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Generalized anxiety disorder genetics

Michelle A Patriquin, Sanjay J Mathew
Two classification systems are now at the forefront of clinical psychiatric research: (1) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, Fifth Edition and (2) the National Institutes of Mental Health Research Domain Criteria. Herein, we propose that these two classification systems are complementary rather than mutually exclusive, and when combined provide important information for understanding aspects of the pathophysiology related to Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD). The neurobiological literature for GAD and one relevant research domain criteria component, sustained threat, are reviewed from multiple units of analysis (genetic, neuroimaging, neuroendocrine, and psychophysiological)...
June 8, 2017: Chronic Stress
Matthias Miesch, Arno Deister
AIMS AND METHODS: To examine the 12-month prevalence, risk factors, and comorbidity of ADHD in a collective of adult psychiatric patients admitted to an open general ward in a psychiatric hospital in Schleswig-Holstein (Germany) over a period of one year (n = 166). RESULTS: The 12 months prevalence of ADHD was 59.0 % (severe symptomatology: 33.1 %), high rates of comorbid disorders (92.9 % depression, 5.1 % bipolar disorder, 28.6 % anxiety disorder, 30...
February 28, 2018: Fortschritte der Neurologie-Psychiatrie
Joanna Martin, Mark J Taylor, Mina Rydell, Lucy Riglin, Olga Eyre, Yi Lu, Sebastian Lundström, Henrik Larsson, Anita Thapar, Paul Lichtenstein
BACKGROUND: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is more commonly diagnosed in males than in females. A growing body of research suggests that females with ADHD might be underdiagnosed or receive alternative diagnoses, such as anxiety or depression. Other lines of reasoning suggest that females might be protected from developing ADHD, requiring a higher burden of genetic risk to manifest the disorder. METHODS: We tested these two hypotheses, using common variant genetic data from two population-based cohorts...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
Ariana E Anderson, Stephen Marder, Steven P Reise, Adam Savitz, Giacomo Salvadore, Dong Jing Fu, Qingqin Li, Ibrahim Turkoz, Carol Han, Robert M Bilder
Objective: Common genetic variation spans schizophrenia, schizoaffective and bipolar disorders, but historically, these syndromes have been distinguished categorically. A symptom dimension shared across these syndromes, if such a general factor exists, might provide a clearer target for understanding and treating mental illnesses that share core biological bases. Method: We tested the hypothesis that a bifactor model of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), containing 1 general factor and 5 specific factors (positive, negative, disorganized, excited, anxiety), explains the cross-diagnostic structure of symptoms better than the traditional 5-factor model, and examined the extent to which a general factor reflects the overall severity of symptoms spanning diagnoses in 5094 total patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia, schizoaffective, and bipolar disorder...
February 6, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Judit Lazary, Nora Eszlari, Gabriella Juhasz, Gyorgy Bagdy
BACKGROUND: Accumulating data confirmed that the endocannabinoid system (ECS) is involved in the regulation of stress response and emotional processes, therefore ECS became an important pharmacological target as a potential anxiolytic. Although unequivocal data from animal studies confirmed the relevancy of the ECS in anxious phenotype, human genetic data are poorly available in the literature in this field. In the presented studies we tested possible associations between anxious phenotype and the cannabinoid receptor 1 and the fatty acid amide hydrolase gene polymorphisms...
December 2017: Neuropsychopharmacologia Hungarica
Marilyn Huckans, Clare J Wilhelm, Tamara J Phillips, Elaine T Huang, Rebekah Hudson, Jennifer M Loftis
BACKGROUND: Methamphetamine (MA) abuse causes immune dysfunction and neuropsychiatric impairment. The mechanisms underlying these deficits remain unidentified. METHODS: The effects of MA on anxiety-like behavior and immune function were investigated in mice selectively bred to voluntarily consume high amounts of MA [i.e., MA high drinking (MAHDR) mice]. MA (or saline) was administered to mice using a chronic (14-day), binge-like model. Performance in the elevated zero maze (EZM) was determined 5 days after the last MA dose to examine anxiety-like behavior...
January 18, 2018: Neuropsychobiology
Eric Rubenstein, Lisa D Wiggins, Laura A Schieve, Chyrise Bradley, Carolyn DiGuiseppi, Eric Moody, Juhi Pandey, Rebecca Edmondson Pretzel, Annie Green Howard, Andrew F Olshan, Brian W Pence, Julie Daniels
The autism spectrum disorder phenotype varies by social and communication ability and co-occurring developmental, behavioral, and medical conditions. Etiology is also diverse, with myriad potential genetic origins and environmental risk factors. Examining the influence of parental broader autism phenotype-a set of sub-clinical characteristics of autism spectrum disorder-on child autism spectrum disorder phenotypes may help reduce heterogeneity in potential genetic predisposition for autism spectrum disorder...
