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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635482/diagnosis-and-management-of-myasthenia-gravis
#1
Christopher Barber
Myasthenia gravis is a rare long-term neurological condition that is characterised by fluctuating skeletal muscle weakness and fatigue, as well as respiratory difficulties. It is both an acquired autoimmune disease and a chronic neuromuscular disorder. Because of its rarity, myasthenia gravis is relatively unknown and may be unfamiliar to many nurses. While there are various types of myasthenia, this article focuses on myasthenia gravis, exploring its symptoms, diagnosis and treatment, and examining the nurse's role in managing the condition...
June 21, 2017: Nursing Standard
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633346/tetramethylpyrazine-reverses-intracerebroventricular-streptozotocin-induced-memory-deficits-by-inhibiting-gsk-3%C3%AE
#2
Fen Lu, Xu Li, Wei Li, Ke Wei, Yong Yao, Qianlin Zhang, Xinliang Liang, Jiewen Zhang
Brain dysfunction, especially cognitive impairment, is one of the main complications in Alzheimer's disease (AD), which threatens the health of 46.8 million people worldwide. At present, the pathogenesis of cognitive dysfunction is only partially understood, and effective therapies for memory loss in AD remain elusive. Tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) is one of the major bioactive compounds purified from Chuanxiong, a Chinese herb used for the treatment of neurovascular and cardiovascular diseases. The neuroprotective properties of TMP are evident in some neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson's disease...
June 15, 2017: Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632446/multitarget-drug-design-strategy-in-alzheimer-s-disease-focus-on-cholinergic-transmission-and-amyloid-%C3%AE-aggregation
#3
Elena Simoni, Manuela Bartolini, Izuddin F Abu, Alix Blockley, Cecilia Gotti, Giovanni Bottegoni, Roberta Caporaso, Christian Bergamini, Vincenza Andrisano, Andrea Cavalli, Ian R Mellor, Anna Minarini, Michela Rosini
AIM: Alzheimer pathogenesis has been associated with a network of processes working simultaneously and synergistically. Over time, much interest has been focused on cholinergic transmission and its mutual interconnections with other active players of the disease. Besides the cholinesterase mainstay, the multifaceted interplay between nicotinic receptors and amyloid is actually considered to have a central role in neuroprotection. Thus, the multitarget drug-design strategy has emerged as a chance to face the disease network...
June 20, 2017: Future Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632177/the-intersection-of-ngf-trka-signaling-and-amyloid-precursor-protein-processing-in-alzheimer-s-disease-neuropathology
#4
REVIEW
Nadia Canu, Giuseppina Amadoro, Viviana Triaca, Valentina Latina, Valentina Sposato, Veronica Corsetti, Cinzia Severini, Maria Teresa Ciotti, Pietro Calissano
Dysfunction of nerve growth factor (NGF) and its high-affinity Tropomyosin receptor kinase A (TrkA) receptor has been suggested to contribute to the selective degeneration of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons (BFCN) associated with the progressive cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease (AD). The aim of this review is to describe our progress in elucidating the molecular mechanisms underlying the dynamic interplay between NGF/TrkA signaling and amyloid precursor protein (APP) metabolism within the context of AD neuropathology...
June 20, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629847/evidence-for-m2-muscarinic-receptor-modulation-of-axon-terminals-and-dendrites-in-the-rodent-basolateral-amygdala-an-ultrastructural-and-electrophysiological-analysis
#5
Ana Fajardo-Serrano, Lei Liu, David D Mott, Alexander J McDonald
The basolateral amygdala receives a very dense cholinergic innervation from the basal forebrain that is important for memory consolidation. Although behavioral studies have shown that both M1 and M2 muscarinic receptors are critical for these mnemonic functions, there have been very few neuroanatomical and electrophysiological investigations of the localization and function of different types of muscarinic receptors in the amygdala. In the present study we investigated the subcellular localization of M2 muscarinic receptors (M2Rs) in the anterior basolateral nucleus (BLa) of the mouse, including the localization of M2Rs in parvalbumin (PV) immunoreactive interneurons, using double-labeling immunoelectron microscopy...
June 16, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629287/anti-acetylcholinesterase-activity-and-antioxidant-properties-of-extracts-and-fractions-of-carpolobia-lutea
#6
Lucky Legbosi Nwidu, Ekramy Elmorsy, Jack Thornton, Buddhika Wijamunige, Anusha Wijesekara, Rebecca Tarbox, Averil Warren, Wayne Grant Carter
CONTEXT: There is an unmet need to discover new treatments for Alzheimer's disease. This study determined the anti-acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, DPPH free radical scavenging and antioxidant properties of Carpolobia lutea G. Don (Polygalaceae). OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to quantify C. lutea anti-AChE, DPPH free radical scavenging, and antioxidant activities and cell cytotoxicity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Plant stem, leaves and roots were subjected to sequential solvent extractions, and screened for anti-AChE activity across a concentration range of 0...
