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bedside clinical assessment of cognitive functions

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817216/functional-neuroimaging-after-severe-anoxic-brain-injury-in-children-may-reveal-preserved-yet-covert-cognitive-function
#1
Adrian M Owen
A growing body of evidence has confirmed that, after severe brain injury in adults, motoric and task-dependent factors that are essential for reliable communication, frequently interfere with an accurate assessment of cognitive status. In the current study, resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in children who have sustained an anoxic brain injury following a near drowning incident suggests a similar pattern; preserved cognition amidst severe motoric impairment that effectively precludes accurate clinical diagnosis at the bedside...
August 17, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748058/electroconvulsive-therapy-hasn-t-negative-effects-on-short-term-memory-function-as-assessed-using-a-bedside-hand-held-device
#2
Helge H O Müller, Mareen Reike, Simon Grosse-Holz, Mareike Röther, Caroline Lücke, Alexandra Philipsen, Johannes Kornhuber, Teja W Grömer
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is effective in the treatment of treatment-resistant major depression. The fear of cognitive impairment after ECT often deters patients from choosing this treatment option. There is little reliable information regarding the effects of ECT on overall cognitive performance, while short-term memory deficits are well known but not easy to measure within clinical routines. In this pilot study, we examined ECT recipients' pre- and post-treatment performances on a digital ascending number tapping test...
March 22, 2017: Mental Illness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681742/the-effect-of-sensory-level-electrical-stimulation-of-the-masseter-muscle-in-early-stroke-patients-with-dysphagia-a-randomized-controlled-study
#3
Ebru K Umay, Atilay Yaylaci, Guleser Saylam, Ibrahim Gundogdu, Eda Gurcay, Dehen Akcapinar, Zeynep Kirac
BACKGROUND: Dysphagia is a serious cause of morbidity and mortality in stroke patients. AIMS: As the first study in literature, we aimed to evaluate the effects of sensory-level electrical stimulation (SES) to bilateral masseter muscles in early stroke patients with dysphagia. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: This study was conducted at the Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinic of our hospital between 2013 and 2015. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ninety-eight patients with dysphagia within the first month after ischemic stroke were included in this study...
July 2017: Neurology India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528347/discriminative-accuracy-of-physician-and-nurse-predictions-for-survival-and-functional-outcomes-6-months-after-an-icu-admission
#4
Michael E Detsky, Michael O Harhay, Dominique F Bayard, Aaron M Delman, Anna E Buehler, Saida A Kent, Isabella V Ciuffetelli, Elizabeth Cooney, Nicole B Gabler, Sarah J Ratcliffe, Mark E Mikkelsen, Scott D Halpern
Importance: Predictions of long-term survival and functional outcomes influence decision making for critically ill patients, yet little is known regarding their accuracy. Objective: To determine the discriminative accuracy of intensive care unit (ICU) physicians and nurses in predicting 6-month patient mortality and morbidity, including ambulation, toileting, and cognition. Design, Setting, and Participants: Prospective cohort study conducted in 5 ICUs in 3 hospitals in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and enrolling patients who spent at least 3 days in the ICU from October 2013 until May 2014 and required mechanical ventilation, vasopressors, or both...
June 6, 2017: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053184/current-status-of-electroconvulsive-therapy-for-mood-disorders-a-clinical-review
#5
Dusan Kolar
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is an effective treatment for mood disorders and a viable treatment option especially when urgency of clinical situation requires a prompt treatment response. After acute series of ECT, the ECT long-term treatment may be considered, although this practice may vary significantly between countries or even within the same country, because there is no universal consensus about its indications, duration and frequency of administration. Continuation or maintenance ECT is common in routine clinical practice and clinicians should be aware of the risks of using ECT long term...
