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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335038/a-comparative-effectiveness-education-trial-for-lifestyle-health-behavior-change-in-african-americans
#1
Chanita Hughes Halbert, Scarlett Bellamy, Vanessa Briggs, Ernestine Delmoor, Joseph Purnell, Rodney Rogers, Benita Weathers, Jerry C Johnson
Obesity and excess weight are significant clinical and public health issues that disproportionately affect African Americans because of physical inactivity and unhealthy eating. We compared the effects of alternate behavioral interventions on obesity-related health behaviors. We conducted a comparative effectiveness education trial in a community-based sample of 530 adult African Americans. Outcomes variables were physical activity (PA) and fruit and vegetable intake. Outcomes were evaluated at baseline and 1-month following interventions about shared risk factors for cancer and cardiovascular disease (CVD) (integrated, INT) or CVD only (disease-specific)...
March 18, 2017: Health Education Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333950/drug-resistant-hiv-behaviors-and-characteristics-among-los-angeles-men-who-have-sex-with-men-with-new-hiv-diagnosis
#2
Pamina M Gorbach, Marjan Javanbakht, Lorelei Bornfleth, Robert K Bolan, Martha Lewis Blum
Epidemiology of drug resistant HIV has focused on trends and less attention has been given to identification of factors, especially behaviors including substance use, in acquisition of drug-resistant HIV. From 2009 to 2012 The Metromates Study enrolled and followed for one year men who have sex with men (MSM) seeking testing for HIV in a community clinic in Los Angeles assessing those testing positive for acute and recent HIV infection. Behavioral data were collected via Computer-Assisted Self-Interview from 125 classified as newly HIV infected and 91 as chronically infected (newly HIV-diagnosed); specimens were available and viable for resistance testing for 154 of the 216 HIV positives with new diagnoses...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333599/a-community-driven-implementation-of-the-body-and-soul-program-in-churches-in-the-twin-cities-minnesota-2011-2014
#3
Erika Ashley Pinsker, Andrew W Enzler, Megan C Hoffman, Kathleen Thiede Call, Sylvia Amos, Alfred Babington-Johnson, Kolawole Stephen Okuyemi
BACKGROUND: African Americans have high disease and death rates due to cancer and cardiovascular disease. Health promotion efforts to improve diet have the potential to reduce these rates. COMMUNITY CONTEXT: Given their importance in the community and the extent of their reach, churches are effective avenues for health promotion efforts targeting African Americans. The objectives of this project were to promote healthy eating among African American church members, engage African American churches in the implementation of Body and Soul (an evidenced-based program that encourages healthy eating), and implement the program in the community with minimal resources...
March 23, 2017: Preventing Chronic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333510/comparing-treatments-for-children-with-adhd-and-word-reading-difficulties-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#4
Leanne Tamm, Carolyn A Denton, Jeffery N Epstein, Christopher Schatschneider, Heather Taylor, L Eugene Arnold, Oscar Bukstein, Julia Anixt, Anson Koshy, Nicholas C Newman, Jan Maltinsky, Patricia Brinson, Richard E A Loren, Mary R Prasad, Linda Ewing-Cobbs, Aaron Vaughn
OBJECTIVE: This trial compared attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) treatment alone, intensive reading intervention alone, and their combination for children with ADHD and word reading difficulties and disabilities (RD). METHOD: Children (n = 216; predominantly African American males) in Grades 2-5 with ADHD and word reading/decoding deficits were randomized to ADHD treatment (medication + parent training), reading treatment (reading instruction), or combined ADHD + reading treatment...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333390/epithelial-crypts-a-complex-and-enigmatic-olfactory-organ-in-african-and-south-american-lungfish-lepidosireniformes-dipnoi
#5
Carolin Wittmer, Christine Nowack
