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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222118/social-structural-behavioral-and-clinical-factors-influencing-retention-in-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-prep-care-in-mississippi
#1
Trisha Arnold, Lauren Brinkley-Rubinstein, Philip A Chan, Amaya Perez-Brumer, Estefany S Bologna, Laura Beauchamps, Kendra Johnson, Leandro Mena, Amy Nunn
Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is a biomedical intervention that can reduce rates of HIV transmission when taken once daily by HIV-negative individuals. Little is understood about PrEP uptake and retention in care among the populations most heavily impacted by the HIV epidemic, particularly among young men who have sex with men (YMSM) in the Deep South. Therefore, this study explored the structural, social, behavioral, and clinical factors that affect PrEP use and retention in care among YMSM in Jackson, Mississippi...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222084/african-american-women-s-recollected-experiences-of-adherence-to-breast-cancer-treatment
#2
Sue P Heiney, DeAnne K Hilfinger Messias, Tisha M Felder, Kenneth W Phelps, Jada C Quinn
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVES: To explore African American women's recollected experiences of breast cancer treatment.
. RESEARCH APPROACH: Qualitative description and narrative analysis.
. SETTING: South Carolina Oncology Associates, an outpatient oncology clinic serving rural and urban populations.
. PARTICIPANTS: 16 African American women with breast cancer previously enrolled in the control arm (n = 93) of a completed randomized, controlled trial...
March 1, 2017: Oncology Nursing Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221366/pathway-wide-association-study-identifies-five-shared-pathways-associated-with-schizophrenia-in-three-ancestral-distinct-populations
#3
C Liu, C A Bousman, C Pantelis, E Skafidas, D Zhang, W Yue, I P Everall
Genome-wide association studies have confirmed the polygenic nature of schizophrenia and suggest that there are hundreds or thousands of alleles associated with increased liability for the disorder. However, the generalizability of any one allelic marker of liability is remarkably low and has bred the notion that schizophrenia may be better conceptualized as a pathway(s) disorder. Here, we empirically tested this notion by conducting a pathway-wide association study (PWAS) encompassing 255 experimentally validated Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways among 5033 individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia and 5332 unrelated healthy controls across three distinct ethnic populations; European-American (EA), African-American (AA) and Han Chinese (CH)...
February 21, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221214/an-integrative-review-of-psychosocial-concerns-among-young-african-american-breast-cancer-survivors
#4
Timiya S Nolan, Jennifer Frank, Silvia Gisiger-Camata, Karen Meneses
BACKGROUND: African American (AA) women are more likely to be given a diagnosis of breast cancer at an early age, experience morbidity after treatment, and exhibit disparities in survivorship. Although psychosocial well-being is largely studied among breast cancer survivors, data are sparse regarding young AA survivors. OBJECTIVE: This integrative review examined psychosocial concerns in survivorship among young AA survivors using a quality-of-life framework. METHODS: PubMed, CINHAL, EMBASE, PsychINFO, and Scopus were searched for articles exploring psychosocial well-being in young AA survivors...
February 17, 2017: Cancer Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220786/intrauterine-zika-virus-infection-of-pregnant-immunocompetent-mice-models-transplacental-transmission-and-adverse-perinatal-outcomes
#5
Meghan S Vermillion, Jun Lei, Yahya Shabi, Victoria K Baxter, Nathan P Crilly, Michael McLane, Diane E Griffin, Andrew Pekosz, Sabra L Klein, Irina Burd
Zika virus (ZIKV) crosses the placenta and causes congenital disease. Here we develop an animal model utilizing direct ZIKV inoculation into the uterine wall of pregnant, immunocompetent mice to evaluate transplacental transmission. Intrauterine inoculation at embryonic day (E) 10, but not E14, with African, Asian or American strains of ZIKV reduces fetal viability and increases infection of placental and fetal tissues. ZIKV inoculation at E10 causes placental inflammation, placental dysfunction and reduces neonatal brain cortical thickness, which is associated with increased activation of microglia...
