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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783031/a-unique-all-payer-rate-setting-system-controls-the-cost-but-not-the-racial-disparity-in-lower-extremity-revascularization-procedures
#1
Besma Nejim, Robert J Beaulieu, Husain Alshaikh, Mohammed Hamouda, Joseph Canner, Mahmoud B Malas
BACKGROUND: Patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) often have high comorbidity burden that may complicate post-interventional course and drive increased healthcare expenditures. Racial disparity had been observed in lower extremity revascularization (LER) patterns and outcomes. In 2014, Maryland adopted an all-payer rate setting system to limit the rising hospitalization costs. This resulted in an aggregate payment system in which hospital compensation takes place as an overall per capita expenditure for hospital services...
May 18, 2018: Annals of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782058/familial-aggregation-of-major-depressive-disorder-in-an-african-american-community
#2
Eleanor Murphy, James E Gangwisch, Janet T Matsunaga, Ruth Ottman
BACKGROUND: African Americans (AAs) with major depressive disorder (MDD) experience more impairment and poorer treatment outcomes relative to Whites, yet are underrepresented in family studies of MDD. This is the first study to investigate the familial aggregation of major depression among AAs. METHODS: Participants' reports of depression from clinical and family history (FH) interviews were used to examine depression rates among 435 first-degree relatives and half-siblings of 63 depressed cases and 222 relatives of 33 nondepressed controls...
May 21, 2018: Depression and Anxiety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781880/willingness-to-donate-organs-among-people-living-with-hiv
#3
Anh Q Nguyen, Saad K Anjum, Samantha E Halpern, Komal Kumar, Sarah E Van Pilsum Rasmussen, Brianna Doby, Ashton A Shaffer, Allan B Massie, Aaron A R Tobian, Dorry L Segev, Jeremy Sugarman, Christine M Durand
BACKGROUND: With passage of the HIV Organ Policy Equity (HOPE) Act, people living with HIV (PLWH) can donate organs to PLWH awaiting transplant. Understanding knowledge and attitudes regarding organ donation among PLWH in the US is critical to implementing the HOPE Act. METHODS: PLWH were surveyed regarding their knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about organ donation and transplantation at an urban academic HIV clinic in Baltimore, MD between 08/2016-10/2016. Responses were compared using Fisher's exact and chi-squared tests...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781845/redefining-the-influence-of-ethnicity-on-simultaneous-kidney-and-pancreas-transplantation-outcomes-a-15-year-single-center-experience
#4
Carlton J Young, Paul A MacLennan, Elinor C Mannon, Rhiannon D Reed, Brittany A Shelton, Michael J Hanaway, Gaurav Agarwal, Robert S Gaston, Bruce A Julian, Clifton E Kew, Vineeta Kumar, Roslyn B Mannon, Shikha Mehta, Song C Ong, Graham C Towns, Mark H Deierhoi, Jayme E Locke
OBJECTIVE: To examine the largest single-center experience of simultaneous kidney/pancreas transplantation (SPK) transplantation among African-Americans (AAs). BACKGROUND: Current dogma suggests that AAs have worse survival following SPK than white recipients. We hypothesize that this national trend may not be ubiquitous. METHODS: From August 30, 1999, through October 1, 2014, 188 SPK transplants were performed at the University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) and 5523 were performed at other US centers...
May 17, 2018: Annals of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781784/-being-connected-the-experience-of-african-american-women-with-breast-cancer-a-community-based-participatory-research-project-part-i
#5
M Tish Knobf, Diane Erdos
The objective was to understand the breast cancer experience of African American (AA) women using a community-based participatory research framework. Qualitative data were collected from five focus groups with 29 participants in four urban cities. "Being Connected" was the major theme that explained the importance of people in their lives as they coped with the diagnosis, treatment, and life after therapy. Faith, talking, information, support, and living with changes were important factors in the process...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Psychosocial Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781646/emotional-clarity-development-and-psychosocial-outcomes-during-adolescence
#6
Liza M Haas, Brae Anne McArthur, Taylor A Burke, Thomas M Olino, Lyn Y Abramson, Lauren B Alloy
Past research on emotional clarity (EC), the ability to identify and label one's own emotions, has illustrated an association between EC deficits and poor psychosocial outcomes during the adolescent years. Although past research has connected EC to psychosocial outcomes during adolescence in cross-sectional and longitudinal designs, no studies have traced the trajectory of EC over time to determine the developmental course of the construct during adolescence. Thus, this study investigated how EC developed over five years during adolescence and what factors were associated with the developmental trajectory of emotional clarity...
