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D2 receptor weight gain

Leslie Citrome
Cariprazine is an antipsychotic medication and received approval by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of schizophrenia in September 2015. Cariprazine is a dopamine D3 and D2 receptor partial agonist, with a preference for the D3 receptor. Cariprazine is also a partial agonist at the serotonin 5-HT1A receptor and acts as an antagonist at 5-HT2B and 5-HT2A receptors. The recommended dose range of cariprazine for the treatment of schizophrenia is 1.5-6 mg/d; the starting dose of 1.5 mg/d is potentially therapeutic...
2016: Clinical Schizophrenia & related Psychoses
D J David, D Gourion
Antidepressant therapy aims to reach remission of depressive symptoms while reducing the complications and risks of relapse. Even though they have proven their efficacy, it takes several weeks for antidepressants to demonstrate full effectiveness, and adverse effects occur more quickly or (quicker) which can be a source of poor compliance. This latest aspect often leads to dose reduction and/or change of molecule that have the effect of delaying remission. This review attempts to present, from the pharmacological properties of the major classes of antidepressants (monoamine oxidase inhibitor [MAOI], tricyclic antidepressants [TCA], selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor [SSRI] and serotonin and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor [SNRI]), to the pharmacological mechanisms involved in adverse effects by focusing on sexual dysfunction, nausea/vomiting, and weight changes...
July 13, 2016: L'Encéphale
Jagan R Etukala, Xue Y Zhu, Suresh V K Eyunni, Edem K Onyameh, Edward Ofori, Barbara A Bricker, Hye J Kang, Xi-Ping Huang, Bryan L Roth, Seth Y Ablordeppey
Several known D2 pharmacophores have been explored as templates for identifying ligands with multiple binding affinities at dopamine and serotonin receptors considered as clinically relevant receptors in the treatment of neuropsychiatric diseases. This approach has resulted in the identification of ligands that target multiple CNS receptors while avoiding others associated with deleterious effects. In particular, compounds 11, 15 and 22 may have potential for further development as antipsychotic agents as they favorably interact with the clinically relevant receptors including D2R, 5-HT1AR, and 5-HT7R...
August 15, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
Robert T Franke, Emilia Tarland, Heidrun Fink, Heinz H Pertz, Jan Brosda
RATIONALE: Recently, we showed that 2-bromoterguride acted as a dopamine D2 receptor partial agonist, a serotonin 5-HT2A and α2C-adrenergic receptor antagonist, and exhibited antidopaminergic efficacy in amphetamine-induced locomotion (AIL) in rats without inducing catalepsy. OBJECTIVE: To extend our knowledge on the antipsychotic effects of 2-bromoterguride, we used convergent preclinical animal models and tests; i.e., conditioned avoidance response (CAR), predictive of antipsychotic-like effects; Fos protein expression, a molecular marker for (atypical) antipsychotic activity; wet dog shake behavior, a test for the in vivo effects of drugs acting on central 5-HT2A receptors; and investigated metabolic changes as a common side effect of atypical antipsychotic drugs (APDs)...
August 2016: Psychopharmacology
Donatella Marazziti, Armando Piccinni, Stefano Baroni, Francesco Mungai, Silvio Presta, Federico Mucci, Liliana Dell'Osso
Over the years, both first- (FGAs) and second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs), continue to gain increasing evidence of being effective in the treatment of psychotic symptoms. Currently, they represent the first-line treatment of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, although they are widely used in psychotic depression and other clinical conditions, such as agitation and/or behavioural disturbances. Despite representing an indispensable tool for the treatment of severe psychotic disorders, they are widely known to have a number of unwanted side effects that the clinician must be aware of, and handle carefully to provide the patient the best available treatment in the short and long-term...
2016: Current Medicinal Chemistry
Jian-Ping Zhang, Todd Lencz, Ryan X Zhang, Masahiro Nitta, Lawrence Maayan, Majnu John, Delbert G Robinson, W Wolfgang Fleischhacker, Rene S Kahn, Roel A Ophoff, John M Kane, Anil K Malhotra, Christoph U Correll
Although weight gain is a serious but variable adverse effect of antipsychotics that has genetic underpinnings, a comprehensive meta-analysis of pharmacogenetics of antipsychotic-related weight gain is missing. In this review, random effects meta-analyses were conducted for dominant and recessive models on associations of specific single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) with prospectively assessed antipsychotic-related weight or body mass index (BMI) changes (primary outcome), or categorical increases in weight or BMI (≥7%; secondary outcome)...
