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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29878881/zika-virus-alters-the-expression-profile-of-microrna-related-genes-in-liver-lung-and-kidney-cell-lineages
#1
Rafaella Nascimento Ferreira, Gustavo Moraes Holanda, Eliana Vieira Pinto Silva, Samir Mansour Moraes Casseb, Karla Fabiane Lopes Melo, Carlos Alberto Marques Carvalho, Juliana Abreu Lima, Pedro Fernando Costa Vasconcelos, Ana Cecília Ribeiro Cruz
Zika virus (ZIKV) is an arbovirus belonging to the genus Flavivirus (Flaviviridae). ZIKV infection is associated with alterations in various organs, including the liver, lungs, and kidneys. Studies on the influence of posttranscriptional control on viral infections have demonstrated that microRNAs (miRNAs) interfere with different stages of the replicative cycle of several viruses and may influence the disease outcome. To shed light on ZIKV-induced regulation of host miRNA-processing machinery in the above organs, we analyzed the expression of genes encoding key proteins of the miRNA pathway in different ZIKV-infected continuous primate cell lineages (HepG2, A549, and MA104) by reverse-transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR)...
June 7, 2018: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29873073/identification-and-functional-analysis-of-inflammation-related-mirnas-in-skin-wound-repair
#2
REVIEW
Ryoichi Mori, Katsuya Tanaka, Isao Shimokawa
Inflammation at a wound site is essential for preventing infection. However, misregulated inflammation leads to pathologies of the healing process, including chronic non-healing wounds and scarring. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are key regulators of the inflammatory response and tissue repair, acting by translational processing of target mRNAs. In the final step of miRNA processing, Argonaute 2 (Ago2)-bound mature miRNA complexes bind to target mRNAs and inhibit their translation. A variety of wound healing-related miRNAs have been identified and their misregulation likely contributes to wound pathologies, including scarring and chronic healing...
June 5, 2018: Development, Growth & Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29857476/diagnostic-and-prognostic-potential-of-microrna-maturation-regulators-drosha-ago1-and-ago2-in-urothelial-carcinomas-of-the-bladder
#3
Anja Rabien, Nadine Ratert, Anica Högner, Andreas Erbersdobler, Klaus Jung, Thorsten H Ecke, Ergin Kilic
Bladder cancer still requires improvements in diagnosis and prognosis, because many of the cases will recur and/or metastasize with bad outcomes. Despite ongoing research on bladder biomarkers, the clinicopathological impact and diagnostic function of miRNA maturation regulators Drosha and Argonaute proteins AGO1 and AGO2 in urothelial bladder carcinoma remain unclear. Therefore, we conducted immunohistochemical investigations of a tissue microarray composed of 112 urothelial bladder carcinomas from therapy-naïve patients who underwent radical cystectomy or transurethral resection and compared the staining signal with adjacent normal bladder tissue...
May 31, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29849156/the-origin-of-squamates-revealed-by-a-middle-triassic-lizard-from-the-italian-alps
#4
Tiago R Simões, Michael W Caldwell, Mateusz Tałanda, Massimo Bernardi, Alessandro Palci, Oksana Vernygora, Federico Bernardini, Lucia Mancini, Randall L Nydam
Modern squamates (lizards, snakes and amphisbaenians) are the world's most diverse group of tetrapods along with birds 1 and have a long evolutionary history, with the oldest known fossils dating from the Middle Jurassic period-168 million years ago2-4 . The evolutionary origin of squamates is contentious because of several issues: (1) a fossil gap of approximately 70 million years exists between the oldest known fossils and their estimated origin5-7 ; (2) limited sampling of squamates in reptile phylogenies; and (3) conflicts between morphological and molecular hypotheses regarding the origin of crown squamates6,8,9 ...
May 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29803931/long-noncoding-rna-tp73-as1-promotes-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-progression-by-competitively-sponging-mir-449a-ezh2
#5
Lin Zhang, Fengqi Fang, Xin He
Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are a type of noncoding RNA transcript that are characterized by lack of protein-coding capacity. The vital role of lncRNAs in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is attracting increasingly more attention. In the present study, we investigate the role of lncRNA antisense RNA of the TP73 gene (TP73-AS1) in NSCLC carcinogenesis. The results demonstrate that TP73-AS1 is markedly upregulated in NSCLC tissues, and functional experiments revealed that TP73-AS1 is significantly increased in NSCLC tissue and cell lines, indicating a possible oncogenic role...
