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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150865/enhanced-mu-opioid-receptor-dependent-opioidergic-modulation-of-striatal-cholinergic-transmission-in-dyt1-dystonia
#1
Giulia Ponterio, Annalisa Tassone, Giuseppe Sciamanna, Valentina Vanni, Maria Meringolo, Massimo Santoro, Nicola Biagio Mercuri, Paola Bonsi, Antonio Pisani
BACKGROUND: Mu opioid receptor activation modulates acetylcholine release in the dorsal striatum, an area deeply involved in motor function, habit formation, and reinforcement learning as well as in the pathophysiology of different movement disorders, such as dystonia. Although the role of opioids in drug reward and addiction is well established, their involvement in motor dysfunction remains largely unexplored. METHODS: We used a multidisciplinary approach to investigate the responses to mu activation in 2 mouse models of DYT1 dystonia (Tor1a(+/Δgag) mice, Tor1a(+/-) torsinA null mice, and their respective wild-types)...
November 18, 2017: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149768/mitochondrial-dna-changes-in-pedunculopontine-cholinergic-neurons-in-parkinson-s
#2
Alexander G Bury, Angela Pyle, Joanna L Elson, Laura Greaves, Christopher M Morris, Gavin Hudson, Ilse S Pienaar
In Parkinson's disease (PD), mitochondrial dysfunction associates with nigral dopaminergic neuronal loss. Cholinergic neuronal loss co-occurs, particularly within a brainstem structure, the pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN). We isolated single cholinergic neurons from post-mortem PPNs of aged controls and PD patients. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number and mtDNA deletions were increased significantly in PD patients compared to controls. Furthermore, compared to controls the PD patients had significantly more PPN cholinergic neurons containing mtDNA deletion levels exceeding 60%, a level associated with deleterious effects on oxidative phosphorylation...
November 17, 2017: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142799/respiratory-failure-following-organophosphate-poisoning-a-literature-review
#3
REVIEW
Pirthvi Raj Giyanwani, Ujala Zubair, Osama Salam, Zarafshan Zubair
Organophosphates (OPs) account for a large portion of suicides globally. OP manifests as cholinergic crises, which underlie respiratory failure. There are many pathways by which respiration is inhibited secondary to organophosphate poisoning. These include central as well as peripheral mechanisms, with central mechanisms predominating. We conducted a literature review in June 2017. PubMed, Embase, and Google Scholar were searched for studies that reported acute organophosphate poisoning in humans. In our review, data were collected from studies published during the years 2001 to 2016...
September 3, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142396/antioxidant-and-cholinesterase-inhibitory-activities-of-ethyl-acetate-extract-of-terminalia-chebula-cell-free-in-vitro-and-in-silico-studies
#4
Mohamed Asik Rajmohamed, Suganthy Natarajan, Premkumar Palanisamy, Akbarsha Mohammad Abdulkader, Archunan Govindaraju
Background: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder clinically characterized by memory loss and impaired cognitive function. Cholinergic enzyme deficiency and oxidative stress are the two major factors implicated in the pathogenesis of AD. The symptomatic treatment, as of now, is the use of cholinesterase inhibitors toward cholinergic "downturn." Therefore, there is a search for compounds that will be useful in focused therapies. There has been suggestion that Terminalia chebula fruit would be a potential source...
October 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137938/discovery-of-imidazo-1-2-a-pyridine-based-anthelmintic-targeting-cholinergic-receptors-of-haemonchus-contortus
#5
Jean-Paul Déto Ursul N'Guessan, Pierre-Olivier Delaye, Mélanie Pénichon, Claude L Charvet, Cédric Neveu, Mahama Ouattara, Cécile Enguehard-Gueiffier, Alain Gueiffier, Hassan Allouchi
We report the synthesis of a series of imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine-based molecules as anthelmintic against the livestock parasite Haemonchus contortus. The molecules were tested by using Larval Paralysis Test (LPT), in order to target ionic channels, as most of the prominent marketed anthelminthics present such mechanism of action. The most active compound (5e) displayed paralysis on H. contortus stage 3 larvae until 31.25 µM. Effect of 5e on H. contortus cholinergic receptors (L-AChR1 and 2) was characterized via electrophysiological measurement and a rare antagonist mode of action was unveiled...