May 21, 2018: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781635/racial-discrimination-and-relationship-functioning-among-african-american-couples
#7
Justin A Lavner, Allen W Barton, Chalandra M Bryant, Steven R H Beach
Racial discrimination is a common stressor for African Americans, with negative consequences for mental and physical well-being. It is likely that these effects extend into the family, but little research has examined the association between racial discrimination and couple functioning. This study used dyadic data from 344 rural, predominantly low-income heterosexual African American couples with an early adolescent child to examine associations between self-reported racial discrimination, psychological and physical aggression, and relationship satisfaction and instability...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Family Psychology: JFP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781627/triple-trajectories-of-alcohol-use-tobacco-use-and-depressive-symptoms-as-predictors-of-cannabis-use-disorders-among-urban-adults
#8
Jung Yeon Lee, Judith S Brook, Wonkuk Kim
Heavy cannabis use is associated with a wide array of physical, mental, and functional problems. Therefore, cannabis use disorders (CUDs) may be a major public health concern. Given the adverse health consequences of CUDs, the present study seeks to find possible precursors of CUDs. The current study consisted of 5 waves of data collection from the Harlem Longitudinal Development Study. Among 816 participants, about half are African Americans (52%), and the other half are Puerto Ricans (48%). We used Mplus to obtain the triple trajectories of alcohol use, tobacco use, and depressive symptoms...
May 21, 2018: Psychology of Addictive Behaviors: Journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781393/emotional-availability-scale-among-three-u-s-race-ethnic-groups
#9
Della J Derscheid, Louis F Fogg, Wrenetha Julion, Mary E Johnson, Sharon Tucker, Kathleen R Delaney
This study used a cross-sectional design to conduct a subgroup psychometric analysis of the Emotional Availability Scale among matched Hispanic ( n = 20), African American ( n = 20), and European American ( n = 10) English-speaking mother-child dyads in the United States. Differences by race/ethnicity were tested ( p < .05) among (a) Emotional Availability Scale dimensions with ANOVA, and (b) relationships of Emotional Availability Scale dimensions with select Dyadic Parent-Child Interaction Coding System variables with Pearson correlation and matched moderated regression...
May 1, 2018: Western Journal of Nursing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781335/-if-i-can-afford-steak-why-worry-about-buying-beans-african-american-men-s-perceptions-of-their-food-environment
#10
Ledric D Sherman, Derek M Griffith
Due to the high level of food-related chronic diseases for African American men, the purpose of this qualitative study was to induce ( n = 83) urban American men's perspective of their food environment considering different ethnic subgroups, built environment, and the temporal context using a phenomenological method and snowball sampling. Focus group interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, and entered into ATLAS.ti to aid in establishing themes. African American men perceived that fast-food chains are their food choices and that they do not have any other healthy alternatives near their residential community...
May 1, 2018: American Journal of Men's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779027/association-of-pre-end-stage-renal-disease-hemoglobin-with-early-dialysis-outcomes
#11
Carola-Ellen Kleine, Melissa Soohoo, Omesh N Ranasinghe, Christina Park, Maria V Marroquin, Yoshitsugu Obi, Connie M Rhee, Hamid Moradi, Csaba P Kovesdy, Kamyar Kalantar-Zadeh, Elani Streja
BACKGROUND: Incident hemodialysis patients have a high mortality risk within the first months after dialysis initiation. Pre-end-stage renal disease (ESRD) factors like anemia management may impact early post-ESRD outcomes. Therefore, we evaluated the impact of pre-ESRD hemoglobin (Hgb) and pre-ESRD Hgb slope on post-ESRD mortality and hospitalization outcomes. METHODS: The study included 31,472 veterans transitioning to ESRD. Using Cox and negative binomial regression models, we evaluated the association of pre-ESRD Hgb and Hgb slope with 12-month post-ESRD all-cause and cardiovascular mortality and hospitalization rates using 4 levels of hierarchical multivariable adjustment, including erythropoietin use and kidney decline in slope models...
May 18, 2018: American Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778999/idiopathic-nodular-glomerulosclerosis-ing-in-an-african-american-aa-man-with-hepatitis-c
#12
Nirmal K Onteddu, Jayasri Duggirala, Anand C Reddy
Idiopathic nodular glomerulosclerosis (ING) in a non-diabetic patient is uncommon. Nodular glomerulosclerosis is hallmark sign of diabetic nephropathy. ING is a very rare clinicopathological disease associated with smoking, obesity and hypertension, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and metabolic syndrome. A 68-year-old non-obese African American man with hypertension, smoking and history of hepatitis C presented to the clinic with progressive worsening of lower extremity oedema and declining renal function over few months...
May 18, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778349/a-contemporary-prostate-biopsy-risk-calculator-based-on-multiple-heterogeneous-cohorts
#13
Donna P Ankerst, Johanna Straubinger, Katharina Selig, Lourdes Guerrios, Amanda De Hoedt, Javier Hernandez, Michael A Liss, Robin J Leach, Stephen J Freedland, Michael W Kattan, Robert Nam, Alexander Haese, Francesco Montorsi, Stephen A Boorjian, Matthew R Cooperberg, Cedric Poyet, Emily Vertosick, Andrew J Vickers
BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer prediction tools provide quantitative guidance for doctor-patient decision-making regarding biopsy. The widely used online Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial Risk Calculator (PCPTRC) utilized data from the 1990s based on six-core biopsies and outdated grading systems. OBJECTIVE: We prospectively gathered data from men undergoing prostate biopsy in multiple diverse North American and European institutions participating in the Prostate Biopsy Collaborative Group (PBCG) in order to build a state-of-the-art risk prediction tool...
