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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643944/competing-endogenous-rna-expression-profiling-in-pre-eclampsia-identifies-hsa_circ_0036877-as-a-potential-novel-blood-biomarker-for-early-pre-eclampsia
#1
Xiaopeng Hu, Junping Ao, Xinyue Li, Huijuan Zhang, Ji Wu, Weiwei Cheng
Background: The etiology and pathogenesis of pre-eclampsia (PE) is unclear, and there is no ideal early clinical biomarker for prediction of PE. The competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) hypothesis is a new approach to uncover the molecular pathology of PE. The first aim of this study was to perform messenger RNA, long non-coding RNA, and circular RNA (circRNA) expression profiling of human normal and severe pre-eclampsia (SPE) placentas. circRNA, which has a stable structure, is a more suitable biomarker than other types of RNA...
2018: Clinical Epigenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626383/micrornp-mediated-translational-activation-of-nonadenylated-mrnas-in-a-mammalian-cell-free-system
#2
Motoaki Wakiyama, Koichi Ogami, Ryo Iwaoka, Kazuma Aoki, Shin-Ichi Hoshino
MicroRNAs are small noncoding RNAs that regulate translation and mRNA stability by binding target mRNAs in complex with Argonaute (AGO) proteins. AGO interacts with a member of the TNRC6 family proteins to form a microRNP complex, which recruits the CCR4-NOT complex to accelerate deadenylation and inhibits translation. MicroRNAs primarily repress translation of target mRNAs but have been shown to enhance translation of a specific type of target reporter mRNAs in various experimental systems: G0 quiescent mammalian cells, Xenopus laevis oocytes, Drosophila embryo extracts, and HeLa cells...
April 6, 2018: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29576456/phase-transitions-in-the-assembly-and-function-of-human-mirisc
#3
Jessica Sheu-Gruttadauria, Ian J MacRae
miRISC is a multi-protein assembly that uses microRNAs (miRNAs) to identify mRNAs targeted for repression. Dozens of miRISC-associated proteins have been identified, and interactions between many factors have been examined in detail. However, the physical nature of the complex remains unknown. Here, we show that two core protein components of human miRISC, Argonaute2 (Ago2) and TNRC6B, condense into phase-separated droplets in vitro and in live cells. Phase separation is promoted by multivalent interactions between the glycine/tryptophan (GW)-rich domain of TNRC6B and three evenly spaced tryptophan-binding pockets in the Ago2 PIWI domain...
March 16, 2018: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29573145/profiling-of-m6a-rna-modifications-identified-an-age-associated-regulation-of-ago2-mrna-stability
#4
Kyung-Won Min, Richard W Zealy, Sylvia Davila, Mikhail Fomin, James C Cummings, Daniel Makowsky, Catherine H Mcdowell, Haley Thigpen, Markus Hafner, Sang-Ho Kwon, Constantin Georgescu, Jonathan D Wren, Je-Hyun Yoon
Gene expression is dynamically regulated in a variety of mammalian physiologies. During mammalian aging, there are changes that occur in protein expression that are highly controlled by the regulatory steps in transcription, post-transcription, and post-translation. Although there are global profiles of human transcripts during the aging processes available, the mechanism(s) by which transcripts are differentially expressed between young and old cohorts remains unclear. Here, we report on N6-methyladenosine (m6A) RNA modification profiles of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from young and old cohorts...
March 23, 2018: Aging Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29570727/mir-126-5p-by-direct-targeting-of-jnk-interacting-protein-2-jip-2-plays-a-key-role-in-theileria-infected-macrophage-virulence
#5
Malak Haidar, Zineb Rchiad, Hifzur Rahman Ansari, Fathia Ben-Rached, Shahin Tajeri, Perle Latre De Late, Gordon Langsley, Arnab Pain
Theileria annulata is an apicomplexan parasite that infects and transforms bovine macrophages that disseminate throughout the animal causing a leukaemia-like disease called tropical theileriosis. Using deep RNAseq of T. annulata-infected B cells and macrophages we identify a set of microRNAs induced by infection, whose expression diminishes upon loss of the hyper-disseminating phenotype of virulent transformed macrophages. We describe how infection-induced upregulation of miR-126-5p ablates JIP-2 expression to release cytosolic JNK to translocate to the nucleus and trans-activate AP-1-driven transcription of mmp9 to promote tumour dissemination...