November 2016: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Feipu Yang, Xiangrui Jiang, Jianfeng Li, Yu Wang, Yongjian Liu, Minghao Bi, Chunhui Wu, Qingjie Zhao, Weiming Chen, Jingjing Yin, Jian Zhang, Yuanchao Xie, Tianwen Hu, Mingshuo Xu, Shuang Guo, Zhen Wang, Yang He, Jingshan Shen
In the present study, a series of benzamides, endowed with potent dopamine D2, serotonin 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptors properties, was synthesized and evaluated as potential antipsychotics. Among them, 3-(4-(4-(6-fluorobenzo[d]isoxazol-3-yl)-piperidin-1-yl)butoxy)-N-methylbenzamide (21) and its fluoro-substituted analogue (22) held the best pharmacological binding profiles. They not only presented potent activities for D2, 5-HT1A, and 5-HT2A receptors, but were also endowed with low activities for 5-HT2C, H1 receptors and hERG channels, suggesting a low propensity of inducing weight gain and QT prolongation...
July 1, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Xianglong Zhu, David Ottenheimer, Ralph J DiLeone
While weight gain is clearly promoted by excessive energy intake and reduced expenditure, the underlying neural mechanisms of energy balance remain unclear. The nucleus accumbens (NAc) is one brain region that has received attention for its role in the regulation of energy balance; its D1 and D2 receptor containing neurons have distinct functions in regulating reward behavior and require further examination. The goal of the present study is to investigate how activation and inhibition of D1 and D2 neurons in the NAc influences behaviors related to energy intake and expenditure...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Robert E Davis, Christoph U Correll
ITI-007 is an investigational drug being developed for schizophrenia and other neuropsychiatric/neurodegenerative diseases. ITI-007 has a unique pharmacological profile, combining potent 5-HT2a receptor antagonism with cell-type-specific dopamine and glutamate receptor modulation, plus serotonin reuptake inhibition. At dopamine-D2 receptors, ITI-007 acts as a post-synaptic antagonist and pre-synaptic partial agonist. Additionally, ITI-007 stimulates phosphorylation of glutamatergic NMDA-NR2B receptors, downstream of dopamine-D1 receptor intracellular signaling...
June 2016: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
Nicholas A Keks, Judy Hope, David Castle
OBJECTIVE: Lurasidone is a new serotonin-dopamine antagonist atypical antipsychotic which also appears to be effective in bipolar depression. This paper will briefly review the evidence concerning lurasidone. CONCLUSIONS: Lurasidone is an antagonist at dopamine D2, serotonin 5-HT2 and 5-HT7, and partial agonist at 5HT1a receptors; it has no anticholinergic or antihistaminic activity. Rapidly absorbed, it has a half-life of 18 ± 7 hours, will reach steady state in five days and is taken at night with food (absorption is halved on an empty stomach)...
June 2016: Australasian Psychiatry: Bulletin of Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists
D Mété, C Dafreville, V Paitel, P Wind
INTRODUCTION: Aripiprazole, an atypical or second-generation antipsychotic, is usually well tolerated. It is an approved treatment for schizophrenia and mania in bipolar disorder type 1. Unlike the other antipsychotics, it has high affinity agonist properties for dopamine D2 and D3 receptors. It has also 5-HT1A partial agonist and 5-HT2A antagonist properties. Aripiprazole is a first or second line treatment frequently used because it has reduced side effects such as weight gain, sleepiness, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, hyperprolactinemia and extrapyramidal symptoms...
June 2016: L'Encéphale
Saibal Das, Preeti Barnwal, Blessed Winston A, Somnath Mondal, Indranil Saha
This article describes the role of a newly approved antipsychotic agent brexpiprazole in the treatment of schizophrenia and major depressive disorder. This drug has high affinity for 5-HT1A, 5-HT2A, D2 and α1B,2C receptors. It displays partial agonism at 5-HT1A and D2 receptors and potent antagonism at 5-HT2A and α1B,2C adrenergic receptors. It also has some affinity (antagonism) for D3, 5-HT2B, 5-HT7 and α1A,1D receptors, and moderate affinity for H1 and low affinity for M1 receptors. These all lead to a favorable antipsychotic profile in terms of improvement of cognitive performance and sleep patterns, as well as effects on affective states and potential to treat core symptoms in schizophrenia and major depressive disorder, including cognitive deficits with a low risk of adverse effects (extrapyramidal symptoms, metabolic complications, weight gain, akathisia potential) that are commonly encountered with other typical and second-generation antipsychotic drugs...
February 2016: Therapeutic Advances in Psychopharmacology
Jiamei Lian, Xu-Feng Huang, Nagesh Pai, Chao Deng
Second generation antipsychotic drugs (SGAs) cause substantial body weight gain/obesity and other metabolic side-effects such as dyslipidaemia. Their antagonistic affinity to the histaminergic H1 receptor (H1R) has been identified as one of the main contributors to weight gain/obesity side-effects. The effects and mechanisms of betahistine (a histaminergic H1R agonist and H3 receptor antagonist) have been investigated for ameliorating SGA-induced weight gain/obesity in both animal models and clinical trials...