November 6, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137029/neural-reorganization-between-injured-cingula-and-the-brainstem-cholinergic-nuclei-in-a-patient-with-cerebral-concussion-a-case-report
#6
Sung Ho Jang, Young Hyeon Kwon
RATIONALE: We report on a patient who showed neural reorganization between injured cingula and the brainstem cholinergic nuclei following cerebral concussion. PATIENT CONCERNS: The main concern of the patient is memory impairment. DIAGNOSES: Cerebral concussion. OUTCOMES: When she visited our hospital at 2 years after onset, cognitive function was evaluated using 2 scales; the Wechsler Intelligence Scale, and the Seoul neuropsychological screening battery: total IQ 97, verbal immediate recall 5...
November 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133497/comparative-associations-between-measures-of-anti-cholinergic-burden-and-adverse-clinical-outcomes
#7
Wen-Han Hsu, Yu-Wen Wen, Liang-Kung Chen, Fei-Yuan Hsiao
PURPOSE: No consensus has been reached regarding which anticholinergic scoring system works most effectively in clinical settings. The aim of this population-based cohort study was to examine the association between anticholinergic medication burden, as defined by different scales, and adverse clinical outcomes among older adults. METHODS: From Taiwan's Longitudinal Health Insurance Database, we retrieved data on monthly anticholinergic drug use measured by the Anticholinergic Risk Scale (ARS), the Anticholinergic Cognitive Burden Scale (ACB), and the Drug Burden Index - Anticholinergic component (DBI-Ach) for 116,043 people aged 65 years and older during a 10-year follow-up...
November 2017: Annals of Family Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133030/20-s-protopanaxadiol-ppd-alleviates-scopolamine-induced-memory-impairment-via-regulation-of-cholinergic-and-antioxidant-systems-and-expression-of-egr-1-c-fos-and-c-jun-in-mice
#8
Cong Lu, Liming Dong, Jingwei Lv, Yan Wang, Bei Fan, Fengzhong Wang, Xinmin Liu
20(S)-protopanaxadiol (PPD) possesses various biological properties, including anti-inflammatory, antitumor and anti-fatigue properties. Recent studies found that PPD functioned as a neurotrophic agent to ameliorate the sensory deficit caused by glutamate-induced excitotoxicity through its antioxidant effects and exhibited strong antidepressant-like effects in vivo. The objective of the present study was first to investigate the effect of PPD in scopolamine (SCOP)-induced memory deficit in mice and the potential mechanisms involved...
November 10, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129819/nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor-%C3%AE-7-subunit-improves-energy-homeostasis-and-inhibits-inflammation-in-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#9
Dong-Jie Li, Jian Liu, Xia Hua, Hui Fu, Fang Huang, Yi-Bo Fei, Wen-Jie Lu, Fu-Ming Shen, Pei Wang
OBJECTIVE: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most common liver diseases worldwide; yet, the pathogenesis of the disorder is not completely understood. The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor α7 subunit (α7nAChR) plays an indispensable role in the vagus nerve-regulated cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway. METHODS: In the present study, we investigated the key role of α7nAChR in NAFLD development. Male wild-type (WT) and α7nAChR knockout (α7nAChR(-/-)) mice were fed a normal chow or a high-fat diet (HFD) for 16 weeks to induce NAFLD...
November 9, 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129799/post-exposure-treatment-with-the-oxime-rs194b-rapidly-reactivates-and-reverses-advanced-symptoms-of-lethal-inhaled-paraoxon-in-macaques
#10
Yvonne J Rosenberg, Jerry Wang, Tara Ooms, Narayanan Rajendran, Lingjun Mao, Xiaoming Jiang, Jonathan Lees, Lori Urban, Jeremiah Romper, Yadire Sepulveda, Yan-Jye Shyong, Palmer Taylor
Fatalities from organophosphate (OP) insecticide result from both occupational and deliberate exposure; significantly impacting human health. Like nerve agents, insecticides are neurotoxins which target and inhibit acetylcholinesterases (AChE) in central and peripheral synapses in the cholinergic nervous system. Post-exposure therapeutic countermeasures generally include administration of atropine with a pyridinium aldoximes e.g. pralidoxime, to reactivate the OP-inhibited AChE. However, commonly used oximes inefficiently cross the blood brain barrier and are rapidly cleared and their benefit is debated...