February 21, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220553/african-american-fathers-perspectives-on-facilitators-and-barriers-to-father-son-sexual-health-communication
#6
Schenita D Randolph, Tanya Coakley, Jeffrey Shears, Roland J Thorpe
African-American males ages 13 through 24 are disproportionately affected by sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), accounting for over half of all HIV infections in this age group in the United States. Clear communication between African-American parents and their youth about sexual health is associated with higher rates of sexual abstinence, condom use, and intent to delay initiation of sexual intercourse. However, little is known about African-American fathers' perceptions of what facilitates and inhibits sexual health communication with their preadolescent and adolescent sons...
February 21, 2017: Research in Nursing & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220313/hiv-infected-young-men-demonstrate-appropriate-risk-perceptions-and-beliefs-about-safer-sexual-behaviors-after-human-papillomavirus-vaccination
#7
Jessica A Kahn, Jeannette Lee, Marvin Belzer, Joel M Palefsky
The aim of this study was to identify risk perceptions after human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination among HIV-infected young men who have sex with men. On average, participants appropriately perceived themselves to be at lower than neutral risk for HPV (mean subscale score 4.2/10), at higher than neutral risk for other sexually transmitted infections (7.0/10), and that safer sexual behaviors were still important (8.5/10). Higher perceived risk of HPV was associated with African-American race (p = .03); higher perceived risk of other sexually transmitted infections with White race (p = ...
February 20, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219690/factors-associated-with-shorter-colonoscopy-surveillance-intervals-for-patients-with-low-risk-colorectal-adenomas-and-effects-on-outcome
#8
Joseph C Anderson, John A Baron, Dennis J Ahnen, Elizabeth L Barry, Roberd M Bostick, Carol A Burke, Robert S Bresalier, Timothy R Church, Bernard F Cole, Marcia Cruz-Correa, Adam S Kim, Leila A Mott, Robert S Sandler, Douglas J Robertson
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Endoscopists do not routinely follow guidelines to survey individuals with low-risk adenomas (LRAs, 1-2 small tubular adenomas, less than 1 cm) every 5-10 years for colorectal cancer (CRC)-many endoscopists recommend shorter surveillance intervals for these individuals. We aimed to identify reasons that endoscopists recommend shorter surveillance intervals for some individuals with LRAs and determine whether timing affects outcomes at follow-up examinations. METHODS: We collected data from 1560 individuals (45-75 years old) who participated in a prospective chemoprevention trial (of vitamin D and calcium) from 2004 through 2008...
February 17, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219386/advancing-system-and-policy-changes-for-social-and-racial-justice-comparing-a-rural-and-urban-community-based-participatory-research-partnership-in-the-u-s
#9
Carlos Devia, Elizabeth A Baker, Shannon Sanchez-Youngman, Ellen Barnidge, Maxine Golub, Freda Motton, Michael Muhammad, Charmaine Ruddock, Belinda Vicuña, Nina Wallerstein
BACKGROUND: The paper examines the role of community-based participatory research (CBPR) within the context of social justice literature and practice. METHODS: Two CBPR case studies addressing health inequities related to Type 2 Diabetes and Cardiovascular disease were selected from a national cross-site study assessing effective academic-community research partnerships. One CBPR partnership works with African Americans in rural Pemiscot County, Missouri and the other CBPR partnership works with African American and Latinos in urban South Bronx, New York City...
February 21, 2017: International Journal for Equity in Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219102/no-evidence-of-racial-differences-in-endothelial-function-and-exercise-blood-flow-in-young-healthy-males-following-acute-antioxidant-supplementation
#10
Rebecca M Kappus, Kanokwan Bunsawat, Alexander J Rosenberg, Bo Fernhall
This study investigated the effects of acute antioxidant supplementation on endothelial function, exercise blood flow and oxidative stress biomarkers in 9 young African American compared to 10 Caucasian males (25.7±1.2 years). We hypothesized that African American males would have lower exercise blood flow and endothelial responsiveness compared to Caucasian males, and these responses would be improved following antioxidant supplementation. Ultrasonography was used to measure blood flow during handgrip exercise...
