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Disaster Management

Betty S Lai, Ann-Margaret Esnard, Sarah R Lowe, Lori Peek
This article draws on experiences and lessons from global disasters and utilizes the United Nations Comprehensive School Safety Framework to highlight the necessary role of safe schools in protecting children, as well as adult staff, from the immediate threats and long-term implications of disasters. Specifically, we focus on three well-established pillars of school safety: Pillar I: Safe Learning Facilities; Pillar II: Disaster Management; and Pillar III: Risk Reduction and Resilience Education. In addition, we propose a potential fourth pillar, which underscores the function of schools in postdisaster mental health assessment and intervention for children...
December 2016: Current Psychiatry Reports
Ali Ghanchi
On Friday, November 13, 2015, Paris was subjected to a multiple terrorist attack that caused widespread carnage. Although French emergency planning, response, and resilience procedures (Plan Blanc) anticipated crisis management of a major incident, these had to be adapted to the local context of Pitié-Salpêtrière University Teaching Hospital. Health care workers had undergone Plan Blanc training and exercises and it was fortunate that such a drill had occurred on the morning of the attack. The procedures were observed to work well because this type of eventuality had been fully anticipated, and staff performance exceeded expectations owing to prior in-depth training and preparations...
October 2016: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
Ningyu Zhang, Huajun Chen, Jiaoyan Chen, Xi Chen
With the design and development of smart cities, opportunities as well as challenges arise at the moment. For this purpose, lots of data need to be obtained. Nevertheless, circumstances vary in different cities due to the variant infrastructures and populations, which leads to the data sparsity. In this paper, we propose a transfer learning method for urban waterlogging disaster analysis, which provides the basis for traffic management agencies to generate proactive traffic operation strategies in order to alleviate congestion...
2016: Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience
Letícia Couto Garcia, Danilo Bandini Ribeiro, Fabio de Oliveira Roque, Jose Manuel Ochoa-Quintero, William F Laurance
In November 2015, a large mine-tailing dam owned by Samarco Corporation collapsed in Brazil, generating a massive wave of toxic mud that spread down the Doce River, killing 19 people and affecting biodiversity across hundreds of kilometers of river, riparian lands, and Atlantic coast. Besides the disaster's serious human and socioeconomic tolls, we estimate the regional loss of environmental services to be ~US$5.21 billion/year. Although our estimate is conservative, it is still six times higher than the fine imposed on Samarco by Brazilian environmental authorities...
October 22, 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Christopher R Nacca, Andrew P Harris, John R Tuttle
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 5, 2016: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
Robert Battat, Marc Jhonson, Lorne Wiseblatt, Cruff Renard, Laura Habib, Manouchka Normil, Brian Remillard, Timothy F Brewer, Galit Sacajiu
BACKGROUND: Recent calls for reform in healthcare training emphasize using competency-based curricula and information technology-empowered learning. Continuing Medical Education programs are essential in maintaining physician accreditation. Haitian physicians have expressed a lack access to these activities. The Haiti Medical Education Project works in alliance with Haitian medical leadership, faculty and students to support the Country's medical education system. We present the creation, delivery and evaluation of a competency-based continuing medical education curriculum for physicians in rural Haiti...
October 19, 2016: BMC Medical Education
Michel Debacker, Filip Van Utterbeeck, Christophe Ullrich, Erwin Dhondt, Ives Hubloue
It is recognized that the study of the disaster medical response (DMR) is a relatively new field. To date, there is no evidence-based literature that clearly defines the best medical response principles, concepts, structures and processes in a disaster setting. Much of what is known about the DMR results from descriptive studies and expert opinion. No experimental studies regarding the effects of DMR interventions on the health outcomes of disaster survivors have been carried out. Traditional analytic methods cannot fully capture the flow of disaster victims through a complex disaster medical response system (DMRS)...
December 2016: Journal of Medical Systems
Toshinori Ogata
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2016: Japan Medical Association Journal: JMAJ
Efthyvoulos Kyriacou, Iolie Nicolaidou, George Hadjichristofi, Stelios Kyprianou, Synesios Christou, Riana Constantinou
Τhe performance of rescuers and personnel handling major emergencies or crisis events can be significantly improved through continuous training and through technology support. The work done in order to create a system has been discussed which can support both resources and victims during a crisis or major emergency event. More specifically, the system supports real-time management of firefighter teams, rescue teams, health services, and victims during a major disaster. It can be deployed in an ad hoc manner in the disaster area, as a stand-alone infrastructure (using its own telecommunications and power)...
September 2016: Healthcare Technology Letters
Hiroyuki Toyoda, Tatsuhiko Kubo, Koji Mori
OBJECTIVES: To study the occupational safety and health systems used for emergency response workers in the USA, we performed interviews with related federal agencies and conducted research on related studies. METHODS: We visited the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) and National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) in the USA and performed interviews with their managers on the agencies' roles in the national emergency response system. We also obtained information prepared for our visit from the USA's Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)...
October 12, 2016: Sangyō Eiseigaku Zasshi, Journal of Occupational Health
Tracy Hatton, Eleanor Grimshaw, John Vargo, Erica Seville
Business Continuity Planning (BCP) is well established as a key plank in an organisation's risk management process. But how effective is BCP when disaster strikes? This paper examines the experiences of organisations following the 2010-11 Canterbury, New Zealand earthquakes. The study finds that BCP was helpful for all organisations interviewed but more attention is needed on the management of societal and personal impacts; development of employee resilience, identification of effective crisis leaders; right-sizing plans and planning to seize opportunities post-disaster...
