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Generalized anxiety disorder genetics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436534/a-novel-trpa1-variant-is-associated-with-carbamazepine-responsive-cramp-fasciculation-syndrome
#1
M J Nirenberg, R Chaouni, T M Biller, R M Gilbert, C Paisán-Ruiz
Cramp-fasciculation syndrome (CFS) is a rare muscle hyperexcitability syndrome that presents with muscle cramps, fasciculations, and stiffness, as well as pain, fatigue, anxiety, hyperreflexia, and paresthesias. Although familial cases have been reported, a genetic etiology has not yet been identified. We performed whole-exome sequencing followed by validation and cosegregation analyses on a father-son pair with CFS. Both subjects manifested other hypersensitivity-hyperexcitability symptoms, including asthma, gastroesophageal reflux, migraine, restless legs syndrome, tremor, cold hyperalgesia, and cardiac conduction defects...
April 24, 2017: Clinical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433949/the-dimensional-structure-of-psychopathology-in-22q11-2-deletion-syndrome
#2
Maria Niarchou, Tyler M Moore, Sunny X Tang, Monica E Calkins, Donna M McDonald-McGuinn, Elaine H Zackai, Beverly S Emanuel, Ruben C Gur, Raquel E Gur
BACKGROUND: 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome (22q11.2DS) is one of the strongest known genetic risk factors for developing schizophrenia. Individuals with 22q11.2DS have high rates of neurodevelopmental disorders in childhood, while in adulthood ∼25% develop schizophrenia. Similar to the general population, high rates of comorbidity are common in 22q11.2DS. Employing a dimensional approach where psychopathology is examined at the symptom-level as complementary to diagnostic categories in a population at such high genetic risk for schizophrenia can help gain a better understanding of how psychopathology is structured as well as its genetic underpinnings...
April 15, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425121/role-of-the-dynorphin-kappa-opioid-receptor-system-in-the-motivational-effects-of-ethanol
#3
Rachel I Anderson, Howard C Becker
Evidence has demonstrated that dynorphin (DYN) and the kappa opioid receptor (KOR) system contribute to various psychiatric disorders, including anxiety, depression, and addiction. More recently, this endogenous opioid system has received increased attention as a potential therapeutic target for treating alcohol use disorders. In this review, we provide an overview and synthesis of preclinical studies examining the influence of alcohol (ethanol) exposure on DYN/KOR expression and function, as well as studies examining the effects of DYN/KOR manipulation on ethanol's rewarding and aversive properties...
April 20, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424317/the-williams-syndrome-prosociality-gene-gtf2i-mediates-oxytocin-reactivity-and-social-anxiety-in-a-healthy-population
#4
Tanya L Procyshyn, Jason Spence, Silven Read, Neil V Watson, Bernard J Crespi
The neurohormone oxytocin plays a central role in human social behaviour and cognition, and oxytocin dysregulation may contribute to psychiatric disorders. However, genetic factors influencing individual variation in the oxytocinergic system remain poorly understood. We genotyped 169 healthy adults for a functional polymorphism in GTF2I (general transcription factor II-I), a gene associated with high prosociality and reduced social anxiety in Williams syndrome, a condition reported to involve high oxytocin levels and reactivity...
April 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359017/an-investigation-of-doubt-in-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#5
Jack Samuels, O Joseph Bienvenu, Janice Krasnow, Ying Wang, Marco A Grados, Bernadette Cullen, Fernando S Goes, Brion Maher, Benjamin D Greenberg, Nicole C McLaughlin, Steven A Rasmussen, Abby J Fyer, James A Knowles, Paul Nestadt, James T McCracken, John Piacentini, Dan Geller, David L Pauls, S Evelyn Stewart, Dennis L Murphy, Yin-Yao Shugart, Vidya Kamath, Arnold Bakker, Mark A Riddle, Gerald Nestadt
BACKGROUND: Clinicians have long considered doubt to be a fundamental characteristic of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). However, the clinical relevance of doubt in OCD has not been addressed. METHODS: Participants included 1182 adults with OCD who had participated in family and genetic studies of OCD. We used a clinical measure of the severity of doubt, categorized as none, mild, moderate, severe, or extreme. We evaluated the relationship between doubt and OCD clinical features, Axis I disorders, personality and personality disorder dimensions, impairment, and treatment response...
