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Narayan Balaji, Suresh P Sulochana, Neeraj Kumar Saini, Siva Kumar A, Ramesh Mullangi
A simple, selective and reliable LC-MS/MS method was developed and validated for the simultaneous quantitation of darolutamide diastereomers (diastereomer-1 and diastereomer-2) and its active metabolite i. e. ORM-15341 in mice plasma using warfarin as an internal standard (IS) as per the regulatory guidelines. Plasma samples were extracted by liquid-liquid extraction and the chromatographic separation was achieved on a Chiralpak IA column with an isocratic mobile phase 5 mM ammonium acetate:absolute alcohol (20:80, v/v) at a flow rate of 1...
March 20, 2018: Drug Research
Geralyn R Timler
Conversation skills are an important intervention focus for verbally fluent school-aged children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Three sets of approaches for supporting conversation skills are reviewed. Pragmatic language approaches focus on teaching the verbal and nonverbal skills needed to initiate and maintain conversations including strategies for recognizing and repairing communication breakdowns. Social skill approaches focus on similar conversation behaviors, but these behaviors are usually taught for use within specific social tasks such as entering peer groups, maintaining interactions, and resolving conflicts...
April 2018: Seminars in Speech and Language
Beena Negi, Prija Poonan, Mohammad Fawad Ansari, Deepak Kumar, Sakshi Aggarwal, Ramandeep Singh, Amir Azam, Diwan S Rawat
A series of 22 novel metronidazole-triazole-styryl hybrids were synthesized and evaluated for their in vitro antiamoebic activity against HM1: IMSS strain of Entamoeba histolytica. Some of the hybrids were found to be more active (IC50  = 0.12-0.35 μM) than the reference drug metronidazole (IC50  = 1.79 μM). The most active compounds were found to be non-toxic (up to 50 μM) against the Vero cells showing a good safety profile of these hybrids. The docking and ADMET studies were also conducted to investigate the probable mode of action...
March 13, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Viviana Izzo, Bruno Charlier, Elena Bloise, Marine Pingeon, Marianna Romano, Antonietta Finelli, Alfonso Vietri, Valeria Conti, Valentina Manzo, Maria Alfieri, Amelia Filippelli, Fabrizio Dal Piaz
Exposure of healthcare workers to anticancer drugs requires the combined action of environmental and biological monitoring to assess the effective level of exposure to these chemicals, to improve awareness and to avoid adverse health effects on this category of workers. Cancer chemotherapeutic drugs show different mechanisms of action due to diverse chemical structures; consequently, they differ in hydrophobicity, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Therefore, the appearance, accumulation and elimination of each of these molecules in body fluids and tissues might be extremely variable; this prompts the need for a rapid and versatile analytical protocol for the biological monitoring of possible exposure of workers involved in the manipulation, administration and disposal of cancer chemotherapeutic drugs...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Sara Tze Kwan Li, Janet Hui-Wen Hsiao
Music notation and English word reading both involve mapping horizontally arranged visual components to components in sound, in contrast to reading in logographic languages such as Chinese. Accordingly, music-reading expertise may influence English word processing more than Chinese character processing. Here we showed that musicians named English words significantly faster than non-musicians when words were presented in the left visual field/right hemisphere (RH) or the center position, suggesting an advantage of RH processing due to music reading experience...
March 17, 2018: Cognition
Li-Ping Hou, Hongxing Chen, Chang-En Tian, Ye Liang, Rong-Rong Wu, Xing-Mei Zhang, Xu-Wen Fang, Cui-Ping Zhang, Jun-Jie Hu, Li-Ying Song, Yan-Qiu Liang, Daniel Schlenk, Lingtian Xie
Synthetic hormones in wastewater effluents released into the aquatic environments may interfere with the normal endocrine systems of fish in receiving streams. Norgestrel (NGT) is a synthetic progestin widely used in oral contraceptives and frequently detected in wastewater effluents. In this study, adult female mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) were exposed to three environmentally relevant concentrations of norgestrel (NGT) (i.e., 3.6, 35.8, and 368.0 ng L-1) for 42 d, fin morphology, histology of the ovary, and reproductive behaviors were evaluated...