February 20, 2017: International Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219043/epilepsy-by-the-numbers-epilepsy-deaths-by-age-race-ethnicity-and-gender-in-the-united-states-significantly-increased-from-2005-to-2014
#11
Sujay F Greenlund, Janet B Croft, Rosemarie Kobau
To inform public health efforts to prevent epilepsy-related deaths, we used the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Wide-ranging Online Data for Epidemiologic Research (WONDER; Wonder.cdc.gov) to examine any-listed epilepsy deaths for the period 2005-2014 by age groups (≤24, 25-44, 45-64, 65-84, ≥85years), sex, and race/ethnicity (non-Hispanic White, non-Hispanic African American, Hispanic, Asian/Pacific Islander, or American Indian/Alaska Native). Epilepsy deaths were defined by the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision (ICD-10) codes G40...
February 17, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218918/transgenic-expression-of-human-apol1-risk-variants-in-podocytes-induces-kidney-disease-in-mice
#12
Pazit Beckerman, Jing Bi-Karchin, Ae Seo Deok Park, Chengxiang Qiu, Patrick D Dummer, Irfana Soomro, Carine M Boustany-Kari, Steven S Pullen, Jeffrey H Miner, Chien-An A Hu, Tibor Rohacs, Kazunori Inoue, Shuta Ishibe, Moin A Saleem, Matthew B Palmer, Ana Maria Cuervo, Jeffrey B Kopp, Katalin Susztak
African Americans have a heightened risk of developing chronic and end-stage kidney disease, an association that is largely attributed to two common genetic variants, termed G1 and G2, in the APOL1 gene. Direct evidence demonstrating that these APOL1 risk alleles are pathogenic is still lacking because the APOL1 gene is present in only some primates and humans; thus it has been challenging to demonstrate experimental proof of causality of these risk alleles for renal disease. Here we generated mice with podocyte-specific inducible expression of the APOL1 reference allele (termed G0) or each of the risk-conferring alleles (G1 or G2)...
February 20, 2017: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218233/multi-institutional-study-of-nuclear-kifc1-as-a-biomarker-of-poor-prognosis-in-african-american-women-with-triple-negative-breast-cancer
#13
Angela Ogden, Chakravarthy Garlapati, Xiaoxian Bill Li, Ravi Chakra Turaga, Gabriela Oprea-Ilies, Nikita Wright, Shristi Bhattarai, Karuna Mittal, Ceyda Sönmez Wetherilt, Uma Krishnamurti, Michelle D Reid, Mildred Jones, Meenakshi Gupta, Remus Osan, Sonal Pattni, Ansa Riaz, Sergey Klimov, Arundhati Rao, Guilherme Cantuaria, Padmashree C G Rida, Ritu Aneja
Nuclear KIFC1 (nKIFC1) predicts worse outcomes in breast cancer, but its prognostic value within racially distinct triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) patients is unknown. Thus, nKIFC1 expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry in 163 African American (AA) and 144 White TNBC tissue microarrays (TMAs) pooled from four hospitals. nKIFC1 correlated significantly with Ki67 in White TNBCs but not in AA TNBCs, suggesting that nKIFC1 is not merely a surrogate for proliferation in AA TNBCs. High nKIFC1 weighted index (WI) was associated with significantly worse overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), and distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) (Hazard Ratios [HRs] = 3...
February 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217919/serious-infection-rates-among-children-with-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-enrolled-in-medicaid
#14
Linda T Hiraki, Candace H Feldman, Francisco M Marty, Wolfgang C Winkelmayer, Hongshu Guan, Karen H Costenbader
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the nationwide prevalence and incidence of serious infections among children with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) enrolled in Medicaid, the U.S. health insurance program for low-income patients. METHODS: From Medicaid claims (2000-2006) we identified children 5 to <18 years old with SLE (≥3 ICD-9 codes of 710.0, each >30 days apart) and lupus nephritis (LN; ≥2 ICD-9 codes for kidney disease on/after SLE codes). From hospital discharge diagnoses, we identified infection subtypes (bacterial, fungal, viral)...
