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Disaster Management

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079147/flood-dynamics-in-urbanised-landscapes-100-years-of-climate-and-humans-interaction
#1
G Sofia, G Roder, G Dalla Fontana, P Tarolli
Raising interest in the interaction between humans and climate drivers to understand the past and current development of floods in urbanised landscapes is of great importance. This study presents a regional screening of land-use, rainfall regime and flood dynamics in north-eastern Italy, covering the timeframe 1900-2010. This analysis suggests that, statistically, both climate and land-use have been contributing to a significant increase of the contribution of short duration floods to the increase in the number of flooded locations...
January 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070252/study-of-functional-vulnerability-status-of-tehran-hospitals-in-dealing-with-natural-disasters
#2
Batol Ahmadi, Abbas Rahimi Foroushani, Narjes Tanha, Amjad Mohamadi Bolban Abad, Heshmatollah Asadi
INTRODUCTION: At the time of disasters, hospitals are considered as one of the most important facilities which should provide emergency services continuously. The purpose of this study was to determine the functional vulnerability of Tehran hospitals in dealing with natural disasters. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted in educational hospitals of Tehran University of Medical Science (TUMS), in 2013. Of all 26 hospitals, 12 hospitals were selected through single-stage cluster sampling, including six general (Shariati, Amiralam, Sina, Imam, Hazrat Rasoul, Baharlou) and six specialized (Bahrami, Hazrat-e Aliasghar, Shahid rajaie, Roozbeh, Moheb yas, Children Medical Center) hospitals...
November 2016: Electronic Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065174/challenges-of-hospital-response-to-the-twin-earthquakes-of-august-21-2012-in-east-azerbaijan-iran
#3
Mahboub Pouraghaei, Ali Jannati, Peyman Moharamzadeh, Amir Ghaffarzad, Moharram Heshmati Far, Javad Babaie
OBJECTIVE: As the cornerstone of any health system, hospitals have a crucial role in response to disasters. Because hospital experiences in disaster response can be instructive, this study examined the challenges of hospital response to the twin earthquakes of 2012 in East Azerbaijan, Iran. METHODS: In this qualitative study, the challenges of hospital response in the East Azerbaijan earthquakes were examined through focus group discussions. Participants were selected purposefully, and focus group discussions continued until data saturation...
January 9, 2017: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061835/a-comparative-assessment-of-major-international-disasters-the-need-for-exposure-assessment-systematic-emergency-preparedness-and-lifetime-health-care
#4
Roberto G Lucchini, Dana Hashim, Sushma Acquilla, Angela Basanets, Pier Alberto Bertazzi, Andrey Bushmanov, Michael Crane, Denise J Harrison, William Holden, Philip J Landrigan, Benjamin J Luft, Paolo Mocarelli, Nailya Mazitova, James Melius, Jacqueline M Moline, Koji Mori, David Prezant, Joan Reibman, Dori B Reissman, Alexander Stazharau, Ken Takahashi, Iris G Udasin, Andrew C Todd
BACKGROUND: The disasters at Seveso, Three Mile Island, Bhopal, Chernobyl, the World Trade Center (WTC) and Fukushima had historic health and economic sequelae for large populations of workers, responders and community members. METHODS: Comparative data from these events were collected to derive indications for future preparedness. Information from the primary sources and a literature review addressed: i) exposure assessment; ii) exposed populations; iii) health surveillance; iv) follow-up and research outputs; v) observed physical and mental health effects; vi) treatment and benefits; and vii) outreach activities...
January 7, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059586/resource-document-coordination-of-pediatric-emergency-care-in-ems-systems
#5
Katherine Remick, Toni Gross, Kathleen Adelgais, Manish I Shah, Julie C Leonard, Marianne Gausche-Hill
BACKGROUND: Citing numerous pediatric-specific deficiencies within Emergency Medical Services (EMS) systems, the Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommended that EMS systems appoint a pediatric emergency care coordinator (PECC) to provide oversight of EMS activities related to care of children, to promote the integration of pediatric elements into day-to-day services as well as local and/or regional disaster planning, and to promote pediatric education across all levels of EMS providers. METHODS: A systematic review of the literature was undertaken to describe the evidence for pediatric coordination across the emergency care continuum...
January 6, 2017: Prehospital Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059447/the-crisis-map-of-the-czech-republic-the-nationwide-deployment-of-an-ushahidi-application-for-disasters
#6
Jiří Pánek, Lukáš Marek, Vít Pászto, Jaroslav Valůch
Crisis mapping is a legitimate component of both crisis informatics and disaster risk management. It has become an effective tool for humanitarian workers, especially after the earthquake in Haiti in 2010. Ushahidi is among the many mapping platforms on offer in the growing field of crisis mapping, and involves the application of crowdsourcing to create online and interactive maps of areas in turmoil. This paper presents the Crisis Map of the Czech Republic, which is the first such instrument to be deployed nationwide in Central Europe...