May 24, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778390/next-generation-sequencing-reveals-differentially-expressed-small-noncoding-rnas-in-uterine-leiomyoma
#6
Tsai-Der Chuang, Yeming Xie, Wei Yan, Omid Khorram
OBJECTIVE: To determine the expression profile of small noncoding RNAs (sncRNAs) in leiomyoma, which has not been investigated to date. DESIGN: Laboratory-based investigation. SETTING: Academic center. PATIENT(S): Women undergoing hysterectomy for benign indications. INTERVENTION(S): Next-generation sequencing and screening of an sncRNA database with confirmatory analysis by quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR)...
May 2018: Fertility and Sterility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777751/evaluating-the-susceptibility-of-ago2-loaded-micrornas-to-degradation-by-nucleases-in-vitro
#7
Reyad Elbarbary, Lynne E Maquat
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) comprise a class of small non-coding RNAs that regulate the stability and/or translatability of most protein-coding transcripts. Steady-state levels of mature miRNAs can be controlled through mechanisms that influence their biogenesis and/or decay rates. Pathways that mediate mature miRNA decay are less well understood than those that mediate miRNA biogenesis. We recently described Tudor-staphylococcal/micrococcal-like nuclease (TSN)-mediated miRNA decay (TumiD) as a cellular pathway that promotes the sequence-specific endonucleolytic decay of miRNAs that harbor a CA and/or UA dinucleotide...
May 16, 2018: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775584/conformational-activation-of-argonaute-by-distinct-yet-coordinated-actions-of-the-hsp70-and-hsp90-chaperone-systems
#8
Kotaro Tsuboyama, Hisashi Tadakuma, Yukihide Tomari
Loading of small RNAs into Argonaute, the core protein in RNA silencing, requires the Hsp70/Hsp90 chaperone machinery. This machinery also activates many other clients, including steroid hormone receptors and kinases, but how their structures change during chaperone-dependent activation remains unclear. Here, we utilized single-molecule Förster resonance energy transfer (smFRET) to probe the conformational changes of Drosophila Ago2 mediated by the chaperone machinery. We found that empty Ago2 exists in various closed conformations...
May 17, 2018: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760177/epigenetic-promoter-dna-methylation-of-mir-124-promotes-hiv-1-tat-mediated-microglial-activation-via-mecp2-stat3-axis
#9
Palsamy Periyasamy, Annadurai Thangaraj, Ming-Lei Guo, Guoku Hu, Shannon Callen, Shilpa Buch
The present study demonstrates HIV-1 Tat-mediated epigenetic downregulation of microglial miR-124 and its association with microglial activation. Exposure of mouse primary microglia isolated from newborn pups of either sex to HIV-1 Tat resulted in decreased expression of primary miR-124-1, primary miR-124-2 as well as the mature miR-124. In parallel, HIV-1 Tat exposure to mouse primary microglial cells resulted in increased expression of DNA methylation enzymes, such as DNMT1, DNMT3A, and DNMT3B that were also accompanied by increased global DNA methylation...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748571/tgf-%C3%AE-induces-mir-100-and-mir-125b-but-blocks-let-7a-through-lin28b-controlling-pdac-progression
#10
Silvia Ottaviani, Justin Stebbing, Adam E Frampton, Sladjana Zagorac, Jonathan Krell, Alexander de Giorgio, Sara M Trabulo, Van T M Nguyen, Luca Magnani, Hugang Feng, Elisa Giovannetti, Niccola Funel, Thomas M Gress, Long R Jiao, Ylenia Lombardo, Nicholas R Lemoine, Christopher Heeschen, Leandro Castellano
TGF-β/Activin induces epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and stemness in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). However, the microRNAs (miRNAs) regulated during this response have remained yet undetermined. Here, we show that TGF-β transcriptionally induces MIR100HG lncRNA, containing miR-100, miR-125b and let-7a in its intron, via SMAD2/3. Interestingly, we find that although the pro-tumourigenic miR-100 and miR-125b accordingly increase, the amount of anti-tumourigenic let-7a is unchanged, as TGF-β also induces LIN28B inhibiting its maturation...
