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Grzegorz Bauman, Francesco Santini, Orso Pusterla, Oliver Bieri
PURPOSE: To present a technique for simultaneous mapping of T1 , T2 , and relative spin density (M0 ) in human lung using inversion recovery ultra-fast steady-state free precession (IR-ufSSFP) imaging. METHODS: Pulmonary relaxometry with IR-ufSSFP is based on an interleaved time series acquisition of 2D images acquired at 1.5T. The technique was tested in a phantom and in four healthy volunteers using breath-hold and electrocardiogram triggering. Typically, 30 transient state images were acquired in a single breath-hold within < 10 s...
October 19, 2016: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
Sharon L I Wong, Maria B Sukkar
Secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC) is a matricellular protein which regulates interactions between cells and their surrounding extracellular matrix (ECM), and thus governs fundamental cellular functions such as cell adhesion, proliferation and differentiation. SPARC also regulates the expression and activity of numerous growth factors and matrix metalloproteinases essential for ECM degradation and turnover. Studies in SPARC-null mice have revealed a critical role for SPARC in tissue development, injury and repair, and in the regulation of the immune response...
October 19, 2016: British Journal of Pharmacology
Deng-Wei Chou, Shu-Ling Wu, Kuo-Mou Chung, Shu-Chen Han, Bruno Man-Hon Cheung
OBJECTIVES: Septic pulmonary embolism is an uncommon but life-threatening disorder. However, data on patients with septic pulmonary embolism who require critical care have not been well reported. This study elucidated the clinicoradiological spectrum, causative pathogens and outcomes of septic pulmonary embolism in patients requiring critical care. METHODS: The electronic medical records of 20 patients with septic pulmonary embolism who required intensive care unit admission between January 2005 and December 2013 were reviewed...
October 1, 2016: Clinics
Zhi-Gang Chu, Bo Sheng, Meng-Qi Liu, Fa-Jin Lv, Qi Li, Yu Ouyang
OBJECTIVES: To clarify differences between solitary pulmonary inflammatory lesions and peripheral lung cancers with contrast-enhanced computed tomography. METHODS: In total, 64 and 132 patients with solitary pulmonary inflammatory masses/nodules and peripheral lung cancers, respectively, were enrolled in this study. Their computed tomographic findings were summarized and compared retrospectively. RESULTS: Compared with the peripheral lung cancers, the inflammatory lesions were located closer to the pleura (p<0...
October 1, 2016: Clinics
Miguel José Francisco, Antonio Rahal, Fabio Augusto Cardillo Vieira, Paulo Savoia Dias da Silva, Marcelo Buarque de Gusmão Funari
Ultrasound examination of the chest has advanced in recent decades. This imaging modality is currently used to diagnose several pathological conditions and provides qualitative and quantitative information. Acoustic barriers represented by the aerated lungs and the bony framework of the chest generate well-described sonographic artifacts that can be used as diagnostic aids. The normal pleural line and A, B, C, E and Z lines (also known as false B lines) are artifacts with specific characteristics. Lung consolidation and pneumothorax sonographic patterns are also well established...
July 2016: Einstein
Pedro Nazareth Aguiar, Gustavo Trautman Stock, Gilberto de Lima Lopes, Michelle Samora de Almeida, Hakaru Tadokoro, Bárbara de Souza Gutierres, Douglas Antônio Rodrigues
Objective: To assess aspects related to cancer in indigenous population. Methods: This is a retrospective study developed in a public university hospital. We included patients with 18 or more years of age, diagnosed with solid tumors, and followed between 2005 and 2015. Clinical features were assessed by descriptive statistics, and survival was evaluated by Kaplan-Meier curves and multivariate Cox regression. Results: Fifty patients were included...
July 2016: Einstein
Suleiman Ezoubi, Hassan Kahal, William Stephen Waring
MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxymethamfetamine, Ecstasy) is a widely used recreational drug. We present a case of pneumomediastinum as a complication of MDMA use in a 21-year-old man with no previous history of lung or gastrointestinal pathology. We have performed a literature review, and summarised the symptoms, signs, and prognosis for this under-recognised complication of a commonly used recreational drug. We recommend enquiring about illicit drug use in any patient presenting with spontaneous pneumomediastinum.