January 6, 2017: Disasters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055311/immunotoxicity-of-mercury-pathological-and-toxicological-effects
#7
Faheem Maqbool, Kamal Niaz, Fatima Ismail Hassan, Fazlullah Khan, Mohammad Abdollahi
Mercury (Hg) is toxic and hazardous metal that causes natural disasters in the earth's crust. Exposure to Hg occurs via various routes; like oral (fish), inhalation, dental amalgams, and skin from cosmetics. In this review, we have discussed the sources of Hg and its potential for causing toxicity in humans. In addition, it's bio-chemical cycling in the environment; its systemic, immunotoxic, genotoxic/carcinogenic and teratogenic health effects; and the dietary influences; as well as the important considerations in risk assessment and management of Hg poisoning have been discussed in detail...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part C, Environmental Carcinogenesis & Ecotoxicology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034667/adjunctive-hyperbaric-oxygen-therapy-in-severe-burns-experience-in-taiwan-formosa-water-park-dust-explosion-disaster
#8
I-Han Chiang, Shyi-Gen Chen, Kun-Lun Huang, Yu-Ching Chou, Niann-Tzyy Dai, Chung-Kan Peng
BACKGROUND: Despite major advances in therapeutic strategies for the management of patients with severe burns, significant morbidity and mortality is observed. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) increases the supply of oxygen to burn areas. The aim of this study was to determine whether HBOT is effective in the treatment of major thermal burns. METHODS: On June 27, 2015 in New Taipei, Taiwan, a mass casualty disaster occurred as fire erupted over a large crowd, injuring 499 people...
December 26, 2016: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031077/deployment-of-medical-relief-teams-of-the-indian-army-in-the-aftermath-of-the-nepal-earthquake-lessons-learned
#9
Ashutosh Chauhan, Bhushan Kumar Chopra
In April 2015 a 7.8-magnitude earthquake hit Nepal. As part of relief operations named Operation Maitri, the Indian Armed Forces deployed 3 field hospitals in the disaster zone. Rapid deployment of mobile surgical teams to far-flung, inaccessible areas was done by helicopters. In an operational deployment spanning 1 month, a total of 7532 patients were treated and 105 surgeries were carried out on 83 patients. One-fifth of the patients were less than 18 years of age. One-third of the patients had traumatic injuries directly attributable to the earthquake, whereas the remaining patients were treated for diseases of poor sanitation and hygiene as well as chronic illness that had been neglected owing to the collapse of the local health infrastructure...
December 29, 2016: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029612/what-are-the-most-common-domains-of-the-core-competencies-of-disaster-nursing-a-scoping-review
#10
REVIEW
Abdullelah Al Thobaity, Virginia Plummer, Brett Williams
AIM: Scoping review was conducted to identify the most common domains of the core competencies of disaster nursing. BACKGROUND: Nurses play an essential role in all phases of disaster management. For nurses to respond competently, they must be equipped with the skills to provide comprehensive and holistic care to the populations affected by or at risk of disasters. METHODS: A scoping review was conducted using the Joanna Briggs Institute methodology...
October 28, 2016: International Emergency Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029478/development-and-evaluation-of-a-comprehensive-drought-index
#11
Elaheh Esfahanian, A Pouyan Nejadhashemi, Mohammad Abouali, Umesh Adhikari, Zhen Zhang, Fariborz Daneshvar, Matthew R Herman
Droughts are known as the world's costliest natural disasters impacting a variety of sectors. Despite their wide range of impacts, no universal drought definition has been defined. The goal of this study is to define a universal drought index that considers drought impacts on meteorological, agricultural, hydrological, and stream health categories. Additionally, predictive drought models are developed to capture both categorical (meteorological, hydrological, and agricultural) and overall impacts of drought...
October 28, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028279/-study-of-appropriate-risk-management-for-people-receiving-care-at-home-actions-of-the-high-risk-people-receiving-care-at-home-in-times-of-disasters
#12
Kiyomi Hata, Masao Hata
Although preparation for frequently occurring disasters is required in the context of preparing a home care environment wherein people reside and receive care, existing preparations cannot be described as sufficient. Therefore, effective preparation has become a research focus. This study aimed to identify the risks faced by people receiving home care in disaster situations and to clarify the risk-related actions taken by various stakeholders in order to study appropriate risk management for people receiving care...
December 2016: Gan to Kagaku Ryoho. Cancer & Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027813/environmental-and-economic-evaluation-of-pre-disaster-plans-for-disaster-waste-management-case-study-of-minami-ise-japan
#13
Tomohiro Tabata, Yohei Wakabayashi, Peii Tsai, Takashi Saeki
Although it is important that disaster waste be demolished and removed as soon as possible after a natural disaster, it is also important that its treatment is environmentally friendly and economic. Local municipalities do not conduct environmental and economic feasibility studies of pre-disaster waste management; nevertheless, pre-disaster waste management is extremely important to promote treatment of waste after natural disasters. One of the reasons that they cannot conduct such evaluations is that the methods and inventory data required for the environmental and economic evaluation does not exist...