March 23, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29548011/drosophila-tsrnas-preferentially-suppress-general-translation-machinery-via-antisense-pairing-and-participate-in-cellular-starvation-response
#6
Shiqi Luo, Feng He, Junjie Luo, Shengqian Dou, Yirong Wang, Annan Guo, Jian Lu
Transfer RNA-derived small RNAs (tsRNAs) are an emerging class of small RNAs, yet their regulatory roles have not been well understood. Here we studied the molecular mechanisms and consequences of tsRNA-mediated regulation in Drosophila. By analyzing 495 public small RNA libraries, we demonstrate that most tsRNAs are conserved, prevalent and abundant in Drosophila. By carrying out mRNA sequencing and ribosome profiling of S2 cells transfected with single-stranded tsRNA mimics and mocks, we show that tsRNAs recognize target mRNAs through conserved complementary sequence matching and suppress target genes by translational inhibition...
March 14, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29529026/argonaute2-and-laminb-modulate-gene-expression-by-controlling-chromatin-topology
#7
Ezequiel Nazer, Ryan K Dale, Madoka Chinen, Behram Radmanesh, Elissa P Lei
Drosophila Argonaute2 (AGO2) has been shown to regulate expression of certain loci in an RNA interference (RNAi)-independent manner, but its genome-wide function on chromatin remains unknown. Here, we identified the nuclear scaffolding protein LaminB as a novel interactor of AGO2. When either AGO2 or LaminB are depleted in Kc cells, similar transcription changes are observed genome-wide. In particular, changes in expression occur mainly in active or potentially active chromatin, both inside and outside LaminB-associated domains (LADs)...
March 12, 2018: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29521598/rhinovirus-infection-induces-distinct-transcriptome-profiles-in-polarized-human-macrophages
#8
Charu Rajput, Megan P Walsh, Breanna N Eder, Ediri E Metitiri, Antonia P Popova, Marc B Hershenson
Infections with rhinovirus (RV) cause asthma exacerbations. Recent studies suggest that macrophages play a role in asthmatic airway inflammation and the innate immune response to RV infection. Macrophages exhibit discrete phenotypes based on surface markers and gene expression. We hypothesized that macrophage polarization state alters gene expression in response to RV infection. Cells were derived from human peripheral blood derived monocytes. M1 and M2 polarization was carried out using IFN-y and IL-4, respectively, and RNA was extracted for Affymetrix Human Gene ST2...
March 9, 2018: Physiological Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29516602/ago2-and-dicer1-are-involved-in-meth-induced-locomotor-sensitization-in-mice-via-biogenesis-of-mirna
#9
Dan Liu, Li Zhu, Tong Ni, Fang-Lin Guan, Yan-Jiong Chen, Dong-Liang Ma, Eyleen L K Goh, Teng Chen
microRNA (miRNA) play important roles in drug addiction and act as a post-transcriptional regulator of gene expression. We previously reported extensive downregulation of miRNAs in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) of methamphetamine (METH)-sensitized mice. However, the regulatory mechanism of this METH-induced downregulation of miRNAs has yet to be elucidated. Thus, we examined METH-induced changes in the expression of miRNAs and their precursors, as well as the expression levels of mRNA and the proteins involved in miRNA biogenesis such as Dicer1 and Ago2, in the nucleus accumbens of METH-induced locomotor sensitized mice...
March 8, 2018: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29511611/mir-322-5p-targets-igf-1-and-is-suppressed-in-the-heart-of-rats-with-pulmonary-hypertension
#10
Martin Connolly, Benjamin E Garfield, Alexi Crosby, Nick W Morrell, Stephen J Wort, Paul R Kemp
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is characterised by remodelling of the pulmonary vasculature leading to right ventricular hypertrophy. Here, we show that miR-322-5p (the rodent orthologue of miR-424-5p) expression is decreased in the right ventricle of monocrotaline-treated rats, a model of PAH, whereas a putative target insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) is increased. IGF-1 mRNA was enriched 16-fold in RNA immunoprecipitated with Ago2, indicating binding to miR-322-5p. In cell transfection experiments, miR-322-5p suppressed the activity of a luciferase reporter containing a section of the IGF-1 3' untranslated region (UTR) as well as IGF-1 mRNA and protein levels...
