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Generalized anxiety disorder genetics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888722/a-pilot-study-on-predictors-of-brainstem-raphe-abnormality-in-patients-with-major-depressive-disorder
#1
Milutin Kostić, Ana Munjiza, Danilo Pesic, Amir Peljto, Ivana Novakovic, Valerija Dobricic, Dusica Lecic Tosevski, Milija Mijajlovic
BACKGROUND: Hypo/anechogenicity of the brainstem raphe (BR) structures has been suggested as a possible transcranial parenchymal sonography (TCS) marker associated with depression. AIM: The aim of this study was to analyze possible association of the abnormal BR echogenicity in patients with major depression when compared to healthy controls, and to evaluate its clinical and genetic correlates. METHODS: TCS was performed in 53 patients diagnosed as major depressive disorder (MDD) without psychotic symptoms and in 54 healthy matched controls...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834391/hippocampal-gabab-1a-receptors-constrain-generalized-contextual-fear
#2
Joseph F Lynch, Patrick Winiecki, T Lee Gilman, Jordan M Adkins, Aaron M Jasnow
Many anxiety disorders are characterized by generalization of fear responses to neutral or ambiguous stimuli. Therefore, a comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms contributing to generalized fear is essential for formulating successful treatments for anxiety disorders. Previous research shows that GABA-mediated presynaptic inhibition plays a critical role in cued fear generalization, as animals with genetically deleted presynaptic GABAB(1a) receptors cannot discriminate between CS+ and CS- tones. Work from our lab has further identified that GABAB(1a) receptors are necessary for maintaining contextual memory precision, thereby constraining generalized contextual fear...
November 11, 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27827293/vitamin-d-deficiency-behavioral-atypicality-anxiety-and-depression-in-children-with-chromosome-22q11-2-deletion-syndrome
#3
L Kelley, A F P Sanders, E A Beaton
Chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) is a complex developmental disorder with serious medical, cognitive and emotional symptoms across the lifespan. This genetic deletion also imparts a lifetime risk for developing schizophrenia that is 25-30 times that of the general population. The origin of this risk is multifactorial and may include dysregulation of the stress response and immunological systems in relation to brain development. Vitamin D is involved in brain development and neuroprotection, gene transcription, immunological regulation and influences neuronal signal transduction...
December 2016: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27741464/factor-analysis-of-temperament-and-personality-traits-in-bipolar-patients-correlates-with-comorbidity-and-disorder-severity
#4
REVIEW
Frank Qiu, Hagop S Akiskal, John R Kelsoe, Tiffany A Greenwood
BACKGROUND: Temperament and personality traits have been suggested as endophenotypes for bipolar disorder based on several lines of evidence, including heritability. Previous work suggested an anxious-reactive factor identified across temperament and personality inventories that produced significant group discrimination and could potentially be useful in genetic analyses. We have attempted to further characterize this factor structure in a sample of bipolar patients. METHODS: A sample of 1195 subjects with bipolar I disorder was evaluated, all with complete data available...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27708559/does-prenatal-valproate-interact-with-a-genetic-reduction-in-the-serotonin-transporter-a-rat-study-on-anxiety-and-cognition
#5
Bart A Ellenbroek, Caren August, Jiun Youn
There is ample evidence that prenatal exposure to valproate (or valproic acid, VPA) enhances the risk of developing Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). In line with this, a single injection of VPA induces a multitude of ASD-like symptoms in animals, such as rats and mice. However, there is equally strong evidence that genetic factors contribute significantly to the risk of ASD and indeed, like most other psychiatric disorders, ASD is now generally thought to results from an interaction between genetic and environmental factors...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27696186/anxiety-disorders-in-williams-syndrome-contrasted-with-intellectual-disability-and-the-general-population-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#6
R Royston, P Howlin, J Waite, C Oliver
Individuals with specific genetic syndromes associated with intellectual disability (ID), such as Williams syndrome (WS), are at increased risk for developing anxiety disorders. A systematic literature review identified sixteen WS papers that could generate pooled prevalence estimates of anxiety disorders for WS. A meta-analysis compared these estimates with prevalence estimates for the heterogeneous ID population and the general population. Estimated rates of anxiety disorders in WS were high. WS individuals were four times more likely to experience anxiety than individuals with ID, and the risk was also heightened compared to the general population...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27620693/an-underlying-common-factor-influenced-by-genetics-and-unique-environment-explains-the-covariation-between-major-depressive-disorder-generalized-anxiety-disorder-and-burnout-a-swedish-twin-study
#7
Lisa Mather, Victoria Blom, Gunnar Bergström, Pia Svedberg
Depression and anxiety are highly comorbid due to shared genetic risk factors, but less is known about whether burnout shares these risk factors. We aimed to examine whether the covariation between major depressive disorder (MDD), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), and burnout is explained by common genetic and/or environmental factors. This cross-sectional study included 25,378 Swedish twins responding to a survey in 2005-2006. Structural equation models were used to analyze whether the trait variances and covariances were due to additive genetics, non-additive genetics, shared environment, and unique environment...