January 1, 2018: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
Jie Song, Ralf Kuja-Halkola, Arvid Sjölander, Sarah E Bergen, Henrik Larsson, Mikael Landén, Paul Lichtenstein
BACKGROUND: Uncertainty remains whether bipolar I disorder (BDI) and bipolar II disorder (BDII) differ etiologically. We used a population-based family sample to examine the etiological boundaries between BDI and BDII by assessing their familial aggregation/coaggregation and by assessing the coaggregation between them and schizophrenia, depression, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, eating disorders, autism spectrum disorder, substance use disorders, anxiety disorders, and personality disorders...
November 20, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
Inge B Mathijssen, Kim C A Holtkamp, Cecile P E Ottenheim, Janneke M C van Eeten-Nijman, Phillis Lakeman, Hanne Meijers-Heijboer, Merel C van Maarle, Lidewij Henneman
Technological developments have enabled carrier screening for multiple disorders. This study evaluated experiences with a preconception carrier screening offer for four recessive disorders in a Dutch founder population. Questionnaires were completed by 182 attendees pretesting and posttesting and by 137 non-attendees. Semistructured interviews were conducted with seven of the eight carrier couples. Attendees were mainly informed about the existence of screening by friends/colleagues (49%) and family members (44%)...
February 2018: European Journal of Human Genetics: EJHG
Veronica Tucci, Nidal Moukaddam, Jonathan Meadows, Suhal Shah, Sagar C Galwankar, G Bobby Kapur
The media and public health generally focus on the biological and physical ramifications of epidemics. Mental health issues that coincide with emerging diseases and epidemics are rarely examined and sometimes, even eschewed due to cultural considerations. Psychiatric manifestations of various infectious diseases, especially with a focus on Ebola Virus disease (EVD) and Zika Virus, are discussed in this commentary to illustrate the continued need of care after the resolution of the actual illness. Various infectious diseases have associations with mental illness, such as an increased risk of obsessive-compulsive disorders and Tourette syndrome in children with Group B streptococcal infection...
October 2017: Journal of Global Infectious Diseases
Frank Mc Besag
Autism is more common in people with epilepsy, approximately 20%, and epilepsy is more common in people with autism with reported rates of approximately 20%. However, these figures are likely to be affected by the current broader criteria for autism spectrum disorder (ASD), which have contributed to an increased prevalence of autism, with the result that the rate for ASD in epilepsy is likely to be higher and the figure for epilepsy in ASD is likely to be lower. Some evidence suggests that there are two peaks of epilepsy onset in autism, in infancy and adolescence...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Isabelle Tremblay, Anne-Marie Laberge, Dominique Cousineau, Lionel Carmant, Anita Rowan, Annie Janvier
AIM: Investigate paediatricians' expectations and perspectives of genetic testing for children with developmental disorders. METHODS: Paediatricians working in a developmental clinic were surveyed each time they ordered a chromosomal microarray (CMA) for a child with developmental disorders. Clinical charts were reviewed. Results were analysed using mixed methodology. RESULTS: Ninety-seven % (73/76) of surveys were completed. Pediatricians reported that 36% of parents had difficulties understanding genetic testing and that 40% seemed anxious...
December 27, 2017: Acta Paediatrica
Lucy Riglin, Stephan Collishaw, Alexander Richards, Ajay K Thapar, Frances Rice, Barbara Maughan, Michael C O'Donovan, Anita Thapar
BACKGROUND: Previous studies find that both schizophrenia and mood disorder risk alleles contribute to adult depression and anxiety. Emotional problems (depression or anxiety) begin in childhood and show strong continuities into adult life; this suggests that symptoms are the manifestation of the same underlying liability across different ages. However, other findings suggest that there are developmental differences in the etiology of emotional problems at different ages. To our knowledge, no study has prospectively examined the impact of psychiatric risk alleles on emotional problems at different ages in the same individuals...
December 14, 2017: Psychological Medicine
Sarah L Gardiner, Martine J van Belzen, Merel W Boogaard, Willeke M C van Roon-Mom, Maarten P Rozing, Albert M van Hemert, Johannes H Smit, Aartjan T F Beekman, Gerard van Grootheest, Robert A Schoevers, Richard C Oude Voshaar, Raymund A C Roos, Hannie C Comijs, Brenda W J H Penninx, Roos C van der Mast, N Ahmad Aziz
Huntington disease (HD) is a severe neuropsychiatric disorder caused by a cytosine-adenine-guanine (CAG) repeat expansion in the HTT gene. Although HD is frequently complicated by depression, it is still unknown to what extent common HTT CAG repeat size variations in the normal range could affect depression risk in the general population. Using binary logistic regression, we assessed the association between HTT CAG repeat size and depression risk in two well-characterized Dutch cohorts─the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety and the Netherlands Study of Depression in Older Persons─including 2165 depressed and 1058 non-depressed persons...