March 2018: FEBS Open Bio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29511454/extensive-profiling-of-circular-rnas-and-the-potential-regulatory-role-of-circrna-000284-in-cell-proliferation-and-invasion-of-cervical-cancer-via-sponging-mir-506
#11
Han-Bo Ma, Yi-Nan Yao, Jin-Jun Yu, Xue-Xue Chen, Huai-Fang Li
Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are key regulators in the development and progression of human cancers, however its role in cervical cancer tumorigenesis is not well understood. The present study aims to investigate the expression profiles and potential modulation of circRNA on cervical cancer carcinogenesis. Human circRNA microarray was performed to screen for abnormally expressed circRNA in cervical cancer cells and circRNA-000284 was identified as one circRNA significantly upregulated in cervical cancer cells. Subsequent mechanistic investigations suggested that knockdown of circRNA-000284 suppressed cell proliferation and invasion, and caused G0/G1 phase cell cycle arrest...
2018: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29499134/fus-regulates-activity-of-microrna-mediated-gene-silencing
#12
Tao Zhang, Yen-Ching Wu, Patrick Mullane, Yon Ju Ji, Honghe Liu, Lu He, Amit Arora, Ho-Yon Hwang, Amelia F Alessi, Amirhossein G Niaki, Goran Periz, Lin Guo, Hejia Wang, Elad Elkayam, Leemor Joshua-Tor, Sua Myong, John K Kim, James Shorter, Shao-En Ong, Anthony K L Leung, Jiou Wang
MicroRNA-mediated gene silencing is a fundamental mechanism in the regulation of gene expression. It remains unclear how the efficiency of RNA silencing could be influenced by RNA-binding proteins associated with the microRNA-induced silencing complex (miRISC). Here we report that fused in sarcoma (FUS), an RNA-binding protein linked to neurodegenerative diseases including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), interacts with the core miRISC component AGO2 and is required for optimal microRNA-mediated gene silencing...
March 1, 2018: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463033/spindle-e-acts-antivirally-against-alphaviruses-in-mosquito-cells
#13
Margus Varjak, Isabelle Dietrich, Vattipally B Sreenu, Bethan Eluned Till, Andres Merits, Alain Kohl, Esther Schnettler
Mosquitoes transmit several human- and animal-pathogenic alphaviruses ( Togaviridae family). In alphavirus-infected mosquito cells two different types of virus-specific small RNAs are produced as part of the RNA interference response: short-interfering (si)RNAs and PIWI-interacting (pi)RNAs. The siRNA pathway is generally thought to be the main antiviral pathway. Although an antiviral activity has been suggested for the piRNA pathway its role in host defences is not clear. Knock down of key proteins of the piRNA pathway (Ago3 and Piwi5) in Aedes aegypti -derived cells reduced the production of alphavirus chikungunya virus (CHIKV)-specific piRNAs but had no effect on virus replication...
February 18, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29461816/photolytic-reactivity-of-organometallic-chromium-bipyridine-complexes
#14
Benjamin E Olafsen, Giuseppe V Crescenzo, Luke P Moisey, Brian O Patrick, Kevin M Smith
Known stable [Cr(bpy)2 (Ph)2 ](BPh4 ) complexes undergo reductive elimination of biphenyl with visible-light photolysis using household incandescent or compact fluorescent light bulbs. A series of [Cr(R-bpy)2 (Ar)2 ](X) complexes (R = H or CMe3 ; Ar = Ph, C6 H4 -CMe3 , or C6 H4 -OMe; X = I, BPh4 , or PF6 ) were prepared, and the effect of varying the bipyridine and aryl ligands on the UV-visible spectra and electrochemistry of the chromium(III) complexes was investigated. Photolysis of a mixture of two different bis(aryl) complexes gave only the homocoupled biaryl products by1 H NMR and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis...
February 20, 2018: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458013/ago2-rna-immunoprecipitation-reveals-distinct-mirna-targetomes-of-primary-burkitt-lymphoma-tumors-and-normal-b-cells
#15
Agnieszka Dzikiewicz-Krawczyk, Arjan Diepstra, Bea Rutgers, Gertrud Kortman, Debora de Jong, Jasper Koerts, Marian Bulthuis, Tineke van der Sluis, Annika Seitz, Lydia Visser, Klaas Kok, Joost Kluiver, Anke van den Berg
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs involved in the posttranscriptional regulation of gene expression. Deregulated miRNA levels have been linked to Burkitt lymphoma (BL) pathogenesis. To date, the number of known pathogenesis-related miRNA-target gene interactions is limited. Here, we determined for the first time the miRNA targetomes of primary BL tumors and normal B cells. AGO2-RNA immunoprecipitation (AGO2-RIP) of two frozen diagnostic BL tissue samples and three CD19+ B-cell samples isolated from routinely removed tonsils revealed distinct miRNA targetomes of BL and normal B cells...