May 10, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748555/ptbp1-enhances-mir-101-guided-ago2-targeting-to-mcl1-and-promotes-mir-101-induced-apoptosis
#11
Jia Cui, William J Placzek
Myeloid cell leukemia 1 (MCL1) is a key anti-apoptotic protein belonging to the BCL-2 protein family. To preserve normal cellular homeostasis, cells must maintain strict control over MCL1 expression. Overexpression of MCL1 has been identified as a key contributor to tumorigenesis, and further enables resistance to a number of anti-cancer chemotherapies. Thus, there is an ongoing interest to develop selective MCL1 inhibitors. In order to better target MCL1, it is essential to understand the molecular mechanisms that regulate MCL1 expression in cells...
May 10, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748186/dicer-in-macrophages-prevents-atherosclerosis-by-promoting-mitochondrial-oxidative-metabolism
#12
Yuanyuan Wei, Judit Corbalán-Campos, Rashmi Gurung, Lucia Natarelli, Mengyu Zhu, Nicole Exner, Florian Erhard, Franziska Greulich, Claudia Geißler, N Henriette Uhlenhaut, Ralf Zimmer, Andreas Schober
Background -Alternative macrophage activation, which relies on mitochondrial oxidative metabolism, plays a central role in resolution of inflammation and prevents atherosclerosis. Moreover, macrophages handle large amounts of cholesterol and triglycerides derived from the engulfed modified lipoproteins during atherosclerosis. Although several microRNAs regulate macrophage polarization, the role of microRNA-generating enzyme Dicer in macrophage activation during atherosclerosis is unknown. Methods -To evaluate the role of Dicer in atherosclerosis, Apoe-/- mice with or without macrophage-specific Dicer deletion were fed a high-fat diet for 12 weeks...
May 10, 2018: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735530/nmda-receptor-dependent-dephosphorylation-of-serine-387-in-argonaute-2-increases-its-degradation-and-affects-dendritic-spine-density-and-maturation
#13
Nicolas Paradis-Isler, Jannic Boehm
Argonaute (AGO) proteins are essential components of the microRNA (miRNA) pathway. AGO proteins are loaded with miRNAs to target mRNAs and thereby regulate mRNA stability and protein translation. As such, AGO proteins are important actors in controlling local protein synthesis, for instance, at dendritic spines and synapses. Although miRNA-mediated regulation of dendritic mRNAs has become a focus of intense interest over the past years, the mechanisms regulating neuronal AGO proteins remain largely unknown...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719684/exploring-paz-3-overhang-interaction-to-improve-sirna-specificity-a-combined-experimental-and-modeling-study
#14
Adele Alagia, Andreia F Jorge, Anna Aviñó, Tânia F G G Cova, Ramon Crehuet, Santiago Grijalvo, Alberto A C C Pais, Ramon Eritja
The understanding of the dynamical and mechanistic aspects that lie behind siRNA-based gene regulation is a requisite to boost the performance of siRNA therapeutics. A systematic experimental and computational study on the 3'-overhang structural requirements for the design of more specific and potent siRNA molecules was carried out using nucleotide analogues differing in structural parameters, such as sugar constraint, lack of nucleobase, distance between the phosphodiester backbone and nucleobase, enantioselectivity, and steric hindrance...
February 28, 2018: Chemical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718312/differences-in-silencing-of-mismatched-targets-by-sliced-versus-diced-sirnas
#15
Guihua Sun, Jinghan Wang, Yasheng Huang, Christine Wan-Yin Yuan, Keqiang Zhang, Shuya Hu, Linling Chen, Ren-Jang Lin, Yun Yen, Arthur D Riggs
It has been reported that the two major types of RNA interference triggers, the classical Dicer-generated small RNAs (siRNAs), which function with all members of the Argonaute (Ago) protein family in mammals, and the Ago2-sliced small RNAs (sli-siRNAs), which function solely through Ago2, have similar potency in target cleavage and repression. Here, we show that sli-siRNAs are generally more potent than siRNAs in silencing mismatched targets. This phenomenon is usually more apparent in targets that have mismatched nucleotides in the 3' supplementary region than in targets with mismatches in the seed region...