December 2016: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27569652/lifetime-history-of-traumatic-events-in-a-young-adult-mexican-american-sample-relation-to-substance-dependence-affective-disorder-acculturation-stress-and-ptsd
#8
Cindy L Ehlers, Corinne Kim, David A Gilder, Gina M Stouffer, Raul Caetano, Rachel Yehuda
Mexican Americans comprise one of the most rapidly growing populations in the United States, and within this population, trauma and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are associated with physical and mental health problems. Therefore, efforts to delineate factors that may uniquely contribute to increased likelihood of trauma, PTSD, and substance use disorders over the lifetime in Mexican Americans are important to address health disparities and to develop treatment and prevention programs. Six hundred fourteen young adults (age 18-30 yrs) of Mexican American heritage, largely second generation, were recruited from the community and assessed with the Semi-Structured Assessment for the Genetics of Alcoholism and an acculturation stress scale...
December 2016: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27498148/effects-of-environmental-enrichment-on-anxiety-like-behavior-sociability-sensory-gating-and-spatial-learning-in-male-and-female-c57bl-6j-mice
#9
Taylor R Hendershott, Marie E Cronin, Stephanie Langella, Patrick S McGuinness, Alo C Basu
The influence of housing on cognition and emotional regulation in mice presents a problem for the study of genetic and environmental risk factors for neuropsychiatric disorders: standard laboratory housing may result in low levels of cognitive function or altered levels of anxiety that leave little room for assessment of deleterious effects of experimental manipulations. The use of enriched environment (EE) may allow for the measurement of a wider range of performance in cognitive domains. Cognitive and behavioral effects of EE in male mice have not been widely reproduced, perhaps due to variability in the application of enrichment protocols, and the effects of EE in female mice have not been widely studied...
November 1, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27477178/trichotillomania-bizzare-patern-of-hair-loss-at-11-year-old-girl
#10
Jana Zímová, Pavlína Zímová
Trichotillomania (TTM) is defined by the Diagnostics and Statistic Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DMS-IV) as hair loss from a patient`s repetitive self-pulling of hair. The disorder is included under anxiety disorders because it shares some obsessive-compulsive features. Patients have the tendency towards feelings of unattractiveness, body dissatisfaction, and low self-esteem (1,2). It is a major psychiatric problem, but many patients with this disorder first present to a dermatologist. An 11-year-old girl came to our department with a 2-month history of diffuse hair loss on the frontoparietal and parietotemporal area (Figure 1)...
June 2016: Acta Dermatovenerologica Croatica: ADC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27437548/-anxiety-insomnia-depression-in-conjunction-with-or-opposite-to-functional-disorders
#11
E Z Yakupov, Yu V Troshina
This review presents the data on the prevalence of anxiety disorders, insomnia and depression. General mechanisms of the pathogenesis for these conditions in respect to organism's stress- reactions to the environmental changes are considered. The specific commonality of neurotransmitter reactions, polysomnographic pictures, genetic predisposition is discussed. Specific characteristics of the sleep structure in anxiety disorders, insomnia and depression are noted. A role of comorbidity of anxiety disorders, depression and insomnia and importance of their differentiation, especially in primary care, is emphasized...
2016: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27366523/retrospective-evaluation-of-dental-treatment-under-general-anaesthesia
#12
Ahmet Selim Özkan, Mehmet Ali Erdoğan, Mukadder Şanlı, Osman Kaçmaz, Mahmut Durmuş, Cemil Çolak
OBJECTIVE: Most dental procedures can be performed with local anaesthesia, however noncompliant paediatric patients, patients with mental retardation or psychiatric disorders, severe anxiety, severe craniofacial anomalies and orofacial trauma may need general anaesthesia. In these patients accompanying central nervous system diseases and airway problems increase the risk of complications. Anaesthesia records of 467 cases of dental surgery performed under general anaesthesia between 2011-2014 is reported with information from the recent literature...
October 2015: Turkish Journal of Anaesthesiology and Reanimation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27299791/-pharmacotherapy-of-anxiety-disorders
#13
P Zwanzger
Anxiety disorders belong to the most frequent psychiatric disorders according to epidemiological studies and are associated with a high economic burden. Panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, social anxiety disorder, and specific phobia belong to the most important clinical disorders. The etiology is complex, including genetic, neurobiological as well as psychosocial factors. With regard to treatment, both psychotherapy and medication can be employed according to current treatment guidelines. With regard to psychotherapy, cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) represents the treatment of choice...