December 24, 2016: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018789/evaluation-of-spatial-analysis-application-for-urban-emergency-management
#14
REVIEW
Rifaat Abdalla
BACKGROUND: This paper provides multidisciplinary scope to the utilization of geospatial data frameworks for urban disaster management with accentuation on particular events. The emergency management events presented in this review are universally known and represent high risk for different parts of the world. RESULTS: The discussion starts with addressing the application issues related to how spatial analysis can be used intending to disaster management operations by characterizing its ease of use and impediments in managing the inquiries of vulnerability and hazard assessment...
2016: SpringerPlus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018749/focused-training-for-humanitarian-responders-in-regional-anesthesia-techniques-for-a-planned-randomized-controlled-trial-in-a-disaster-setting
#15
Adam R Aluisio, Carrei Teicher, Tess Wiskel, Allysia Guy, Adam Levine
BACKGROUND: Lower extremity trauma during earthquakes accounts for the largest burden of geophysical disaster-related injuries. Insufficient pain management is common in disaster settings, and regional anesthesia (RA) has the potential to reduce pain in injured patients beyond current standards. To date, no prospective research has evaluated the use of RA in a disaster setting. This cross-sectional study assesses knowledge translation and skill acquisition outcomes for lower extremity RA performed with and without ultrasound guidance among a cohort of Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) volunteers who will function as proceduralists in a planned randomized controlled trial evaluating the efficacy of RA for pain management in an earthquake setting...
November 16, 2016: PLoS Currents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013272/trauma-focused-smoking-cessation-for-smokers-exposed-to-the-world-trade-center-disaster-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#16
Adam Gonzalez, Fred Friedberg, Xiaotong Li, Michael J Zvolensky, Evelyn J Bromet, Brittain L Mahaffey, Anka A Vujanovic, Benjamin J Luft, Roman Kotov
INTRODUCTION: The main objective was to evaluate the efficacy of an 8-session, group-based comprehensive smoking cessation and trauma management (CSC-T) treatment among daily smokers (≥ 5 cigarettes/day) exposed to the WTC disaster with elevated WTC-related PTSD symptoms. METHODS: Participants (N=90) were randomly assigned to CSC-T (N=44; 63.6% White; 27.3% female; mean age = 51.32±7.87) or comprehensive smoking cessation (CSC) alone (N=46; 71.7% White; 28.3% female; mean age=48...
December 24, 2016: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009805/wargame-simulation-theory-and-evaluation-method-for-emergency-evacuation-of-residents-from-urban-waterlogging-disaster-area
#17
Peng Chen, Jiquan Zhang, Yingyue Sun, Xiaojing Liu
Urban waterlogging seriously threatens the safety of urban residents and properties. Wargame simulation research on resident emergency evacuation from waterlogged areas can determine the effectiveness of emergency response plans for high risk events at low cost. Based on wargame theory and emergency evacuation plans, we used a wargame exercise method, incorporating qualitative and quantitative aspects, to build an urban waterlogging disaster emergency shelter using a wargame exercise and evaluation model. The simulation was empirically tested in Daoli District of Harbin...
December 21, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27991954/geostatistical-approach-for-spatial-interpolation-of-meteorological-data
#18
Derya Ozturk, Fatmagul Kilic
Meteorological data are used in many studies, especially in planning, disaster management, water resources management, hydrology, agriculture and environment. Analyzing changes in meteorological variables is very important to understand a climate system and minimize the adverse effects of the climate changes. One of the main issues in meteorological analysis is the interpolation of spatial data. In recent years, with the developments in Geographical Information System (GIS) technology, the statistical methods have been integrated with GIS and geostatistical methods have constituted a strong alternative to deterministic methods in the interpolation and analysis of the spatial data...
October 2016: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27983666/synergising-public-health-concepts-with-the-sendai-framework-for-disaster-risk-reduction-a-conceptual-glossary
#19
Suzanne Phibbs, Christine Kenney, Christina Severinsen, Jon Mitchell, Roger Hughes
The Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction (2015) is a global strategy for addressing disaster risk and resilience that has been ratified by member countries of the United Nations. Its guiding principles emphasise building resilience through inter-sectoral collaboration, as well as partnerships that facilitate community empowerment and address underlying risk factors. Both public health and the emergency management sector face similar challenges related to developing and implementing strategies that involve structural change, facilitating community resilience and addressing individual risk factors...
December 14, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27982460/vulnerability-assessments-as-a-political-creation-tsunami-management-in-portugal
#20
Maartje Pronk, Harro Maat, Todd A Crane
Vulnerability assessments are a cornerstone of contemporary disaster research. This paper shows how research procedures and the presentation of results of vulnerability assessments are politically filtered. Using data from a study of tsunami risk assessment in Portugal, the paper demonstrates that approaches, measurement instruments, and research procedures for evaluating vulnerability are influenced by institutional preferences, lines of communication, or lack thereof, between stakeholder groups, and available technical expertise...
December 16, 2016: Disasters
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