knowledge regarding the factors external to the virus and their interactions that act as triggers leading to a pandemic. Studies on the ecology of zoonotic pathogens should be the new paradigm for understanding not only influenza viruses but any other infectious disease that can be a threat to animal and human health...
December 2016: Revue Scientifique et Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332645/epidemiological-role-of-birds-in-the-transmission-and-maintenance-of-zoonoses
#8
A Contreras, A Gómez-Martín, A Paterna, J Tatay-Dualde, M Prats-Van Der Ham, J C Corrales, C De La Fe, A Sánchez
The risk of zoonoses spreading from birds to humans is lower, quantitatively speaking, than the risk of transmission between other host groups, because the two taxonomic groups share fewer pathogens. Nevertheless, birds have a number of epidemiological characteristics that make them extremely important hosts in the transmission and maintenance of zoonoses, including their susceptibility to pathogens that are extremely hazardous to humans (such as highly pathogenic avian influenza virus, West Nile virus and Chlamydia psittaci) and their ability to travel long distances, especially in the case of migratory birds...
December 2016: Revue Scientifique et Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332599/erratum-characterization-of-the-pathogenesis-of-h10n3-h10n7-and-h10n8-subtype-avian-influenza-viruses-circulating-in-ducks
#9
Miaomiao Zhang, Xingxing Zhang, Kaidi Xu, Qiaoyang Teng, Qinfang Liu, Xuesong Li, Jianmei Yang, Jianqing Xu, Hongjun Chen, Xiaoyan Zhang, Zejun Li
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331080/evaluation-of-the-immune-responses-to-and-cross-protective-efficacy-of-eurasian-h7-avian-influenza-viruses
#10
Hyeok-Il Kwon, Young-Il Kim, Su-Jin Park, Min-Suk Song, Eun-Ha Kim, Se Mi Kim, Young-Jae Si, In-Won Lee, Byung-Min Song, Youn-Jeong Lee, Seok Joong Yun, Wun-Jae Kim, Young Ki Choi
Due to increasing concerns of human infection by various H7 viruses, including recent H7N9 viruses, we evaluated the genetic relationships and the cross-protective efficacies of three different Eurasian H7 avian influenza viruses. Phylogenic and molecular analysis revealed that recent Eurasian H7 viruses can be separated into two different lineages with relatively high amino acid identity within groups (94.8 to 98.8%), and low amino acid identity (90.3 to 92.6 %) between the groups. In vivo immunization with representatives of each group revealed that while group-specific cross-reactivity was induced, cross-reactive HI titers were approximately fourfold lower against heterologous group viruses compared to homologous group viruses...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327168/identification-of-two-novel-reassortant-avian-influenza-a-h5n6-viruses-in-whooper-swans-in-korea-2016
#11
Jipseol Jeong, Chanjin Woo, Hon S Ip, Injung An, Youngsik Kim, Kwanghee Lee, Seong-Deok Jo, Kidong Son, Saemi Lee, Jae-Ku Oem, Seung-Jun Wang, Yongkwan Kim, Jeonghwa Shin, Jonathan Sleeman, Weonhwa Jheong
BACKGROUND: On November 20, 2016 two novel strains of H5N6 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIVs) were isolated from three whooper swans (Cygnus cygnus) at Gangjin Bay in South Jeolla province, South Korea. Identification of HPAIVs in wild birds is significant as there is a potential risk of transmission of these viruses to poultry and humans. RESULTS: Phylogenetic analysis revealed that Gangjin H5N6 viruses classified into Asian H5 clade 2.3.4.4 lineage and were distinguishable from H5N8 and H5N1 HPAIVs previously isolated in Korea...