February 19, 2017: Arthritis Care & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217908/molecular-polymorphisms-of-the-abo-locus-as-informative-markers-of-ancestry-in-central-argentina
#15
María Pía Tavella, Angelina García, Maia Pauro, Darío A Demarchi, Rodrigo Nores
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the distribution of molecular polymorphisms of the ABO gene in four population samples from the province of Córdoba, in Central Argentina, and to compare them with other worldwide populations. METHODS: A total of 110 buccal swab samples from autochthonous individuals of Córdoba were typified. Molecular characterization of the allelic variants was performed by the analysis of exons 6 and 7 of the ABO gene using PCR-RFLP analysis...
February 20, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217375/lymphocyte-to-monocyte-ratio-can-predict-mortality-in-pancreatic-adenocarcinoma
#16
Gurshawn Singh, Ammar Nassri, David Kim, Hong Zhu, Zeeshan Ramzan
AIM: To determine if the lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio (LMR) could be helpful in predicting survival in patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of all patients diagnosed with pancreatic adenocarcinoma in the VA North Texas Healthcare System from January 2005 to December 2010. The LMR was calculated from peripheral blood cell counts obtained at the time of diagnosis of pancreatic cancer by dividing the absolute lymphocyte count by the absolute monocyte count...
February 6, 2017: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217250/advanced-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis-cirrhosis-a-high-risk-population-for-pre-liver-transplant-portal-vein-thrombosis
#17
Jonathan G Stine, Curtis K Argo, Shawn J Pelletier, Daniel G Maluf, Stephen H Caldwell, Patrick G Northup
AIM: To examine if liver transplant recipients with high-risk non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) are at increased risk for pre-transplant portal venous thrombosis. METHODS: Data on all liver transplants in the United States from February 2002 through September 2014 were analyzed. Recipients were sorted into three distinct groups: High-risk (age > 60, body mass index > 30 kg/m(2), hypertension and diabetes), low-risk and non-NASH cirrhosis. Multivariable logistic regression models were constructed...
January 28, 2017: World Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216970/predictors-of-vitamin-d-deficiency-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease-and-health-a-mississippi-perspective
#18
Kumar Pallav, Daniel Riche, Warren L May, Patrick Sanchez, Nitin K Gupta
AIM: To identify the predictors of vitamin D deficiency in patients with and without inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). METHODS: Patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) or Crohn's disease (CD) related diagnostic codes who received medical care at University of Mississippi Medical Center between July 2012 and 2015 were identified. After thorough chart review, we identified patients with biopsy proven IBD who had also been tested for serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentration...
January 28, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216939/prostatic-intraepithelial-neoplasia-like-ductal-prostatic-adenocarcinoma-a-case-suitable-for-active-surveillance
#19
Soroush Rais-Bahrami, Melissa R Dillard, Grace G Zhu, Jennifer B Gordetsky
In contrast to typical prostatic ductal adenocarcinoma, prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN)-like ductal adenocarcinoma is a rare variant of prostate cancer with low-grade clinical behavior. We report a case of a 66-year-old African-American male with an elevated serum prostate-specific antigen who underwent multiparametric prostate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and MRI/ultrasound fusion-guided biopsies. Pathology demonstrated low-volume Gleason score 3 + 3 = 6 (Grade Group 1), acinar adenocarcinoma involving one core and PIN-like ductal adenocarcinoma on a separate core...
January 2017: Urology Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216190/evaluation-of-two-vaccine-education-interventions-to-improve-pertussis-vaccination-among-pregnant-african-american-women-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#20
Jennifer L Kriss, Paula M Frew, Marielysse Cortes, Fauzia A Malik, Allison T Chamberlain, Katherine Seib, Lisa Flowers, Kevin A Ault, Penelope P Howards, Walter A Orenstein, Saad B Omer
BACKGROUND: Vaccination coverage with tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine in pregnancy or immediately postpartum has been low. Limited data exist on rigorously evaluated interventions to increase maternal vaccination, including Tdap. Tailored messaging based on the Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) framework has been successful in improving uptake of some public health interventions. We evaluated the effect of two ELM-based vaccine educational interventions on Tdap vaccination among pregnant African American women, a group of women who tend to have lower vaccine uptake compared with other groups...
February 16, 2017: Vaccine
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