2016: Acute Medicine
Nancy Sharma, Boris G Naraev, Eric G Engelman, M Bridget Zimmerman, David L Bushnell, Thomas M OʼDorisio, M Sue OʼDorisio, Yusuf Menda, Jan Müller-Brand, James R Howe, Thorvardur R Halfdanarson
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to describe the outcomes of patients in the University of Iowa Neuroendocrine Tumor (NET) Database treated with peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT). METHODS: One hundred thirty-five patients from the University of Iowa NET Database who received PRRT were analyzed, their characteristics were described, and survival was calculated. RESULTS: The median age at diagnosis was 51 years, and 64% were men...
October 18, 2016: Pancreas
Neslihan Akdoğan, Başak Yalçn, Güneş Gür Aksoy, Elvan Evrim Tuna, Devrim Tuba Ünal
Plasma cell granuloma (PCG) is an uncommon benign tumor of unknown etiology, primarily located in the lungs. We report a case of PCG on the gingiva mimicking benign and malignant tumors in a 56-year-old woman. Histopathological examination revealed a relatively sharp circumscribed inflammatory cell infiltration under the mucosa-containing plasma cells, predominantly those including Russell bodies. Plasma cells are stained by CD138 immunohistochemistry. Polyclonal status of the lesion was confirmed by kappa and lambda light chaining...
October 18, 2016: American Journal of Dermatopathology
Yi Cheng, Mu Jin, Xiuhua Dong, Lizhong Sun, Jing Liu, Rong Wang, Yanwei Yang, Peirong Lin, Siyu Hou, Yuehua Ma, Yuefeng Wang, Xudong Pan, Jiakai Lu, Weiping Cheng
BACKGROUND: Stanford type-A acute aortic dissection (AAD) is a severe cardiovascular disease demonstrating the characteristics of acute onset and rapid development, with high morbidity and mortality. The available evidence shows that preoperative acute lung injury (ALI) induced by Stanford type-A AAD is a frequent and important cause for a number of untoward consequences. However, there is no study assessing the incidence of preoperative ALI and its independent determinants before Standford type-A AAD surgery in Chinese adult patients...
October 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Ping Wei, Jia-Wei Yang, Hai-Wen Lu, Bei Mao, Wen-Lan Yang, Jin-Fu Xu
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: There is presently no clear evidence on the effect of combined treatment for non-cystic fibrosis (non-CF) bronchiectasis with inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) and long-acting β2-adrenergic agonist (LABA). The objective of this study is to assess the efficacy and safety of salmeterol-fluticasone combined inhaled therapy for non-CF bronchiectasis with airflow limitation. METHODS: An observational study was performed in 120 non-CF bronchiectasis patients diagnosed by high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) scanning of the chest...
October 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Lea Bottlaender, Marie Perier-Muzet, Véronique Lapras, Luc Thomas, Stephane Dalle
BRAF inhibitors (vemurafenib and dabrafenib) are nowadays commonly prescribed in BRAF-mutant metastatic melanoma and allow improvement of the overall survival and progression-free survival. They are, however, accompanied by many adverse effects which mainly affect the skin. We observed on computed tomographic scans in three different patients after 3 months of treatment, the onset of osteosclerotic lesions. In parallel, the computed tomographic scans showed a significant reduction in all of the previously identified metastases in all patients...
October 18, 2016: Melanoma Research
Jonathan A Micieli, Edward A Margolin
Paraneoplastic optic neuropathy (PON) is a rare cause of vision loss usually associated with small cell lung cancer. Patients with this condition usually test positive for anti-collapsin response mediating protein-5 (CRMP-5). We describe a case of a 57-year-old woman with bilateral vision loss with the characteristic features of CRMP-5 PON including bilateral optic disc edema and vitreous cells. However, she was negative for anti-CRMP-5 including a negative Western blot on two occasions, but positive for Purkinje Cell Antibody (PCA)-2...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Neuro-ophthalmology: the Official Journal of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society
Shadi Shafaghi, Azizollah Abbasi Dezfuli, Zahra Ansari Aval, Kambiz Sheikhy, Behrooz Farzanegan, Esmaeil Mortaz, Habib Emami, Clemens Aigner, Fatemeh Sadat Hosseini-Baharanchi, Katayoun Najafizadeh
OBJECTIVES: Although the number of lung transplants is limited because of general shortage of organ donors, ex vivo lung perfusion is a novel method with 2 main benefits, including better evaluation of lung potential and recovery of injured lungs. The main aim of this study was to establish and operationalize ex vivo lung perfusion as the first experience in Iran. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a prospective operational research study on 5 cases, including 1 pig from Vienna Medical University and 4 patients from Masih Daneshvari Hospital...