December 11, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
F A Torvik, E Ystrom, K Gustavson, T H Rosenström, J G Bramness, N Gillespie, S H Aggen, K S Kendler, T Reichborn-Kjennerud
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether diagnostic data from structured interviews, primary care and specialist care registries on major depressive disorder (MDD), anxiety disorders (AD) and alcohol use disorder (AUD) identify the same individuals, yield comparable comorbidity estimates and reflect the same genetic influences. METHODS: Registry data from primary and specialist care were available for 11 727 twins and diagnostic interview data for 2271 of these. We used logistic regression analyses and biometric modelling to investigate the overlap between the data sources...
January 2018: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
Jessica L Bolton, Jenny Molet, Limor Regev, Yuncai Chen, Neggy Rismanchi, Elizabeth Haddad, Derek Z Yang, Andre Obenaus, Tallie Z Baram
BACKGROUND: Anhedonia, the diminished ability to experience pleasure, is an important dimensional entity linked to depression, schizophrenia, and other emotional disorders, but its origins and mechanisms are poorly understood. We have previously identified anhedonia, manifest as decreased sucrose preference and social play, in adolescent male rats that experienced chronic early-life adversity/stress (CES). Here we probed the molecular, cellular, and circuit processes underlying CES-induced anhedonia and tested them mechanistically...
January 15, 2018: Biological Psychiatry
L Riglin, O Eyre, M Cooper, S Collishaw, J Martin, K Langley, E Leibenluft, A Stringaris, A K Thapar, B Maughan, M C O'Donovan, A Thapar
Severe irritability is one of the commonest reasons prompting referral to mental health services. It is frequently seen in neurodevelopmental disorders that manifest early in development, especially attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, irritability can also be conceptualized as a mood problem because of its links with anxiety/depressive disorders; notably DSM-5 currently classifies severe, childhood-onset irritability as a mood disorder. Investigations into the genetic nature of irritability are lacking although twin studies suggest it shares genetic risks with both ADHD and depression...
September 26, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
Diana Müller, Eugenio H Grevet, Alana C Panzenhagen, Renata B Cupertino, Bruna S da Silva, Djenifer B Kappel, Nina R Mota, Paula Blaya-Rocha, Stefania P Teche, Eduardo S Vitola, Luis A Rohde, Verônica Contini, Diego L Rovaris, Jaqueline B Schuch, Claiton H D Bau
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a very common psychiatric disorder across the life cycle and frequently presents comorbidities. Since ADHD is highly heritable, several studies have focused in the underlying genetic factors involved in its etiology. One of the major challenges in this search is the phenotypic heterogeneity, which could be partly attributable to the sexual dimorphism frequently seen in psychiatric disorders. Taking into account the well-known sexual dimorphic effect observed in serotonergic system characteristics, we differentially tested the influence of HTR1B SNPs (rs11568817, rs130058, rs6296 and rs13212041) on ADHD susceptibility and on its major comorbidities according to sex...
December 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Jaqueline B Schuch, Julia P Genro, Clarissa R Bastos, Gabriele Ghisleni, Luciana Tovo-Rodrigues
The circadian clock system drives daily rhythms in physiology, metabolism, and behavior in mammals. Molecular mechanisms of this system consist of multiple clock genes, with Circadian Locomotor Output Cycles Kaput (CLOCK) as a core member that plays an important role in a wide range of behaviors. Alterations in the CLOCK gene are associated with common psychiatric disorders as well as with circadian disturbances comorbidities. This review addresses animal, molecular, and genetic studies evaluating the role of the CLOCK gene on many psychiatric conditions, namely autism spectrum disorder, schizophrenia, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, anxiety disorder, and substance use disorder...
September 13, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics
Michael G Gottschalk, Katharina Domschke
This review serves as a systematic guide to the genetics of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and further focuses on anxiety-relevant endophenotypes, such as pathological worry fear of uncertainty, and neuroticism. We inspect clinical genetic evidence for the familialityl heritability of GAD and cross-disorder phenotypes based on family and twin studies. Recent advances of linkage studies, genome-wide association studies, and candidate gene studies (eg, 5-HTT, 5-HT1A, MAOA, BDNF) are outlined. Functional and structural neuroimaging and neurophysiological readouts relating to peripheral stress markers and psychophysiology are further integrated, building a multilevel disease framework...
June 2017: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience
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