April 2016: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
Felicitas Lopez Vicchi, Guillermina Maria Luque, Belen Brie, Juan Patricio Nogueira, Isabel Garcia Tornadu, Damasia Becu-Villalobos
The importance of dopamine in central nervous system function is well known, but its effects on glucose homeostasis and pancreatic β cell function are beginning to be unraveled. Mutant mice lacking dopamine type 2 receptors (D2R) are glucose intolerant and have abnormal insulin secretion. In humans, administration of neuroleptic drugs, which block dopamine receptors, may cause hyperinsulinemia, increased weight gain and glucose intolerance. Conversely, treatment with the dopamine precursor l-DOPA in patients with Parkinson's disease reduces insulin secretion upon oral glucose tolerance test, and bromocriptine improves glycemic control and glucose tolerance in obese type 2 diabetic patients as well as in non diabetic obese animals and humans...
July 2016: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
Rachel Franklin, Sam Zorowitz, Andrew K Corse, Alik S Widge, Thilo Deckersbach
Bipolar disorder (BD) is a debilitating and difficult-to-treat psychiatric disease that presents a serious burden to patients' lives as well as health care systems around the world. The essential diagnostic criterion for BD is episodes of mania or hypomania; however, the patients report that the majority of their time is spent in a depressive phase. Current treatment options for this component of BD have yet to achieve satisfactory remission rates. Lurasidone is a drug in the benzisothiazole class approved by the US Food and Drug Administration in June 2013 for the acute treatment of bipolar depression...
2015: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Jeff A Beeler, Rudolf P Faust, Susie Turkson, Honggang Ye, Xiaoxi Zhuang
BACKGROUND: The dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) has received much attention in obesity studies. Data indicate that D2R is reduced in obesity and that the TaqA1 D2R variant may be more prevalent among obese persons. It is often suggested that reduced D2R generates a reward deficiency and altered appetitive motivation that induces compulsive eating and contributes to obesity. Although dopamine is known to regulate physical activity, it is often neglected in these studies, leaving open the question of whether reduced D2R contributes to obesity through alterations in energy expenditure and activity...
June 1, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
L Citrome
Brexpiprazole is a dopamine D₂receptor partial agonist. Compared with aripiprazole, it is more potent at 5-HT1A receptors and displays less intrinsic activity at D₂receptors. Brexpiprazole also has potent antagonistic activity at 5-HT2A as well as alpha-adrenergic receptors. In addition to results from phase II trials, data are available from two pivotal phase III, randomized, placebo-controlled trials of brexpiprazole for the acute treatment of schizophrenia and two pivotal phase III, randomized, placebo-controlled trials of adjunctive brexpiprazole for the acute treatment of major depressive disorder in patients with inadequate response to antidepressant medication treatment...
July 2015: Drugs of Today
L Citrome
OBJECTIVE: To describe the efficacy, tolerability and safety of brexpiprazole for the treatment of schizophrenia and as adjunct for major depressive disorder (MDD). DATA SOURCES: The pivotal registration trials were accessed by querying and, for the search terms 'brexpiprazole' OR 'OPC-34712', and by also querying the EMBASE (Elsevier) commercial database for clinical poster abstracts, and by asking the manufacturer for copies of posters presented at congresses...
September 2015: International Journal of Clinical Practice
S J Klenotich, E V Ho, M S McMurray, C H Server, S C Dulawa
Anorexia nervosa (AN) is an eating disorder characterized by severe hypophagia and weight loss, and an intense fear of weight gain. Activity-based anorexia (ABA) refers to the weight loss, hypophagia and paradoxical hyperactivity that develops in rodents exposed to running wheels and restricted food access, and provides a model for aspects of AN. The atypical antipsychotic olanzapine was recently shown to reduce both AN symptoms and ABA. We examined which component of the complex pharmacological profile of olanzapine reduces ABA...
2015: Translational Psychiatry
Robert R Luedtke, Claudia Rangel-Barajas, Mahinder Malik, David E Reichert, R H Mach
Neuropsychiatric disorders represent a substantial social and health care issue. The National Institutes of Health estimates that greater than 2 million adults suffer from neuropsychiatric disorders in the USA. These individuals experience symptoms that can include auditory hallucinations, delusions, unrealistic beliefs and cognitive dysfunction. Although antipsychotic medications are available, suboptimal therapeutic responses are observed for approximately one-third of patients. Therefore, there is still a need to explore new pharmacotherapeutic strategies for the treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders...
2015: Current Pharmaceutical Design
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