February 2017: Evidence-based Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27429218/distinct-subtypes-of-behavioral-variant-frontotemporal-dementia-based-on-patterns-of-network-degeneration
#6
Kamalini G Ranasinghe, Katherine P Rankin, Peter S Pressman, David C Perry, Iryna V Lobach, William W Seeley, Giovanni Coppola, Anna M Karydas, Lea T Grinberg, Tal Shany-Ur, Suzee E Lee, Gil D Rabinovici, Howard J Rosen, Maria Luisa Gorno-Tempini, Adam L Boxer, Zachary A Miller, Winston Chiong, Mary DeMay, Joel H Kramer, Katherine L Possin, Virginia E Sturm, Brianne M Bettcher, Michael Neylan, Diana D Zackey, Lauren A Nguyen, Robin Ketelle, Nikolas Block, Teresa Q Wu, Alison Dallich, Natanya Russek, Alyssa Caplan, Daniel H Geschwind, Keith A Vossel, Bruce L Miller
IMPORTANCE: Clearer delineation of the phenotypic heterogeneity within behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) will help uncover underlying biological mechanisms and improve clinicians' ability to predict disease course and to design targeted management strategies. OBJECTIVE: To identify subtypes of bvFTD syndrome based on distinctive patterns of atrophy defined by selective vulnerability of specific functional networks targeted in bvFTD using statistical classification approaches...
September 1, 2016: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27422169/somatosensory-attention-identifies-both-overt-and-covert-awareness-in-disorders-of-consciousness
#7
Raechelle M Gibson, Srivas Chennu, Davinia Fernández-Espejo, Lorina Naci, Adrian M Owen, Damian Cruse
OBJECTIVE: Some patients diagnosed with disorders of consciousness retain sensory and cognitive abilities beyond those apparent from their overt behavior. Characterizing these covert abilities is crucial for diagnosis, prognosis, and medical ethics. This multimodal study investigates the relationship between electroencephalographic evidence for perceptual/cognitive preservation and both overt and covert markers of awareness. METHODS: Fourteen patients with severe brain injuries were evaluated with an electroencephalographic vibrotactile attention task designed to identify a hierarchy of residual somatosensory and cognitive abilities: (1) somatosensory steady-state evoked responses, (2) bottom-up attention orienting (P3a event-related potential), and (3) top-down attention (P3b event-related potential)...
September 2016: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26960261/the-interlocking-finger-test-in-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease-and-healthy-subjects
#8
Carolina Pinto Souza, Guiomar Nascimento Oliveira, Maria Paula Foss, Vitor Tumas
The interlocking finger test (ILFT) is a bedside screening test in which the subject must imitate four bimanual finger gestures without symbolic meaning. We assessed the utility of the test in the cognitive evaluation of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). We evaluated 88 healthy subjects and 101 patients with PD using a simplified motor score of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS), Hoehn and Yahr and Schwab and England scales, Geriatric Depression Scale, Pfeffer Functional Activities Questionnaire, Clinical Dementia Rating, Mini-Mental State Examination, clock drawing test, digit span, word list battery of the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease assessment, Frontal Assessment Battery, semantic verbal fluency test, and the ILFT...
July 2016: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26452540/xenon-for-the-prevention-of-postoperative-delirium-in-cardiac-surgery-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-clinical-trial
#9
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Layth Al Tmimi, Marc Van de Velde, Paul Herijgers, Bart Meyns, Geert Meyfroidt, Koen Milisen, Steffen Fieuws, Mark Coburn, Koen Poesen, Steffen Rex
BACKGROUND: Postoperative delirium (POD) is a manifestation of acute postoperative brain dysfunction that is frequently observed after cardiac surgery. POD is associated with short-term complications such as an increase in mortality, morbidity, costs and length of stay, but can also have long-term sequelae, including persistent cognitive deficits, loss of independence, and increased mortality for up to 2 years. The noble gas xenon has been demonstrated in various models of neuronal injury to exhibit remarkable neuroprotective properties...
October 9, 2015: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26283685/the-cognitive-profile-of-als-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-update
#10
REVIEW
Emma Beeldman, Joost Raaphorst, Michelle Klein Twennaar, Marianne de Visser, Ben A Schmand, Rob J de Haan
Cognitive impairment is present in approximately 30% of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and, especially when severe, has a negative impact on survival and caregiver burden. Our 2010 meta-analysis of the cognitive profile of ALS showed impairment of fluency, executive function, language and memory. However, the limited number of studies resulted in large confidence intervals. To obtain a more valid assessment, we updated the meta-analysis and included methodological improvements (controlled data extraction, risk of bias analysis and effect size calculation of individual neuropsychological tests)...