May 16, 2018: European Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778134/central-serous-chorioretinopathy-in-african-americans-at-wilmer-eye-institute
#14
Pooja H Mehta, Jay Chhablani, Jiangxia Wang, Catherine B Meyerle
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the frequency of central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC) in African Americans/blacks within an academic center in a predominantly African American city, as the current belief is that CSC is rare in this population. METHODS: A retrospective review of all patients' charts diagnosed with CSC at Wilmer Eye Institute/Johns Hopkins University from August 2009-August 2015 was conducted via an electronic health record search (EPIC). The charts were categorized by self-reported race and gender...
June 2018: Journal of the National Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778123/educated-and-at-risk-how-the-shortage-of-available-partners-influences-hiv-risk-for-college-educated-african-american-women
#15
Valerie R Newsome, Collins O Airhihenbuwa, Shedra Amy Snipes
BACKGROUND: African-Americans have the greatest gender-ratio imbalance compared to other racial groups in the United States. This has been associated with higher rates of concurrent sexual partnerships, increasing risk of HIV infection. College-educated African-American women are of particular interest as they are not often represented in studies on HIV prevention, while their dating and sexual negotiation patterns may differ from those of their lower-educated and lower-income counterparts more often the subject of study in HIV research among African-Americans...
June 2018: Journal of the National Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778121/does-the-race-ethnicity-or-gender-of-a-physician-s-name-impact-patient-selection-of-the-physician
#16
Jessica Greene, Judith H Hibbard, Rebecca M Sacks
This study's objective was to examine the extent to which individuals exhibit a preference for physicians based upon the race/ethnicity and gender of a physician's name. We conducted an online survey of 915 adults, who viewed a comparative display of four physicians' quality performance. We randomized the name of one physician, whose quality performance was equal to that of one physician and better than two other physicians, to be either typically African American male, African American female, white male, white female, or Middle Eastern (gender ambiguous)...
June 2018: Journal of the National Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777541/developmental-transactions-between-self-regulation-and-academic-achievement-among-low-income-african-american-and-latino-children
#17
Britain Mills, Nazly Dyer, Daniel Pacheco, Dawn Brinkley, Margaret T Owen, Margaret O Caughy
This study examined the development of emerging self-regulation (SR) skills across the preschool years and relations to academic achievement in kindergarten and first grade. SR skills of 403 low-income African American and Latino children were measured at 2&1/2, 3&1/2, and 5 years (kindergarten). Reading and math skills were measured at 5 and 6 years (first grade) using the Woodcock-Johnson. Transactional relations between SR skills and achievement outcomes were estimated with latent difference score models...
May 19, 2018: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777049/prospective-study-of-coffee-consumption-and-cancer-incidence-in-non-white-populations
#18
Song-Yi Park, Neal D Freedman, Christopher A Haiman, Loic Le Marchand, Lynne R Wilkens, Veronica Wendy Setiawan
BACKGROUND: Coffee intake has been associated with risk of cancers, but the findings, mostly from studies in white populations, are inconsistent. We examined the association of coffee consumption with overall cancer incidence and specific cancer sites in a prospective study of African Americans, Native Hawaiians, Japanese Americans, Latinos and whites. METHODS: 167,720 participants of the Multiethnic Cohort in Hawaii and Los Angeles were included. Baseline coffee intake was assessed by a validated food-frequency questionnaire...
May 18, 2018: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777021/serum-6-bromotryptophan-levels-identified-as-a-risk-factor-for-ckd-progression
#19
Adrienne Tin, Girish Nadkarni, Anne M Evans, Cheryl A Winkler, Erwin Bottinger, Casey M Rebholz, Mark J Sarnak, Lesley A Inker, Andrew S Levey, Michael S Lipkowitz, Lawrence J Appel, Dan E Arking, Josef Coresh, Morgan E Grams
Background Metabolite levels reflect physiologic homeostasis and may serve as biomarkers of disease progression. Identifying metabolites associated with APOL1 risk alleles-genetic variants associated with CKD risk commonly present in persons of African descent-may reveal novel markers of CKD progression relevant to other populations. Methods We evaluated associations between the number of APOL1 risk alleles and 760 serum metabolites identified via untargeted profiling in participants of the African American Study of Kidney Disease and Hypertension (AASK) ( n =588; Bonferroni significance threshold P <6...
May 18, 2018: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776782/an-intervention-to-increase-students-physical-activity-a-2-year-pilot-study
#20
R Glenn Weaver, Collin A Webster, Michael W Beets, Keith Brazendale, Lauren Schisler, Mazen Aziz
INTRODUCTION: Schools are called upon to provide children with 30 minutes/day of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Most school-based physical activity interventions have not targeted schools that serve children from low-income families. This study evaluated the effects of a pilot, competency-building professional development program on the school day MVPA and total activity (light- to vigorous-intensity activity) of students from schools that serve low-income families. STUDY DESIGN: Single group intervention with multiple follow-up repeated cross-sectional measures...
May 15, 2018: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
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