African lungfish (Protopterus) seem unique among osteognathostomes in possessing a potential vomeronasal organ homolog in form of accessory epithelial crypts within their nasal cavity. Many details regarding structural and functional properties of these crypts are still unexplored. In this study, we reinvestigate the issue and also present the first data on epithelial crypts in the South American lungfish Lepidosiren paradoxa. The nasal cavities of L. paradoxa and Protopterus annectens were studied using histology, scanning electron microscopy, and alcian blue and PAS staining...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332939/pediatric-asthma-hospitalizations-among-urban-minority-children-and-the-continuity-of-primary-care
#6
Levon H Utidjian, Alexander G Fiks, A Russell Localio, Lihai Song, Mark J Ramos, Ron Keren, Louis M Bell, Robert W Grundmeier
OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of ambulatory health care processes on asthma hospitalizations. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study using electronic health records was completed. Patients aged 2-18 years receiving health care from 1 of 5 urban practices between Jan 1, 2004 and Dec 31, 2008 with asthma documented on their problem list were included. Independent variables were modifiable health care processes in the primary care setting: (1) use of asthma controller medications; (2) regular assessment of asthma symptoms; (3) use of spirometry; (4) provision of individualized asthma care plans; (5) timely influenza vaccination; (6) access to primary healthcare; and (7) use of pay for performance physician incentives...
February 25, 2017: Journal of Asthma: Official Journal of the Association for the Care of Asthma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332910/association-between-dietary-xanthophyll-lutein-and-zeaxanthin-intake-and-early-age-related-macular-degeneration-the-atherosclerosis-risk-in-communities-study
#7
Henry Lin, Julie A Mares, Michael J LaMonte, William E Brady, Michelle W Sahli, Ronald Klein, Barbara E K Klein, Jing Nie, Amy E Millen
PURPOSE: To examine the association between xanthophyll intake and prevalent early age-related macular degeneration (AMD) using data from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study (n = 10,295). Potential effect modification by genetic polymorphisms and biomarkers of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) metabolism was explored. METHODS: Xanthophyll intake was assessed at visit 1 (1987-1989) using food frequency questionnaires. Prevalent early AMD was assessed at visit 3 (1993-1995) via retinal photographs...
March 23, 2017: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332857/body-image-and-risk-behaviors-in-youth-with-hiv
#8
Ronald H Dallas, Megan M Loew, Megan L Wilkins, Yilun Sun, Li Tang, Jerlym S Porter, Aditya H Gaur
Body image concerns are common among people living with HIV. Among adults with HIV, body image concerns have been shown to be related to risky sexual behaviors; little research has been conducted among youth living with HIV (YLWH). The current study examined the predictors, including body image, of sexual risk behaviors among YLWH. Adolescents from a single clinic (n = 143; age range 16-24 years; 69% male; 95% African American) completed a computerized self-report survey to assess demographic, behavioral, and body image domains...
March 23, 2017: AIDS Patient Care and STDs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332560/evaluating-genetic-susceptibility-to-staphylococcus-aureus-bacteremia-in-african-americans-using-admixture-mapping
#9
D D Cyr, A S Allen, G-J Du, F Ruffin, C Adams, J T Thaden, S A Maskarinec, M Souli, S Guo, D M Dykxhoorn, W K Scott, V G Fowler
The incidence of Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB) is significantly higher in African American (AA) than in European-descended populations. We used admixture mapping (AM) to test the hypothesis that genomic variations with different frequencies in European and African ancestral genomes influence susceptibility to SAB in AAs. A total of 565 adult AAs (390 cases with SAB; 175 age-matched controls) were genotyped for AM analysis. A case-only admixture score and a mixed χ(2)(1df) score (MIX) to jointly evaluate both single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and admixture association (P<5...