March 21, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325922/variability-in-h9n2-haemagglutinin-receptor-binding-preference-and-the-ph-of-fusion
#12
Thomas P Peacock, Donald J Benton, Jean-Remy Sadeyen, Pengxiang Chang, Joshua E Sealy, Juliet E Bryant, Stephen R Martin, Holly Shelton, John W McCauley, Wendy S Barclay, Munir Iqbal
H9N2 avian influenza viruses are primarily a disease of poultry; however, they occasionally infect humans and are considered a potential pandemic threat. Little work has been performed to assess the intrinsic biochemical properties related to zoonotic potential of H9N2 viruses. The objective of this study, therefore, was to investigate H9N2 haemagglutinins (HAs) using two well-known correlates for human adaption: receptor-binding avidity and pH of fusion. Receptor binding was characterized using bio-layer interferometry to measure virus binding to human and avian-like receptor analogues and the pH of fusion was assayed by syncytium formation in virus-infected cells at different pHs...
March 22, 2017: Emerging Microbes & Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325769/analysis-of-anti-influenza-virus-neuraminidase-antibodies-in-children-adults-and-the-elderly-by-elisa-and-enzyme-inhibition-evidence-for-original-antigenic-sin
#13
Madhusudan Rajendran, Raffael Nachbagauer, Megan E Ermler, Paul Bunduc, Fatima Amanat, Ruvim Izikson, Manon Cox, Peter Palese, Maryna Eichelberger, Florian Krammer
Antibody responses to influenza virus hemagglutinin provide protection against infection and are well studied. Less is known about the human antibody responses to the second surface glycoprotein, neuraminidase. Here, we assessed human antibody reactivity to a panel of N1, N2, and influenza B virus neuraminidases in different age groups, including children, adults, and the elderly. Using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA), we determined the breadth, magnitude, and isotype distribution of neuraminidase antibody responses to historic, current, and avian strains, as well as to recent isolates to which these individuals have not been exposed...
March 21, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325494/modelling-h5n1-in-bangladesh-across-spatial-scales-model-complexity-and-zoonotic-transmission-risk
#14
Edward M Hill, Thomas House, Madhur S Dhingra, Wantanee Kalpravidh, Subhash Morzaria, Muzaffar G Osmani, Mat Yamage, Xiangming Xiao, Marius Gilbert, Michael J Tildesley
Highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 remains a persistent public health threat, capable of causing infection in humans with a high mortality rate while simultaneously negatively impacting the livestock industry. A central question is to determine regions that are likely sources of newly emerging influenza strains with pandemic causing potential. A suitable candidate is Bangladesh, being one of the most densely populated countries in the world and having an intensifying farming system. It is therefore vital to establish the key factors, specific to Bangladesh, that enable both continued transmission within poultry and spillover across the human-animal interface...
February 21, 2017: Epidemics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323816/an-ns-segment-exonic-splicing-enhancer-regulates-influenza-a-virus-replication-in-mammalian-cells
#15
Xiaofeng Huang, Min Zheng, Pui Wang, Bobo Wing-Yee Mok, Siwen Liu, Siu-Ying Lau, Pin Chen, Yen-Chin Liu, Honglian Liu, Yixin Chen, Wenjun Song, Kwok-Yung Yuen, Honglin Chen
Influenza virus utilizes host splicing machinery to process viral mRNAs expressed from both M and NS segments. Through genetic analysis and functional characterization, we here show that the NS segment of H7N9 virus contains a unique G540A substitution, located within a previously undefined exonic splicing enhancer (ESE) motif present in the NEP mRNA of influenza A viruses. G540A supports virus replication in mammalian cells while retaining replication ability in avian cells. Host splicing regulator, SF2, interacts with this ESE to regulate splicing of NEP/NS1 mRNA and G540A substitution affects SF2-ESE interaction...