May 2017: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343453/a-trans-diagnostic-perspective-on-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#6
C M Gillan, N A Fineberg, T W Robbins
Progress in understanding the underlying neurobiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has stalled in part because of the considerable problem of heterogeneity within this diagnostic category, and homogeneity across other putatively discrete, diagnostic categories. As psychiatry begins to recognize the shortcomings of a purely symptom-based psychiatric nosology, new data-driven approaches have begun to be utilized with the goal of solving these problems: specifically, identifying trans-diagnostic aspects of clinical phenomenology based on their association with neurobiological processes...
March 27, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335873/parental-psychopathology-and-tourette-syndrome-chronic-tic-disorder-in-offspring-a-nationwide-case-control-study
#7
Susanna Leivonen, Jeremiah M Scharf, Carol A Mathews, Roshan Chudal, David Gyllenberg, Dan Sucksdorff, Auli Suominen, Arja Voutilainen, Alan S Brown, Andre Sourander
OBJECTIVE: To determine the associations between maternal and paternal psychiatric diagnoses and Tourette syndrome (TS)/chronic tic disorder (CT) in a nationwide study. METHOD: This nested case-control study linked data derived from three national registers. All singletons born and diagnosed with TS/CT in Finland between January 1991 and December 2010 were identified (n = 1,120) and matched to four controls (n = 4,299). Conditional logistic regression was used to examine the associations between parental psychopathology and TS/CT...
April 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272131/predictors-of-pharmacotherapy-response-in-generalized-anxiety-disorder-a-systematic-review
#8
Rafael Ferreira-Garcia, Marina Mochcovitch, Mariana Costa do Cabo, Antonio Egídio Nardi, Rafael Christophe Freire
BACKGROUND: Pharmacotherapy for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) may be effective in reducing symptoms in the majority of patients. The study of moderators and predictors of treatment response may help clinicians both to select appropriate interventions to maximize the probability of response and to inform the general prognosis. METHODS: A systematic literature search of electronic databases, selected authors, and reference lists was used to identify articles that reported trials of drug monotherapy in GAD...
March 2017: Harvard Review of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245757/the-role-of-stress-in-inflammatory-bowel-diseases
#9
Sgambato Dolores, Miranda Agnese, Ranaldo Rocco, Federico Alessandro, Romano Marco
BACKGROUND: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a multi-factorial systemic disorder which involves immune, genetic and environmental factors. Stress, in its various forms, plays an important role in gastrointestinal diseases and, in particular, in IBD. METHODS: Here, we focus on the environmental stressors in different aspects of IBD (pathogenesis, course and severity of disease) and, in particular, will evaluate the mechanisms by which they may influence IBD. RESULTS: The effect of stress on IBD might be mediated by autonomic nervous system and hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis...
February 28, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198454/preliminary-evidence-for-a-role-of-the-adrenergic-nervous-system-in-generalized-anxiety-disorder
#10
Xiaobin Zhang, Joanna Norton, Isabelle Carrière, Karen Ritchie, Isabelle Chaudieu, Joanne Ryan, Marie-Laure Ancelin
Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is a common chronic condition that is understudied compared to other psychiatric disorders. An altered adrenergic function has been reported in GAD, however direct evidence for genetic susceptibility is missing. This study evaluated the associations of gene variants in adrenergic receptors (ADRs) with GAD, with the involvement of stressful events. Data were obtained from 844 French community-dwelling elderly aged 65 or over. Anxiety disorders were assessed using the Mini-International Neuropsychiatry Interview, according to DSM-IV criteria...