March 23, 2017: Genes and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332253/sex-and-ancestry-determine-the-free-running-circadian-period
#10
Charmane I Eastman, Victoria A Tomaka, Stephanie J Crowley
The endogenous, free-running circadian period (τ) determines the phase relationship that an organism assumes when entrained to the 24-h day. We found a shorter circadian period in African Americans compared to non-Hispanic European Americans (24.07 versus 24.33 h). We speculate that a short circadian period, closer to 24 h, was advantageous to humans living around the equator, but when humans migrated North out of Africa, where the photoperiod changes with seasons, natural selection favoured people with longer circadian periods...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Sleep Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332036/the-committed-intimate-partnerships-of-incarcerated-african-american-men-implications-for-sexual-hiv-transmission-risk-and-prevention-opportunities
#11
Maria R Khan, Nabila El-Bassel, Carol E Golin, Joy D Scheidell, Adaora A Adimora, Ashley M Coatsworth, Hui Hu, Selena Judon-Monk, Katie P Medina, David A Wohl
Incarceration is thought to influence HIV transmission by disrupting partnerships that provide support and protect against sex risk-taking. Current correctional facility-based family-strengthening programs focus on marital partnerships, a minority of inmates' partnerships. Research on the sex partnerships of incarcerated African-American men and the types of partnerships most likely to protect against HIV-related sex risk is limited. Improved understanding can inform expansion of correctional facility-based family-strengthening programs to a greater proportion of protective partnerships and HIV risk reduction programs to partnerships vulnerable to sex risk...
March 22, 2017: Archives of Sexual Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330731/diabetes-self-management-education-and-medical-nutrition-therapy-improve-patient-outcomes-a-pilot-study-documenting-the-efficacy-of-registered-dietitian-nutritionist-interventions-through-retrospective-chart-review
#12
Patricia Z Marincic, Amie Hardin, Maria V Salazar, Susan Scott, Shirley X Fan, Philippe R Gaillard
BACKGROUND: Diabetes self-management education (DSME) and medical nutrition therapy (MNT) improve patient outcomes; poor reimbursement limits access to care. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to develop methodology for tracking patient outcomes subsequent to registered dietitian nutritionist interventions, document outcomes for patients with type 2 diabetes attending an American Diabetes Association-recognized program, and obtain outcome data to support reimbursement and public policy initiatives to improve patient access to DSME and MNT...
March 16, 2017: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330658/nonobstructive-coronary-artery-disease-by-coronary-ct-angiography-improves%C3%A2-risk-stratification-and-allocation%C3%A2-of-statin%C3%A2-therapy
#13
Hamed Emami, Richard A P Takx, Thomas Mayrhofer, Sumbal Janjua, Jakob Park, Amit Pursnani, Ahmed Tawakol, Michael T Lu, Maros Ferencik, Udo Hoffmann
OBJECTIVES: This study sought to determine prognostic value of nonobstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) events and to determine whether incorporation of this information into the pooled cohort equation reclassifies recommendations for statin therapy as defined by the 2013 guidelines for cholesterol management of the American College of Cardiology and American Heart Association (ACC/AHA). BACKGROUND: Detection of nonobstructive CAD by coronary computed tomography angiography may improve risk stratification and permit individualized and more appropriate allocation of statin therapy...
March 10, 2017: JACC. Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330434/is-there-an-effect-of-race-ethnicity-on-early-complications-of-iliac-vein-stenting
#14
Ahmad Alsheekh, Anil Hingorani, Samson Ferm, Pavel Kibric, Afsha Aurshina, Natalie Marks, Enrico Ascher
Background There have been well-documented implications of race/ethnicity on the outcome of various vascular diseases. Little literature has examined the effect of race/ethnicity on venous disease. Iliac vein stenting is an emerging technology in treating chronic venous insufficiency. To further characterize this disease and its treatment, we chose to study the effect of selected clinical factors including race/ethnicity on the early complications of non-thrombotic iliac vein stenting. Methods In this observational study, data analysis was performed for 623 patients with chronic venous insufficiency who underwent iliac vein stenting during the time period from August 2012 to September 2014...