March 13, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
Beth E Meyerson, Alissa Davis, Jon D Agley, David J Shannon, Carrie A Lawrence, Priscilla T Ryder, Karleen Ritchie, Ruth Gassman
BACKGROUND: Pharmacies have much to contribute to the health of people who inject drugs (PWID) and to community efforts in HIV and hepatitis C (HCV) prevention through syringe access. However, little is known about what predicts pharmacy syringe sales without a prescription. OBJECTIVE: To identify factors predicting pharmacy syringes sales to PWID. METHODS: A hybrid staggered online survey of 298 Indiana community pharmacists occurred from July-September 2016 measuring pharmacy policy, practice, and pharmacist perceptions about syringe sales to PWID...
March 17, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
Eva Kudrnáčová, Luděk Bartoň, Daniel Bureš, Louwrens C Hoffman
Deer species are utilised for food, hunting and other products throughout the world. Consumers are typically exposed to venison derived predominantly from both farm-raised or wild fallow (Dama dama) and red deer (Cervus elaphus). The production of venison under farm conditions, compared to the meat of deer hunted in the wild, allows for a regular supply of a consistently good meat. It is lean, tasty, and rich in proteins and minerals, with a low content of fat and cholesterol. Overall, the worldwide demand for meat is still growing, and both the potential of farming deer species and their use as meat producers have led to an increased interest in venison...
March 8, 2018: Meat Science
Tobias M R Houlton, Caroline Wilkinson
Shrunken heads are a mummification phenomenon unique to South America. Ceremonial tsantsa are ritually reduced heads from enemy victims of the Shuar, Achuar, Awajún (Aguaruna), Wampís (Huambisa), and Candoshi-Shapra cultures. Commercial shrunken heads are comparatively modern and fraudulently produced for the curio-market, often using stolen bodies from hospital mortuaries and graves. To achieve shrinkage and desiccation, heads undergo skinning, simmering (in water) and drying. Considering the intensive treatments applied, this research aims to identify how the facial structure can alter and impact identification using post-mortem depiction...
March 6, 2018: Forensic Science International
David H Kingsley, Rafael E Pérez-Pérez, Brendan A Niemira, Xuetong Fan
To determine the effectiveness of gaseous chlorine dioxide (gClO2 ) against a human norovirus surrogate on produce, gClO2 was generated and applied to Tulane virus-coated blueberries in a 240 ml-treatment chamber. gClO2 was produced by an acidifying sodium chlorite solution. Initial assessments indicated that blueberries treated with gClO2 generated from ≤1 mg acidified sodium chlorite in the small chamber appeared unaffected while gClO2 generated from ≥10 mg of acidified sodium chlorite solution altered the appearance and quality of the blueberries...
February 1, 2018: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Fengbo Li, Xiaoyu Li, Pu Cui
Paecilomyces catenlannulatus (P. catenlannulatus) as a genus of entomogenous fungus presented a variety of surface reactive groups by batch characterizations. The detoxification of U(VI) by P. catenlannulatus was investigated under different water chemistry (pH, incubation time, foreign anions and U(VI) concentration) by batch techniques. Approximately 75% of U(VI) was reduced to U(IV) (i.e., U(IV) O2 (s)) by P. catenlannulatus at pH 5.5 and 7 days under glovebox conditions, therefore the formation of precipitates decreased the toxicity of U(VI) for P...
March 17, 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Robert S Wilson, Ana W Capuano, Lei Yu, Jingyun Yang, Namhee Kim, Sue E Leurgans, Melissa Lamar, Julie A Schneider, David A Bennett, Patricia A Boyle
Retest learning impacts estimates of cognitive aging, but its bases are uncertain. Here, we test the hypothesis that dementia-related neurodegeneration impairs retest learning. Older persons without cognitive impairment at enrollment (n = 567) had annual cognitive testing for a mean of 11 years, died, and had a neuropathologic examination to quantify 5 neurodegenerative pathologies. Change point models were used to divide cognitive trajectories into an early retest sensitive component and a later component less sensitive to retest...
March 17, 2018: Neurobiology of Aging
Francielle Tatiana Mathias, Douglas Henrique Fockink, Geonildo Rodrigo Disner, Viviane Prodocimo, João Luiz Coelho Ribas, Luiz Pereira Ramos, Marta Margarete Cestari, Helena Cristina Silva de Assis
Ibuprofen is a pharmaceutical drug widely used by the global population and it has been found in aquatic ecosystems in several countries. This study evaluated the effects of ibuprofen in environmental concentrations (0, 0.1, 1 and 10 μg/L) on the freshwaterspecies Rhamdia quelen exposed for 14 days. In the posterior kidney, ibuprofen increased glutathione-S-transferase activity in all groups exposed. Furthermore, increased glutathione peroxidase activity and the levels of reduced glutathione in the group exposed to 10 μg/L...