February 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167838/glrb-allelic-variation-associated-with-agoraphobic-cognitions-increased-startle-response-and-fear-network-activation-a-potential-neurogenetic-pathway-to-panic-disorder
#11
J Deckert, H Weber, C Villmann, T B Lonsdorf, J Richter, M Andreatta, A Arias-Vasquez, L Hommers, L Kent, C Schartner, S Cichon, C Wolf, N Schaefer, C R von Collenberg, B Wachter, R Blum, D Schümann, R Scharfenort, J Schumacher, A J Forstner, C Baumann, M A Schiele, S Notzon, P Zwanzger, J G E Janzing, T Galesloot, L A Kiemeney, A Gajewska, E Glotzbach-Schoon, A Mühlberger, G Alpers, T Fydrich, L Fehm, A L Gerlach, T Kircher, T Lang, A Ströhle, V Arolt, H-U Wittchen, R Kalisch, C Büchel, A Hamm, M M Nöthen, M Romanos, K Domschke, P Pauli, A Reif
The molecular genetics of panic disorder (PD) with and without agoraphobia (AG) are still largely unknown and progress is hampered by small sample sizes. We therefore performed a genome-wide association study with a dimensional, PD/AG-related anxiety phenotype based on the Agoraphobia Cognition Questionnaire (ACQ) in a sample of 1370 healthy German volunteers of the CRC TRR58 MEGA study wave 1. A genome-wide significant association was found between ACQ and single non-coding nucleotide variants of the GLRB gene (rs78726293, P=3...
February 7, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144878/diverse-profiles-of-anxiety-related-disorders-in-fragile-x-cornelia-de-lange-and-rubinstein-taybi-syndromes
#12
Hayley Crawford, Jane Waite, Chris Oliver
Anxiety disorders are heightened in specific genetic syndromes in comparison to intellectual disability of heterogeneous aetiology. In this study, we described and contrasted anxiety symptomatology in fragile X (FXS), Cornelia de Lange (CdLS) and Rubinstein-Taybi syndromes (RTS), and compared the symptomatology to normative data for typically-developing children and children diagnosed with an anxiety disorder. Scores did not differ between children diagnosed with an anxiety disorder and (a) participants with FXS on social phobia, panic/agoraphobia, physical injury fears, and obsessive-compulsive subscales (b) participants with CdLS on separation anxiety, generalized anxiety, panic/agoraphobia, physical injury fears and obsessive-compulsive subscales, and (c) participants with RTS on panic/agoraphobia and obsessive-compulsive subscales...
January 31, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111610/a-twin-study-examining-rumination-as-a-transdiagnostic-correlate-of-psychopathology
#13
Daniel P Johnson, Soo Hyun Rhee, Naomi P Friedman, Robin P Corley, Melissa A Munn-Chernoff, John K Hewitt, Mark A Whisman
This study examined the genetic and environmental influences on rumination and its associations with several forms of psychopathology in a sample of adult twins (N = 744). Rumination was significantly associated with major depressive disorder, depressive symptoms, generalized anxiety disorder, eating pathology, and substance dependence symptoms. There were distinct patterns of etiological overlap between rumination and each form of psychopathology; rumination had considerable genetic overlap with depression, modest genetic overlap with eating pathology, and almost no genetic overlap with substance dependence...
November 2016: Clinical Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092418/an-examination-of-the-etiologic-overlap-between-the-genetic-and-environmental-influences-on-insomnia-and-common-psychopathology
#14
Mackenzie J Lind, Sage E Hawn, Christina M Sheerin, Steven H Aggen, Robert M Kirkpatrick, Kenneth S Kendler, Ananda B Amstadter
BACKGROUND: Insomnia is comorbid with internalizing and externalizing psychiatric disorders. However, the extent to which the etiologic influences on insomnia and common psychopathology overlap is unclear. There are limited genetically informed studies of insomnia and internalizing disorders and few studies of overlap exist with externalizing disorders. METHODS: We utilized twin data from the Virginia Adult Twin Studies of Psychiatric and Substance Use Disorders (total n = 7,500)...