January 1, 2017: Vascular
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329871/variations-in-social-network-type-membership-among-older-african-americans-caribbean-blacks-and-non-hispanic-whites
#15
Ann W Nguyen
Objectives: This study examined race differences in the probability of belonging to a specific social network typology of family, friends, and church members. Method: Samples of African Americans, Caribbean blacks, and non-Hispanic whites aged 55+ were drawn from the National Survey of American Life. Typology indicators related to social integration and negative interactions with family, friendship, and church networks were used. Latent class analysis was used to identify typologies, and latent class multinomial logistic regression was used to assess the influence of race, and interactions between race and age, and race and education on typology membership...
February 28, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329838/neighborhood-disadvantage-and-biological-aging-using-marginal-structural-models-to-assess-the-link-between-neighborhood-census-variables-and-epigenetic-aging
#16
Man-Kit Lei, Ronald L Simons, Steven R H Beach, Robert A Philibert
Objectives: Past research has reported an association between neighborhood disadvantage and healthy aging, but most of these studies utilize self-report measures of health or physical functioning and do not properly account for neighborhood selection effects, creating concerns regarding inflated associations. To overcome these limitations and provide a more stringent estimate of effects, the current study investigated the effect of neighborhood disadvantage on aging using newly developed epigenetic methods to assess rate of biological aging and marginal structural modeling (MSM) to account for potential confounds due to neighborhood selection...
March 3, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329646/gaps-in-the-understanding-and-treatment-of-skin-cancer-in-people-of-color
#17
Ajay Kailas
People of color are at significantly higher risk in mortality from skin cancers, such as melanoma, than Caucasians. Around 4,500,000 people of color are affected by skin cancer The five-year survival rates from melanoma are 81.1% for Hispanics, 80.2% for Asians, 72.2% for African- Americans, and 89.6% for Caucasians. For this reason, it is important to ensure the scientific literature reflects the most up to date recommendations and treatment for blacks regarding skin cancer. Therefore the authors conducted a "gap analysis" on the current treatment of skin cancer in people of color...
September 15, 2016: Dermatology Online Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329627/association-of-atopic-dermatitis-with-tobacco-smoke-exposure-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#18
Robert Kantor, Ashley Kim, Jacob Thyssen, Jonathan I Silverberg
Previous studies found conflicting results about whether exposure to tobacco smoke is associated with increased atopic dermatitis (AD). We examined this association by systematic review and meta-analysis of MEDLINE, EMBASE, Scopus, and Cochrane Library and identified 86 studies, including 680,176 patients from 39 countries. A meta-analysis was performed using random-effects models to estimate pooled odds ratios (OR). Subset analyses were performed for different ages (children or adult), regions, study designs (cross-sectional vs...
September 15, 2016: Dermatology Online Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329609/microcystic-adnexal-carcinoma-of-the-scalp-in-an-african-american-male
#19
Brian Scott, Rajiv I Nijhawan, Garrett Desman, Hillary Johnson-Jahangir
Microcystic adnexal carcinoma (MAC) is a rare adnexal neoplasm that typically presents in Caucasians. We report a rare case of MAC in a 68 year old African American male that presented as a large asymptomatic scalp mass. The clinical and histologic features of MAC are discussed. A summary of all reported cases of MAC in African American patients is presented, and treatment options are discussed.
September 15, 2016: Dermatology Online Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329547/lichen-planus-pigmentosus-and-lichen-planopilaris
#20
Gabriela Cobos, Randie H Kim, Shane Meehan, Nada Elbuluk
Lichen planus is an inflammatory skin conditionwith characteristic histopathological findings thathas many clinical variants. Recently, there have been25 cases reported in the literature of lichen planuspigmentosus (LPPi) that preceded the developmentof frontal fibrosing alopecia (FFA), which is a variantof lichen planopilaris (LPP). We review the literatureregarding LPPi, LPP, and FFA and present a case of a40-year-old African American woman with LPPi andLPP.
December 15, 2016: Dermatology Online Journal
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