October 14, 2016: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
Behjatolah Monzavi-Karbassi, Fariba Jousheghany, Thomas Kieber-Emmons
Development of cancer vaccines targeting tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) is an alternative approach to chemotherapy with sustained anti-tumor effects. The success of active immunotherapy has been hampered by tumor-induced immune suppressors. Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are a population of immune suppressors with a proven role in regulating anti-tumor immune responses. Removing or subduing Tregs activity leads to more robust anti-tumor immune responses. Here, we used a cell-based vaccination strategy in the 4T1 murine mammary model to examine whether bulk removal of certain TAAs, using their glycan profile, can affect the immunogenicity of the vaccine...
October 19, 2016: Immunological Investigations
Fatemeh Nooshabadi, Hee-Jeong Yang, Yunfeng Cheng, Madeleine S Durkee, Hexin Xie, Jianghong Rao, Jeffrey D Cirillo, Kristen C Maitland
Tuberculosis is a pulmonary disease with an especially high mortality rate in immuno-compromised populations, specifically children and HIV positive individuals. The causative agent, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), is a very slow growing and difficult organism to work with, making both diagnosis and development of effective treatments cumbersome. We utilize a fiber-optic fluorescence microendoscope integrated with a whole-body imaging system for in vivo Mtb detection. The system exploits an endogenous enzyme of Mtb (β-lactamase, or BlaC) using a BlaC-specific NIR fluorogenic substrate...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Biophotonics
Jinhua Sun, Yinglin Chen, Feiyue Qin, Xueting Guan, Wei Xu, Liangmei Xu
Interferons have attracted considerable attention due to their vital roles in the host immune response and low induction of antibiotic resistance. In this study, total RNA was extracted from spleen cells of chicken embryos inoculated with Newcastle disease vaccine, and the full-length chicken interferon-γ (ChIFN-γ) gene was amplified by RT-PCR. The full complementary DNA sequence of the ChIFN-γ gene was 495 bp long and was cloned into the prokaryotic expression vector pProEX™HTb . The plasmid was transformed into Escherichia coli DH5α and the expression of ChIFN-γ was induced by isopropyl β-D-1-thiogalactopyranoside...
October 17, 2016: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
Chenguang Wang, Daniel O Scharfstein, Elizabeth Colantuoni, Timothy D Girard, Ying Yan
In randomized studies involving severely ill patients, functional outcomes are often unobserved due to missed clinic visits, premature withdrawal, or death. It is well known that if these unobserved functional outcomes are not handled properly, biased treatment comparisons can be produced. In this article, we propose a procedure for comparing treatments that is based on a composite endpoint that combines information on both the functional outcome and survival. We further propose a missing data imputation scheme and sensitivity analysis strategy to handle the unobserved functional outcomes not due to death...
October 17, 2016: Biometrics
Hideharu Kimura, Shingo Nishikawa, Hayato Koba, Taro Yoneda, Takashi Sone, Kazuo Kasahara
Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) T790M mutation is associated with resistance to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors' (EGFR-TKIs) in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The aims of this study are to develop a blood-based, non-invasive approach to detecting the EGFR T790M mutation in advanced NSCLC patients, using PointMan™ EGFR DNA Enrichment Kit which is a novel method for selective amplification of genotype specific sequences.Pairs of blood samples and tumor tissues were collected from NSCLC patients with an EGFR activating mutation and who were resistant to EGFR-TKI treatment...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Hongdo Do, Daniel Cameron, Ramyar Molania, Bibhusal Thapa, Gareth Rivalland, Paul L Mitchell, Carmel Murone, Thomas John, Anthony Papenfuss, Alexander Dobrovic
Identifying circulating tumour DNA (ctDNA) for monitoring of cancer therapy is dependent on the development of readily designed, sensitive cancer-specific DNA markers. Genomic rearrangements that are present in the vast majority of cancers provide such markers.Tumour DNA isolated from two fresh-frozen lung tumours underwent whole genome sequencing. Genomic rearrangements were detected using a new computational algorithm, GRIDSS. Four genomic rearrangements from each tumour were chosen for further study using rearrangement-specific primers...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
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