May 2016: Fortschritte der Neurologie-Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27232630/sex-differences-in-serum-markers-of-major-depressive-disorder-in-the-netherlands-study-of-depression-and-anxiety-nesda
#14
Jordan M Ramsey, Jason D Cooper, Mariska Bot, Paul C Guest, Femke Lamers, Cynthia S Weickert, Brenda W J H Penninx, Sabine Bahn
Women have a consistently higher prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) than men. Hypotheses implicating hypothalamic-pituitary -adrenal, -gonadal, and -thyroid axes, immune response, genetic factors, and neurotransmitters have emerged to explain this difference. However, more evidence for these hypotheses is needed and new explanations must be explored. Here, we investigated sex differences in MDD markers using multiplex immunoassay measurements of 171 serum molecules in individuals enrolled in the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NMDD = 231; Ncontrol = 365)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27228571/depression-or-anxiety-in-adult-twins-is-associated-with-asthma-diagnosis-but-not-with-offspring-asthma
#15
S G Tedner, C Lundholm, H Olsson, C Almqvist
BACKGROUND: Asthma is common in both children and adults in the Western world, just like anxiety and depression. While some research has revealed that these diseases might share important environmental and pathophysiological aspects, the exact mechanisms still remain unclear. OBJECTIVE: To study the correlation firstly between depression or anxiety and asthma diagnosis in adult twins and secondly the association between parental depression or anxiety and offspring asthma in children of twins...
June 2016: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27195513/clinical-features-of-bipolar-spectrum-with-binge-eating-behaviour
#16
Susan L McElroy, Scott Crow, Thomas J Blom, Alfredo B Cuellar-Barboza, Miguel L Prieto, Marin Veldic, Stacey J Winham, William V Bobo, Jennifer Geske, Lisa R Seymour, Nicole Mori, David J Bond, Joanna M Biernacka, Mark A Frye
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether bipolar spectrum disorder with binge eating behavior (BE) is an important clinical sub-phenotype. METHODS: Prevalence rates and correlates of different levels of BE were assessed in 1114 bipolar spectrum patients participating in a genetic biobank. BE and eating disorders (EDs) were assessed with the Eating Disorder Diagnostic Scale (EDDS). Psychiatric illness burden was evaluated with measures of suicidality, psychosis, mood instability, anxiety disorder comorbidity, and substance abuse comorbidity...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27192174/evaluation-of-the-persistence-remission-and-emergence-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-in-young-adulthood
#17
Jessica C Agnew-Blais, Guilherme V Polanczyk, Andrea Danese, Jasmin Wertz, Terrie E Moffitt, Louise Arseneault
IMPORTANCE: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is now recognized to occur in adulthood and is associated with a range of negative outcomes. However, less is known about the prospective course of ADHD into adulthood, the risk factors for its persistence, and the possibility of its emergence in young adulthood in nonclinical populations. OBJECTIVE: To investigate childhood risk factors and young adult functioning of individuals with persistent, remitted, and late-onset young adult ADHD...
July 1, 2016: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27179124/a-network-approach-to-environmental-impact-in-psychotic-disorder-brief-theoretical-framework
#18
Adela-Maria Isvoranu, Denny Borsboom, Jim van Os, Sinan Guloksuz
The spectrum of psychotic disorder represents a multifactorial and heterogeneous condition and is thought to result from a complex interplay between genetic and environmental factors. In the current paper, we analyze this interplay using network analysis, which has been recently proposed as a novel psychometric framework for the study of mental disorders. Using general population data, we construct network models for the relation between 3 environmental risk factors (cannabis use, developmental trauma, and urban environment), dimensional measures of psychopathology (anxiety, depression, interpersonal sensitivity, obsessive-compulsive disorder, phobic anxiety, somatizations, and hostility), and a composite measure of psychosis expression...
July 2016: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27171833/attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-in-pediatric-patients-with-pheochromocytoma-and-paraganglioma
#19
M Batsis, U Dagalakis, C A Stratakis, T Prodanov, G Z Papadakis, K Adams, M Lodish, K Pacak
The aim of the study is to evaluate if there is an association between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and the diagnosis of pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma (PHEO/PGL) in pediatric patients. A case series study of 43 patients under the age of 18 with PHEO/PGL tumors who were evaluated at the National Institute of Health between January 2006 and May 2014 is reported. Prior diagnosis of ADHD and treatment course with stimulant medications was recorded. Patient symptoms, catecholamine and metanephrine levels, tumor characteristics, and genetic analyses for syndromes associated with PHEO/PGL were evaluated...
August 2016: Hormone and Metabolic Research, Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung, Hormones et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27165690/a-network-approach-to-psychosis-pathways-between-childhood-trauma-and-psychotic-symptoms
#20
Adela-Maria Isvoranu, Claudia D van Borkulo, Lindy-Lou Boyette, Johanna T W Wigman, Christiaan H Vinkers, Denny Borsboom
Childhood trauma (CT) has been identified as a potential risk factor for the onset of psychotic disorders. However, to date, there is limited consensus with respect to which symptoms may ensue after exposure to trauma in early life, and whether specific pathways may account for these associations. The aim of the present study was to use the novel network approach to investigate how different types of traumatic childhood experiences relate to specific symptoms of psychotic disorders and to identify pathways that may be involved in the relationship between CT and psychosis...
May 10, 2016: Schizophrenia Bulletin
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