March 21, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323565/surveillance-for-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-in-wild-turkeys-meleagris-gallopavo-of-minnesota-during-2015-outbreaks-in-domestic-poultry
#16
Christopher S Jennelle, Michelle Carstensen, Erik C Hildebrand, Paul C Wolf, Daniel A Grear, Hon S Ip, Louis Cornicelli
An outbreak of a novel reassortant of highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H5N2) virus (HPAIV) decimated domestic turkeys ( Meleagris gallopavo ) from March through mid-June, 2015 in the state of Minnesota, USA. In response, as part of broader surveillance efforts in wild birds, we designed a pilot effort to sample and test hunter-harvested Wild Turkeys ( Meleagris gallopavo ) for HPAIV in Minnesota counties with known infected poultry facilities. We also collected opportunistic samples from dead Wild Turkeys or live Wild Turkeys showing neurologic signs (morbidity and mortality samples) reported by the public or state agency personnel...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323563/isolation-of-an-h5n8-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-virus-strain-from-wild-birds-in-seoul-a-highly-urbanized-area-in-south-korea
#17
Jung-Hoon Kwon, Dong-Hun Lee, Jei-Hyun Jeong, Seong-Su Yuk, Tseren-Ochir Erdene-Ochir, Jin-Yong Noh, Woo-Tack Hong, Sol Jeong, Gyeong-Bin Gwon, Sang-Won Lee, In-Soo Choi, Chang-Seon Song
Asian-lineage H5 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIV) have caused recurrent outbreaks in poultry and wild birds. In January 2014, H5N8 HPAIV caused outbreaks in South Korea and subsequently spread to East Asia, Europe, and North America. We report the isolation of an H5N8 HPAIV strain from wild birds in Seoul, the most-developed city in South Korea. We analyzed the complete genome sequence of this isolate and estimated its origin using a phylogenetic analysis. The Seoul H5N8 isolate clustered phylogenetically with strains isolated from migratory wild birds but was distinct from Korean poultry isolates...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323070/urbanization-and-the-dynamics-of-rna-viruses-in-mallards-anas-platyrhynchos
#18
Michelle Wille, Kristine Lindqvist, Shaman Muradrasoli, Björn Olsen, Josef D Järhult
Urbanization is intensifying worldwide, and affects the epidemiology of infectious diseases. However, the effect of urbanization on natural host-pathogen systems remains poorly understood. Urban ducks occupy an interesting niche in that they directly interact with both humans and wild migratory birds, and either directly or indirectly with food production birds. Here we have collected samples from Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) residing in a pond in central Uppsala, Sweden, from January 2013 to January 2014...
March 18, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322698/reassortment-of%C3%A2-influenza-a-viruses%C3%A2-in-wild-birds-in-alaska%C3%A2-before-h5-clade-2-3-4-4-outbreaks
#19
Nichola J Hill, Islam T M Hussein, Kimberly R Davis, Eric J Ma, Timothy J Spivey, Andrew M Ramey, Wendy Blay Puryear, Suman R Das, Rebecca A Halpin, Xudong Lin, Nadia B Fedorova, David L Suarez, Walter M Boyce, Jonathan A Runstadler
Sampling of mallards in Alaska during September 2014-April 2015 identified low pathogenic avian influenza A virus (subtypes H5N2 and H1N1) that shared ancestry with highly pathogenic reassortant H5N2 and H5N1 viruses. Molecular dating indicated reassortment soon after interhemispheric movement of H5N8 clade 2.3.4.4, suggesting genetic exchange in Alaska or surrounds before outbreaks.
April 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322695/characterization-of-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-virus-a-h5n6-japan-november-2016
#20
Masatoshi Okamatsu, Makoto Ozawa, Kosuke Soda, Hiroki Takakuwa, Atsushi Haga, Takahiro Hiono, Aya Matsuu, Yuko Uchida, Ritsuko Iwata, Keita Matsuno, Masakazu Kuwahara, Toshiyo Yabuta, Tatsufumi Usui, Hiroshi Ito, Manabu Onuma, Yoshihiro Sakoda, Takehiko Saito, Koichi Otsuki, Toshihiro Ito, Hiroshi Kida
Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs) A(H5N6) were concurrently introduced into several distant regions of Japan in November 2016. These viruses were classified into the genetic clade 2.3.4.4c and were genetically closely related to H5N6 HPAIVs recently isolated in South Korea and China. In addition, these HPAIVs showed further antigenic drift.
April 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
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