February 16, 2018: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444957/p38-activation-induces-the-dissociation-of-tristetraprolin-from-argonaute-2-to-increase-are-mrna-stabilization
#16
Mei-Yan Qi, Jing-Wen Song, Zhuo Zhang, Shuang Huang, Qing Jing
Tristetraprolin (TTP) destabilizes AU-rich element (ARE)-containing mRNA by directly binding with their 3'UTR. P38 stimulation substantially increases ARE-mRNA stability, at least through repressing TTP. However, the mechanism by which P38 keeps TTP inactive has not been fully understood. TTP and ARE-mRNA localize to processing bodies (PBs), the mRNA granules associated with mRNA silencing. Here, we detected the influence of P38 upon TTP localization within PBs and found that P38 regulates TTP localization within PBs...
February 14, 2018: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442415/thrombin-reduced-mir-27b-attenuates-platelet-angiogenic-activities-in-vitro-via-enhancing-platelet-synthesis-of-anti-angiogenic-thrombospondin-1
#17
Xinyan Miao, Mohammed Ferdous-Ur Rahman, Lei Jiang, Yanan Min, Shuai Tan, Hong Xie, Linkiat Lee, Miao Wang, Rickard E Malmström, Weng-Onn Lui, Nailin Li
BACKGROUND: Platelets can synthesize proteins upon activation. Platelets contain a number of microRNAs (miRNA) and a fully functional miRNA effector machinery. It is, however, unclear if platelet miRNAs can regulate protein synthesis of platelets, and whether the regulation may produce a physiological impact. OBJECTIVES: To investigate if and how platelet miRNAs regulate de novo syntheses of angiogenic regulators and subsequently modulate platelet angiogenic activities...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis: JTH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435920/target-mrna-driven-biogenesis-of-cognate-micrornas-in-vitro
#18
Mainak Bose, Suvendra N Bhattacharyya
miRNAs are 20-22 nucleotide long noncoding RNAs that act as post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression controlling more than half of protein coding genes in humans. Being the critical modulators of the mRNA translation process, biogenesis, function, and turnover of these small RNAs are tightly regulated in cells. We have reported that target mRNAs induce increased biogenesis of cognate miRNAs from pre-miRNAs by increased activity of Ago-associated Dicer endonuclease that processes precursor miRNAs to their mature form...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432194/structurally-modulated-codelivery-of-sirna-and-argonaute-2-for-enhanced-rna-interference
#19
Jiahe Li, Connie Wu, Wade Wang, Yanpu He, Elad Elkayam, Leemor Joshua-Tor, Paula T Hammond
Small interfering RNA (siRNA) represents a promising class of inhibitors in both fundamental research and the clinic. Numerous delivery vehicles have been developed to facilitate siRNA delivery. Nevertheless, achieving highly potent RNA interference (RNAi) toward clinical translation requires efficient formation of RNA-induced gene-silencing complex (RISC) in the cytoplasm. Here we coencapsulate siRNA and the central RNAi effector protein Argonaute 2 (Ago2) via different delivery carriers as a platform to augment RNAi...
February 5, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428901/fragile-x-mental-retardation-protein-participates-in-non-coding-rna-pathways
#20
En-Hui Li, Xin Zhao, Ce Zhang, Wei Liu
Fragile X syndrome is one of the most common forms of inherited intellectual disability. It is caused by mutations of the Fragile X mental retardation 1(FMR1) gene, resulting in either the loss or abnormal expression of the Fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP). Recent research showed that FMRP participates in non-coding RNA pathways and plays various important roles in physiology, thereby extending our knowledge of the pathogenesis of the Fragile X syndrome. Initial studies showed that the Drosophila FMRP participates in siRNA and miRNA pathways by interacting with Dicer, Ago1 and Ago2, involved in neural activity and the fate determination of the germline stem cells...
February 20, 2018: Yi Chuan, Hereditas
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