November 9, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128415/the-p38-mitogen-activated-protein-kinase-regulates-%C3%AE-amyloid-protein-internalization-through-the-%C3%AE-7-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor-in-mouse-brain
#11
Kai-Ge Ma, Jia Lv, Wei-Na Yang, Ke-Wei Chang, Xiao-Dan Hu, Li-Li Shi, Wan-Ying Zhai, Hang-Fan Zong, Yi-Hua Qian
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of the most devastating neurodegenerative disorders. Intracellular β-amyloid protein (Aβ) is an early event in AD. It induces the formation of amyloid plaques and neuron damage. The α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR) has been suggested to play an important role in Aβ caused cognition. It has high affinity with Aβ and could mediate Aβ internalization in vitro. However, whether in mouse brain the p38 MAPK signaling pathway is involved in the regulation of the α7nAChR mediated Aβ internalization and their role in mitochondria remains little known...
November 9, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128285/prolonged-and-localized-sweat-stimulation-by-iontophoretic-delivery-of-the-slowly-metabolized-cholinergic-agent-carbachol
#12
Phillip Simmers, S Kevin Li, Gerald Kasting, Jason Heikenfeld
BACKGROUND: Continuous non-invasive sampling and sensing of multiple classes of analytes could revolutionize medical diagnostics and wearable technologies, but also remains highly elusive because of the many confounding factors for candidate biofluids such as interstitial fluid, tears, saliva, and sweat. Eccrine sweat biosensing has seen a recent surge in demonstrations of wearable sampling and sensing devices. However, for subjects at rest, access to eccrine sweat is highly limited and unpredictable compared to saliva and tears...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Dermatological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127449/determining-a-threshold-sub-acute-dose-leading-to-minimal-physiological-alterations-following-prolonged-exposure-to-the-nerve-agent-vx-in-rats
#13
E Bloch-Shilderman, I Rabinovitz, I Egoz, G Yacov, N Allon, U Nili
VX, a potent inhibitor of cholinesterase (ChE), is considered as one of the most toxic, persistent and least volatile nerve agents. VX is absorbed in various environmental surfaces and is gradually released long after its initial dispersal. Its toxicity is mainly caused by disrupting central and peripheral cholinergic nervous system activity, leading to potential long-term detrimental effects on health. The primary objective of the present study was to assess the threshold VX dose leading to minimal physiological alterations following prolonged VX exposure...
November 10, 2017: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127015/oxotremorine-m-potentiates-nmda-receptors-by-muscarinic-receptor-dependent-and-independent-mechanisms
#14
Ruud Zwart, Hannah Reed, Emanuele Sher
Muscarinic acetylcholine M1 receptors play an important role in synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus and cortex. Potentiation of NMDA receptors as a consequence of muscarinic acetylcholine M1 receptor activation is a crucial event mediating the cholinergic modulation of synaptic plasticity, which is a cellular mechanism for learning and memory. In Alzheimer's disease, the cholinergic input to the hippocampus and cortex is severely degenerated, and agonists or positive allosteric modulators of M1 receptors are therefore thought to be of potential use to treat the deficits in cognitive functions in Alzheimer's disease...
November 7, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126775/lithium-prevents-scopolamine-induced-memory-impairment-in-zebrafish
#15
Rodrigo Zanandrea, Murilo S Abreu, Angelo Piato, Leonardo J G Barcellos, Ana C V V Giacomini
We examined whether lithium carbonate (Li2CO3, 100mg/L) is able to prevent memory impairment induced by scopolamine. Moreover, we evaluated the effects of lithium on anxiety-like behavior and acetylcholinesterase activity in adult zebrafish. We demonstrated that lithium prevents the memory impairment induced by scopolamine, decreases exploration and increases the activity of acetylcholinesterase in zebrafish. Collectively, this contributes to a better understanding of the pharmacology of lithium, its interaction with cholinergic neurotransmission, and its possible application to therapeutic treatments aimed at improving cognition...