May 2017: Depression and Anxiety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926743/antecedents-of-new-onset-major-depressive-disorder-in-children-and-adolescents-at-high-familial-risk
#15
Frances Rice, Ruth Sellers, Gemma Hammerton, Olga Eyre, Rhys Bevan-Jones, Ajay K Thapar, Stephan Collishaw, Gordon T Harold, Anita Thapar
Importance: Early-onset major depressive disorder (MDD) is common in individuals at high familial risk of depression and is associated with poor long-term mental health, social, and educational outcomes. Objectives: To examine the developmental pathways that lead to first-episode adolescent-onset MDD (incident cases) in those at high familial risk and to postulate a theoretically informed model that enables simultaneous testing of different pathways to incident adolescent-onset MDD composed of contributions from familial/genetic and social risk factors, as well as effects via specific clinical antecedents...
February 1, 2017: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888722/a-pilot-study-on-predictors-of-brainstem-raphe-abnormality-in-patients-with-major-depressive-disorder
#16
Milutin Kostić, Ana Munjiza, Danilo Pesic, Amir Peljto, Ivana Novakovic, Valerija Dobricic, Dusica Lecic Tosevski, Milija Mijajlovic
BACKGROUND: Hypo/anechogenicity of the brainstem raphe (BR) structures has been suggested as a possible transcranial parenchymal sonography (TCS) marker associated with depression. AIM: The aim of this study was to analyze possible association of the abnormal BR echogenicity in patients with major depression when compared to healthy controls, and to evaluate its clinical and genetic correlates. METHODS: TCS was performed in 53 patients diagnosed as major depressive disorder (MDD) without psychotic symptoms and in 54 healthy matched controls...
February 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834391/hippocampal-gabab-1a-receptors-constrain-generalized-contextual-fear
#17
Joseph F Lynch, Patrick Winiecki, T Lee Gilman, Jordan M Adkins, Aaron M Jasnow
Many anxiety disorders are characterized by generalization of fear responses to neutral or ambiguous stimuli. Therefore, a comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms contributing to generalized fear is essential for formulating successful treatments for anxiety disorders. Previous research shows that GABA-mediated presynaptic inhibition has a critical role in cued fear generalization, as animals with genetically deleted presynaptic GABAB(1a) receptors cannot discriminate between CS+ and CS- tones. Work from our laboratory has further identified that GABAB(1a) receptors are necessary for maintaining contextual memory precision, thereby constraining generalized contextual fear...
March 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27827293/vitamin-d-deficiency-behavioral-atypicality-anxiety-and-depression-in-children-with-chromosome-22q11-2-deletion-syndrome
#18
L Kelley, A F P Sanders, E A Beaton
Chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) is a complex developmental disorder with serious medical, cognitive and emotional symptoms across the lifespan. This genetic deletion also imparts a lifetime risk for developing schizophrenia that is 25-30 times that of the general population. The origin of this risk is multifactorial and may include dysregulation of the stress response and immunological systems in relation to brain development. Vitamin D is involved in brain development and neuroprotection, gene transcription, immunological regulation and influences neuronal signal transduction...
December 2016: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27741464/factor-analysis-of-temperament-and-personality-traits-in-bipolar-patients-correlates-with-comorbidity-and-disorder-severity
#19
REVIEW
Frank Qiu, Hagop S Akiskal, John R Kelsoe, Tiffany A Greenwood
BACKGROUND: Temperament and personality traits have been suggested as endophenotypes for bipolar disorder based on several lines of evidence, including heritability. Previous work suggested an anxious-reactive factor identified across temperament and personality inventories that produced significant group discrimination and could potentially be useful in genetic analyses. We have attempted to further characterize this factor structure in a sample of bipolar patients. METHODS: A sample of 1195 subjects with bipolar I disorder was evaluated, all with complete data available...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27708559/does-prenatal-valproate-interact-with-a-genetic-reduction-in-the-serotonin-transporter-a-rat-study-on-anxiety-and-cognition
#20
Bart A Ellenbroek, Caren August, Jiun Youn
There is ample evidence that prenatal exposure to valproate (or valproic acid, VPA) enhances the risk of developing Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). In line with this, a single injection of VPA induces a multitude of ASD-like symptoms in animals, such as rats and mice. However, there is equally strong evidence that genetic factors contribute significantly to the risk of ASD and indeed, like most other psychiatric disorders, ASD is now generally thought to results from an interaction between genetic and environmental factors...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
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