April 30, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29712715/nmdar-dependent-argonaute-2-phosphorylation-regulates-mirna-activity-and-dendritic-spine-plasticity
#16
Dipen Rajgor, Thomas M Sanderson, Mascia Amici, Graham L Collingridge, Jonathan G Hanley
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) repress translation of target mRNAs by associating with Argonaute (Ago) proteins to form the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC), underpinning a powerful mechanism for fine-tuning protein expression. Specific miRNAs are required for NMDA receptor (NMDAR)-dependent synaptic plasticity by modulating the translation of proteins involved in dendritic spine morphogenesis or synaptic transmission. However, it is unknown how NMDAR stimulation stimulates RISC activity to rapidly repress translation of synaptic proteins...
April 30, 2018: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704631/circrnf13-regulates-the-invasion-and-metastasis-in-lung-adenocarcinoma-by-targeting-mir-93-5p
#17
Lin Wang, Suyao Liu, Yuan Mao, Juqing Xu, Shu Yang, Hongyu Shen, Wei Xu, Weifei Fan, Jun Wang
Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are a group of non-protein-coding RNAs that are generated from back-splicing. Recent evidence indicates that circRNAs play important roles in tissue development, gene regulation, and carcinogenesis. It was recently demonstrated that circular RNAs can function as sponges for miRNAs. In our study, the clinical implications of circRNF13 were assessed in 50 pathologically diagnosed lung adenocarcinoma samples and their paired peripheral normal lung tissues by using quantitative polymerase chain reaction...
April 25, 2018: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29700282/lincrna-1700020i14rik-alleviates-cell-proliferation-and-fibrosis-in-diabetic-nephropathy-via-mir-34a-5p-sirt1-hif-1%C3%AE-signaling
#18
Ailing Li, Rui Peng, Yan Sun, Handeng Liu, Huimin Peng, Zheng Zhang
Long intergenic noncoding RNAs (lincRNAs) have been gradually identified to be functional in a variety of different mechanisms associating with development and epigenetic regulation of cellular homeostasis. However, the study of lincRNAs in diabetic nephropathy (DN) is still in its infancy. Here, we have found dysexpressed long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) in renal tissues of db/db DN mice compared with db/m mice by RNA sequencing. In this study, 5 lincRNAs were confirmed to express in a consistent trend among these DN-related lncRNAs both in vivo and in vitro...
April 27, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694981/circrna-cdr1as-exerts-anti-oncogenic-functions-in-bladder-cancer-by-sponging-microrna-135a
#19
Peng Li, Xiao Yang, Wenbo Yuan, Chengdi Yang, Xiaolei Zhang, Jie Han, Jingzi Wang, Xiaheng Deng, Haiwei Yang, Pengchao Li, Jun Tao, Qiang Lu, Min Gu
BACKGROUND/AIMS: CircRNAs regulate gene expression in different malignancies. However, the role of Cdr1as in the tumourigenesis of bladder cancer and its potential mechanisms remain unknown. METHODS: qRT-PCR was used to detect Cdr1as and target miRNA expression in bladder cancer tissues and cell lines. Biological functional experiments were performed to detect the effects of Cdr1as on the biological behaviour of bladder cancer cells in vivo and in vitro. Bioinformatic analysis was utilised to predict potential miRNA target sites on Cdr1as...
April 20, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691336/a-viral-suppressor-modulates-the-plant-immune-response-early-in-infection-by-regulating-microrna-activity
#20
Robert Pertermann, Selvaraj Tamilarasan, Torsten Gursinsky, Giorgio Gambino, Jana Schuck, Claus Weinholdt, Hauke Lilie, Ivo Grosse, Ralph Peter Golbik, Vitantonio Pantaleo, Sven-Erik Behrens
Many viral suppressors (VSRs) counteract antiviral RNA silencing, a central component of the plant's immune response by sequestration of virus-derived antiviral small interfering RNAs (siRNAs). Here, we addressed how VSRs affect the activities of cellular microRNAs (miRNAs) during a viral infection by characterizing the interactions of two unrelated VSRs, the Tombusvirus p19 and the Cucumovirus 2b, with miRNA 162 (miR162), miR168, and miR403. These miRNAs regulate the expression of the important silencing factors Dicer-like protein 1 (DCL1) and Argonaute proteins 1 and 2 (AGO1 and AGO2), respectively...
April 24, 2018: MBio
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