November 7, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126416/adjunctive-use-of-physostigmine-salicylate-anticholium%C3%A2-in-perioperative-sepsis-and-septic-shock-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-monocentric-trial-anticholium%C3%A2-per-se
#16
Johannes B Zimmermann, Nadine Pinder, Thomas Bruckner, Monika Lehmann, Johann Motsch, Thorsten Brenner, Torsten Hoppe-Tichy, Stefanie Swoboda, Markus A Weigand, Stefan Hofer
BACKGROUND: Severe sepsis and septic shock remain a major challenge, even in modern intensive care. In Germany, about 68,000 patients die annually because of septic diseases, characterized by a complex systemic inflammatory response. Causal treatment of the underlying infection is essential for successful management of sepsis, but the course can be positively influenced by supportive and adjuvant measures. The cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway (CAP) represents a new approach to adjunctive therapy of septic diseases and can be pharmacologically activated by the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor physostigmine (Anticholium®)...
November 10, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125502/congenital-myasthenic-syndromes-or%C3%A2-inherited-disorders-of-neuromuscular-transmission-recent-discoveries-and%C3%A2-open%C3%A2-questions
#17
Sophie Nicole, Yoshiteru Azuma, Stéphanie Bauché, Bruno Eymard, Hanns Lochmüller, Clarke Slater
Congenital myasthenic syndromes (CMS) form a heterogeneous group of rare diseases characterized by fatigable muscle weakness. They are genetically-inherited and caused by defective synaptic transmission at the cholinergic neuromuscular junction (NMJ). The number of genes known to cause CMS when mutated is currently 30, and the relationship between fatigable muscle weakness and defective functions is quite well-understood for many of them. However, some of the most recent discoveries in individuals with CMS challenge our knowledge of the NMJ, where the basis of the pathology has mostly been investigated in animal models...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Neuromuscular Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125376/extending-julius-seizure-a-bang-sensitive-gene-as-a-model-for-studying-epileptogenesis-cold-shock-and-a-new-insertional-mutation
#18
Derek Dean, Hannah Weinstein, Seema Amin, Breelyn Karno, Emma McAvoy, Ronald Hoy, Andrew Recknagel, Casey Jarvis, David Deitcher
The bang-sensitive (BS) mutants of Drosophila are an important model for studying epilepsy. We recently identified a novel BS locus, julius seizure (jus), encoding a protein containing two transmembrane domains and an extracellular cysteine-rich loop. We also determined that jus(sda)(iso7.8), a previously identified BS mutation, is an allele of jus by recombination, deficiency mapping, complementation testing, and genetic rescue. RNAi knockdown revealed that jus expression is important in cholinergic neurons and that the critical stage of jus expression is the mid-pupa...
November 10, 2017: Fly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122691/sexually-diergic-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis-responses-to-selective-and-non-selective-muscarinic-antagonists-prior-to-cholinergic-stimulation-by-physostigmine-in-rats
#19
Marissa A Smail, Jessica L Soles, Tracy E Karwoski, Robert T Rubin, Michael E Rhodes
Central cholinergic systems regulate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis differentially in males and females (sexual diergism). We previously investigated the role of muscarinic receptors in this regulation by administering physostigmine (PHYSO), an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, to male and female rats pretreated with scopolamine (SCOP), a nonselective muscarinic antagonist. SCOP pretreatment enhanced adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone (CORT) responses in both sexes; males had greater ACTH responses while females had greater CORT responses...
November 7, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121706/protective-effect-of-fucoidan-extract-from-ecklonia-cava-on-hydrogen-peroxide-induced-neurotoxicity
#20
Seon Kyeong Park, Jin Yong Kang, Jong Min Kim, Sang Hyun Park, Bong Seok Kwon, Gun-Hee Kim, Ho Jin Heo
We evaluated the antioxidant activity and neuronal cell-protective effect of fucoidan extract from Ecklonia cava (FEC) on hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced cytotoxicity in PC-12 and MC-IXC cells to assess its protective effect against oxidative stress. Antioxidant activities were examined using the ABTS radical scavenging activity and malondialdehyde (MDA)-inhibitory effect, and the results showed that FEC had significant antioxidant activity. Intracellular ROS content and neuronal cell viability were investigated using DCF-DA assay and MTT reduction assay...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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