March 11, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
É Duvelle, K J Jeffery
How does the brain represent the location of others? Recordings in rats and bats show that, along with representing self-location in an environment, some hippocampal neurons are modulated by the position of another individual.
March 19, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Xiaowei Cong, Xijin Xu, Long Xu, Minghui Li, Cheng Xu, Qilin Qin, Xia Huo
Air pollution is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD), and cardiovascular regulatory changes in childhood contribute to the development and progression of cardiovascular events at older ages. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of air pollutant exposure on the child sympatho-adrenomedullary (SAM) system, which plays a vital role in regulating and controlling the cardiovascular system. Two plasma biomarkers (plasma epinephrine and norepinephrine) of SAM activity and heart rate were measured in preschool children (n = 228) living in Guiyu, and native (n = 104) and non-native children (n = 91) living in a reference area (Haojiang) for >1 year...
March 17, 2018: Environment International
Andrea Knöller, Stefan Kilper, Achim Diem, Marc Widenmeyer, Tomce Runcevski, Robert E Dinnebier, Joachim Bill, Zaklina Burghard
The demand to outperform current technologies pushes scientists to develop novel strategies to enable fabricating materials with exceptional properties. Along this line, lightweight structural materials are of great interest due to their versatile applicability as sensors, catalysts, battery electrodes and acoustic or mechanical dampers. Here we report a strategy to design ultralight (ρ = 3 mg/cm3) and hierarchically structured ceramic scaffolds of macroscopic size. Such scaffolds exhibit mechanical reversibility comparable to that of microscopic metamaterials, leading to a macroscopically remarkable dynamic mechanical performance...
March 20, 2018: Nano Letters
Karina Panczyk, Karolina Gaweda, Mateusz Drach, Wojciech Plazinski
An extension of the GROMOS 56a6CARBO/CARBO_R force field for hexopyranose-based carbohydrates is presented. The additional parameters describe the conformational properties of uronate residues. The three distinct chemical states of the carboxyl group are considered: deprotonated (negatively charged), protonated (neutral) and esterified (neutral). The parameterization procedure was based on quantum-chemical calculations and the resulting parameters were tested in the context of: (i) flexibility of the pyranose rings under different pH conditions; (ii) conformation of the glycosidic linkage of the (1→4)-type for uronates with different chemical states of carboxyl moieties; (iii) conformation of the exocyclic (i...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
T W Pike, F Mushtaq, R P Mann, P Chambers, G Hall, J E Tomlinson, R Mir, R M Wilkie, M Mon-Williams, J P A Lodge
BACKGROUND: Recent reviews suggest that the way in which surgeons prepare for a procedure (warm up) can affect performance. Operating lists present a natural experiment to explore this phenomenon. The aim was to use a routinely collected large data set on surgical procedures to understand the relationship between case list order and operative performance. METHOD: Theatre lists involving the 35 procedures performed most frequently by senior surgeons across 38 private hospitals in the UK over 26 months were examined...
March 20, 2018: British Journal of Surgery
Sabato Santaniello, John T Gale, Sridevi V Sarma
Over the last 30 years, deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been used to treat chronic neurological diseases like dystonia, obsessive-compulsive disorders, essential tremor, Parkinson's disease, and more recently, dementias, depression, cognitive disorders, and epilepsy. Despite its wide use, DBS presents numerous challenges for both clinicians and engineers. One challenge is the design of novel, more efficient DBS therapies, which are hampered by the lack of complete understanding about the cellular mechanisms of therapeutic DBS...
March 20, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Systems Biology and Medicine
Marine Cotte, Tiphaine Fabris, Juliette Langlois, Ludovic Bellot-Gurlet, Françoise Ploye, Natalie Coural, Clotilde Boust, Jean-Paul Gandolfo, Thomas Galifot, Jean Susini
Louis Ducos du Huron (1837-1920) dedicated his entire life to the elaboration of physical-chemical processes for color photography. This study aimed at highlighting his unique contribution to three-color printing through 1) an in-depth review of the many protocols he published and 2) the synchrotron-based IR and X-ray microanalysis of fragments sampled in three artworks. Ducos du Hauron's method relied on the preparation and assembly of three monochromes (red, blue, yellow). This study brings to light complex multistep recipes based on photochemistry (carbon print), organic, and inorganic chemistry...
March 20, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
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