2016: Journal of Business Continuity & Emergency Planning
Donatella Lippi, Eduardo Gotuzzo, Saverio Caini
Cholera is an acute disease of the gastrointestinal tract caused by Vibrio cholerae. Cholera was localized in Asia until 1817, when a first pandemic spread from India to several other regions of the world. After this appearance, six additional major pandemics occurred during the 19th and 20th centuries, the latest of which originated in Indonesia in the 1960s and is still ongoing. In 1854, a cholera outbreak in Soho, London, was investigated by the English physician John Snow (1813 to 1858). He described the time course of the outbreak, managed to understand its routes of transmission, and suggested effective measures to stop its spread, giving rise to modern infectious disease epidemiology...
August 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
Mohammadkarim Bahadori, Hamid Reza Khankeh, Rouhollah Zaboli, Ramin Ravangard, Isa Malmir
OBJECTIVE: Coordination is a major challenge in the field of health in disasters, mostly because of the complex nature of health-related activities. METHODS: This was a qualitative study based on the grounded theory approach. A total of 22 experts in the field of health in disasters participated in the study. The data were collected through in-depth interviews and literature review. The collected data were then analyzed by use of MAXQDA 2010 software (VERBI Software GmbH)...
October 11, 2016: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
Shun Yasuda, Hyo Kyozuka, Yasuhisa Nomura, Keiya Fujimori, Aya Goto, Seiji Yasumura, Kennichi Hata, Tetsuya Ohira, Masafumi Abe
OBJECTIVE: The Great East Japan Earthquake and Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster occurred on the March 11, 2011.We investigated the incidence of SGA (small for gestational age) in the Fukushima Prefecture in newborns delivered by women who were pregnant at the time of the disasters and identified any risk factors for SGA. METHODS: Subjects were women who were pregnant at the time of the disasters. Questionnaires were sent to the women who lived in the Hamadori area (seaside and near to the nuclear power plant) at the time of the disasters as well as to a control group of women who lived outside the Hamadori area...
October 9, 2016: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Toshiaki Sasao
This paper analyzes the cost and efficiency of waste disposal associated with the Great East Japan Earthquake. The following two analyses were performed: (1) a popular parametric approach, which is an ordinary least squares (OLS) method to estimate the factors that affect the disposal costs; (2) a non-parametric approach, which is a two-stage data envelopment analysis (DEA) to analyze the efficiency of each municipality and clarify the best performance of the disaster waste management. Our results indicate that a higher recycling rate of disaster waste and a larger amount of tsunami sediments decrease the average disposal costs...
October 3, 2016: Waste Management
Alexis Descatha, Alice Huynh Tuong, Pierre Coninx, Michel Baer, Thomas Loeb, Thomas Despréaux
In massive catastrophic events, occupational health practitioners are more and more frequently involved in the management of such situations. We aim to describe the multiple aspects of the role that occupational health practitioners might play, by focusing on the recent example of the Paris terrorist attack of November 2015. During and after the Paris attack, occupational practitioners, in collaboration with emergency and security professionals, were involved in psychological care, assembling information, follow-up, return-to-work, and improving in-company safety plans...
2016: Frontiers in Public Health
Behrooz Hashemi, Saeed Safari, Mostafa Hosseini, Mahmoud Yousefifard, Elham Erfani, Alireza Baratloo, Farhad Rahmati, Maryam Motamedi, Mohammad Mehdi Forouzanfar, Iraj Najafi
CONTEXT: Crush syndrome and its potentially life-threatening complications, such as acute kidney injury (AKI), are one of the most important medical problems of disaster victims. However, today, many unanswered questions abound about the potential risk factors of crush syndrome, predictive factors of AKI, proper amount of prophylactic hydration therapy, type of fluid, time of continuing fluid, intravenous versus oral hydration, etc. Therefore, this study was designed to review the findings on Iranian nephrologist experiences in diagnosis and management of traumatic rhabdomyolysis following the last two strong earthquakes of Bam (2003) and Manjil-Rudbar (1990)...
June 2016: Archives of Trauma Research
Maryam Nakhaei, Hamid Reza Khankeh, Gholam Reza Masoumi, Mohammad Ali Hosseini, Zohreh Parsa-Yekta
BACKGROUND: Since life recovery after disasters is a subjective and multifaceted construct influenced by different factors, and survivors' main concerns and experiences are not clear, the researchers intended to explore this process. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was conducted in 2011 - 2014 based on the grounded theory approach. Participants were selected by purposeful sampling followed by theoretical sampling to achieve conceptual and theoretical saturation...
July 2016: Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal
Golrokh Atighechian, Mohammadreza Maleki, Aidin Aryankhesal, Katayoun Jahangiri
INTRODUCTION: Oil spill in fresh water can affect ecological processes and accordingly it can influence human health. Iran, due to having 58.8 % of the world oil reserves, is highly vulnerable to water contamination by oil products. AIM: The aim of this study was to determine environmental factors affecting the management of the oil spill into one of the river in Iran using the PESTLE analysis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This was a qualitative case study conducted in 2015 on an oil spill incident in Iran and its roots from a disaster management approach...
July 24, 2016: Materia Socio-medica
Jennifer L Weidhaas, Andrea M Dietrich, Nathan J DeYonker, R Ryan Dupont, William T Foreman, Daniel Gallagher, Jennifer E G Gallagher, Andrew J Whelton, William A Alexander
Chemical spills and accidents contaminate the environment and disrupt societies and economies around the globe. In the United States there were approximately 172,000 chemical spills that affected US waterbodies from 2004 to 2014. More than 8000 of these spills involved non-petroleum-related chemicals. Traditional emergency responses or incident command structures (ICSs) that respond to chemical spills require coordinated efforts by predominantly government personnel from multiple disciplines, including disaster management, public health, and environmental protection...
September 2016: Journal of Environmental Quality
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