June 2016: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26183666/dysphagia-in-huntington-s-disease-correlation-with-clinical-features
#11
Marina de Tommaso, Angela Nuzzi, Anna Rita Dellomonaco, Vittorio Sciruicchio, Claudia Serpino, Claudia Cormio, Giovanni Franco, Marisa Megna
Huntington's disease (HD) is an inherited neurodegenerative disorder characterised by motor impairment, cognitive decline and psychiatric disorders. Dysphagia is a pathologic condition that increases morbidity and mortality of the affected people. Our aim was to evaluate dysphagia in a group of HD patients in view of motor, cognitive and functional decline. Thirty-seven genetically confirmed HD patients were submitted to clinical evaluations of swallowing. Bedside Swallowing Assessment Scale (BSAS) was used...
2015: European Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26115732/neuroanatomical-foundations-of-naming-impairments-across-different-neurologic-conditions
#12
REVIEW
Ezequiel Gleichgerrcht, Julius Fridriksson, Leonardo Bonilha
The ability to name objects or abstract entities is an essential feature of speech and language, being commonly considered a central component of normal neurologic function. For this reason, the bedside testing of naming performance is part of the neurologic examination, especially since naming impairments can signify the early onset of a progressive disease or the occurrence of a more established problem. Modern neuroscience research suggests that naming relies on specific and distributed networks that operate in concert to support various processing stages, spanning from object recognition to spoken words...
July 21, 2015: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25664465/greater-than-the-sum-of-its-parts-%C3%AE-improves-upon-a-battery-s-diagnostic-performance
#13
Donald R Royall, Teruyuki Matsuoka, Raymond F Palmer, Yuka Kato, Shogo Taniguchi, Mayu Ogawa, Hiroshi Fujimoto, Aiko Okamura, Keisuke Shibata, Kaeko Nakamura, Shutaro Nakaaki, Hiroyuki Koumi, Masaru Mimura, Kenji Fukui, Jin Narumoto
OBJECTIVE: "δ", a latent variable constructed from batteries that contain both cognitive and functional status measures, can accurately diagnose dementia relative to expert clinicians. The minimal assessment needed is unknown. METHODS: We validated 2 δ homologs in a convenience sample of elderly Japanese persons with normal cognition (NC), mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and dementia (n = 176). The latent δ homolog "d" (for dementia) was constructed from Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL) and Japanese translations of the Executive Clock-Drawing Task (CLOX), Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB), and Executive Interview (EXIT25)...
September 2015: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25528280/saido-learning-as-a-cognitive-intervention-for-dementia-care-a-preliminary-study
#14
Ryuta Kawashima, Deborah Lewis Hiller, Sheryl L Sereda, Michelle Antonczak, Kara Serger, Denise Gannon, Shinji Ito, Hiroshi Otake, Daisaku Yunomae, Akihito Kobayashi, Christopher Muller, Hiroyuki Murata, Stephanie FallCreek
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to examine the beneficial effects on cognitive function by a cognitive intervention program designed for dementia care called Learning Therapy in Japan and SAIDO Learning in the United States (hereinafter "SAIDO Learning," as appropriate). SAIDO Learning is a working memory training program that uses systematized basic problems in arithmetic and language, including reading aloud, as well as writing. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, AND INTERVENTION: Twenty-three nursing home residents with dementia were assigned as an intervention group, and another 24 people with dementia at another nursing home were assigned as a control group...
January 2015: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25291105/a-better-screening-tool-for-hiv-associated-neurocognitive-disorders-is-it-what-clinicians-need
#15
Marie-J Brouillette, Nancy Mayo, Lesley K Fellows, Elena Lebedeva, Johanne Higgins, Edgar T Overton, Beau M Ances, Lisa Koski
OBJECTIVE: Existing screening tools for HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorders (HAND) may lack the accuracy required for clinical use. We hypothesized that the diagnostic accuracy of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) as a screening tool for HAND might be improved with a stronger scoring methodology. DESIGN: Two hundred HIV-positive participants aged 18-65 years completed the MoCA and a battery of neuropsychological tests. METHODS: HAND diagnosis was established according to the Frascati criteria, and an NPZ-8 score was also calculated...
May 15, 2015: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25270034/preservation-of-electroencephalographic-organization-in-patients-with-impaired-consciousness-and-imaging-based-evidence-of-command-following
#16
Peter B Forgacs, Mary M Conte, Esteban A Fridman, Henning U Voss, Jonathan D Victor, Nicholas D Schiff
OBJECTIVE: Standard clinical characterization of patients with disorders of consciousness (DOC) relies on observation of motor output and may therefore lead to the misdiagnosis of vegetative state or minimally conscious state in patients with preserved cognition. We used conventional electroencephalographic (EEG) measures to assess a cohort of DOC patients with and without functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)-based evidence of command-following, and correlated the findings with standard clinical behavioral evaluation and brain metabolic activity...
December 2014: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24971913/frontal-eeg-delta-alpha-ratio-and-screening-for-post-stroke-cognitive-deficits-the-power-of-four-electrodes
#17
Emma Schleiger, Nabeel Sheikh, Tennille Rowland, Andrew Wong, Stephen Read, Simon Finnigan
This study analysed correlations between post-stroke, quantitative electroencephalographic (QEEG) indices, and cognition-specific, functional outcome measures. Results were compared between QEEG indices calculated from the standard 19 versus 4 frontal (or 4 posterior) electrodes to assess the feasibility and efficacy of employing a reduced electrode montage. Resting-state EEG was recorded at the bedside within 62-101 h after onset of symptoms of middle cerebral artery, ischaemic stroke (confirmed radiologically)...
October 2014: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24858119/clinical-usefulness-of-indoor-life-space-assessment-in-community-dwelling-older-adults-certified-as-needing-support-or-care
#18
Takeshi Ohnuma, Hiroyuki Hashidate, Tatsuki Yoshimatsu, Tsutomu Abe
PURPOSE: This study aimed to develop a questionnaire to evaluate indoor life-space mobility and assess its validity in community-dwelling older adults certified as needing support or care. METHODS: The participants included 37 community-dwelling older adults undergoing home-visit rehabilitation (mean age: 78.5±7.0 years). We developed a questionnaire to assess the degree of indoor life-space mobility (home-based life-space assessment (Hb-LSA)), evaluating the functional status (life-space assessment (LSA), time spent away from bed, functional independence measure (FIM), bedside mobility scale (BMS)), physical function (hand grip power (HGP), 30-second chair stand (CS-30), one-leg standing (OLS)) and cognitive status (mental status questionnaire (MSQ))...
2014: Nihon Ronen Igakkai Zasshi. Japanese Journal of Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24691747/clinical-assessment-of-psychological-adaptive-mechanisms-in-medical-settings
#19
Thomas P Beresford
The psychological adaptive mechanism (PAM) model for systematic clinical assessment can be applied in any human setting in which individuals adapt to the conditions of their lives. This report focuses on applying the PAM assessment technique to the stress and anxiety of physical illness. To do so, we must consider maturity of PAMs simultaneously in relation to the cognitive functioning of the brain as assessed either in the office or at bedside. After considering case examples to illustrate this application, the discussion proceeds to include larger patient groups to which clinical PAM assessment might be applied, with special reference to cognitive function...
May 2014: Journal of Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24603944/ultrasound-subclinical-markers-in-assessing-vascular-changes-in-cognitive-decline-and-dementia
#20
REVIEW
Vida Demarin, Sandra Morovic
Aging is often associated with some cognitive impairment. Greater population life expectancy is one explanation for increased incidence of cognitive impairment cases. Large numbers of people with cognitive impairment and dementia is becoming one of the most important medical and social problems worldwide. Therefore, prevention of cognitive impairment is an imperative. Dementia includes a heterogeneous group of disorders, the most common being Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia. Most cardiovascular risk factors, such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia, atrial fibrillation, and smoking, are not exclusively risk factors for vascular dementia, but also for Alzheimer's disease...
2014: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
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