December 2017: Pharmaceutical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628945/precise-spike-timing-dynamics-of-hippocampal-place-cell-activity-sensitive-to-cholinergic-disruption
#7
Ehren L Newman, Sarah Jo C Venditto, Jason R Climer, Elijah A Petter, Shea N Gillet, Sam Levy
New memory formation depends upon both the hippocampus and modulatory effects of acetylcholine. The mechanism by which acetylcholine levels in the hippocampus enable new encoding remains poorly understood. Here, we tested the hypothesis that cholinergic modulation supports memory formation by leading to structured spike timing in the hippocampus. Specifically, we tested if phase precession in dorsal CA1 was reduced under the influence of a systemic cholinergic antagonist. Unit and field potential was recorded from the dorsal CA1 of rats as they completed laps on a circular track for food rewards before and during the influence of the systemically administered acetylcholine muscarinic receptor antagonist scopolamine...
June 19, 2017: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628896/cholinergic-neuron-gene-expression-differences-captured-by-translational-profiling-in-a-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#8
Paul M McKeever, TaeHyung Kim, Andrew R Hesketh, Laura MacNair, Denise Miletic, Giorgio Favrin, Stephen G Oliver, Zhaolei Zhang, Peter St George-Hyslop, Janice Robertson
Cholinergic neurotransmission is impaired in Alzheimer's disease (AD), and loss of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons is a key component of disease pathogenicity and symptomatology. To explore the molecular basis of this cholinergic dysfunction, we paired translating ribosome affinity purification (TRAP) with RNA sequencing (TRAP-Seq) to identify the actively translating mRNAs in anterior forebrain cholinergic neurons in the TgCRND8 mouse model of AD. Bioinformatic analyses revealed the downregulation of 67 of 71 known cholinergic-related transcripts, consistent with cholinergic neuron dysfunction in TgCRND8 mice, as well as transcripts related to oxidative phosphorylation, neurotrophins, and ribosomal processing...
May 25, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628197/vesicular-acetylcholine-transporter-vacht-overexpression-induces-major-modifications-of-striatal-cholinergic-interneuron-morphology-and-function
#9
Helena Janickova, Vania F Prado, Marco A M Prado, Salah El Mestikawy, Véronique Bernard
Striatal cholinergic interneurons (CIN) are pivotal for the regulation of the striatal network. Acetylcholine (ACh) released by CIN is centrally involved in reward behavior as well as locomotor or cognitive functions. Recently, BAC transgenic mice expressing channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) protein under the control of the choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) promoter (ChAT-ChR2) and displaying almost 50 extra copies of the VAChT gene were used to dissect cholinergic circuit connectivity and function using optogenetic approaches...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627408/developmental-exposure-to-glyphosate-based-herbicide-and-depressive-like-behavior-in-adult-offspring-implication-of-glutamate-excitotoxicity-and-oxidative-stress
#10
Daiane Cattani, Patrícia Acordi Cesconetto, Mauren Kruger Tavares, Eduardo Benedetti Parisotto, Paulo Alexandre De Oliveira, Carla Elise Heinz Rieg, Marina Concli Leite, Rui Daniel Schröder Prediger, Nestor Cubas Wendt, Guilherme Razzera, Danilo Wilhelm Filho, Ariane Zamoner
We have previously demonstrated that maternal exposure to glyphosate-based herbicide (GBH) leads to glutamate excitotoxicity in 15-day-old rat hippocampus. The present study was conducted in order to investigate the effects of subchronic exposure to GBH on some neurochemical and behavioral parameters in immature and adult offspring. Rats were exposed to 1% GBH in drinking water (corresponding to 0.36% of glyphosate) from gestational day 5 until postnatal day (PND)-15 or PND60. Results showed that GBH exposure during both prenatal and postnatal periods causes oxidative stress, affects cholinergic and glutamatergic neurotransmission in offspring hippocampus from immature and adult rats...
June 13, 2017: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626269/the-addition-of-amphetamine-to-potentially-sedating-medication-regimens-an-exploratory-investigation-of-the-impact-upon-reaction-time-and-sustained-attention
#11
James W Price
OBJECTIVES: The addition of amphetamine to a sedating medication may reduce sedation but does it augment reaction time and sustained attention for workers? The purpose of this exploratory study was gain insight into between group differences that would assist hypothesis formation for a subsequent hypothesis testing study. METHODS: This study examined psychomotor vigilance task (PVT) performance for a group taking potentially sedating medications (opiates, benzodiazepines, anticholinergics, barbiturates or polypharmacy) while taking amphetamine to a group not taking amphetamine...
May 15, 2017: Psychopharmacology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625954/attenuation-of-cadmium-induced-decline-in-spatial-habituation-and-recognition-memory-by-long-term-administration-of-almond-and-walnut-supplementation-role-of-cholinergic-function
#12
Zehra Batool, Faiza Agha, Saara Ahmad, Laraib Liaquat, Saiqa Tabassum, Saima Khaliq, Lubna Anis, Irfan Sajid, Shaista Emad, Tahira Perveen, Saida Haider
Excessive exposure of cadmium which is regarded as a neurotoxin can stimulate aging process by inducing abnormality in neuronal function. It has been reported that supplementation of almond and walnut attenuate age-related memory loss. Present study was designed to investigate the weekly administration of cadmium for one month on learning and memory function with relation to cholinergic activity. Cadmium was administered at the dose of 50 mg/kg/week. Whereas, almond and walnut was supplemented at the dose of 400 mg/kg/day along with cadmium administration to separate set of rats...
January 2017: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625546/the-lateral-parabrachial-nucleus-and-central-angiotensinergic-mechanisms-in-the-control-of-sodium-intake-induced-by-different-stimuli
#13
Camila F Roncari, Richard B David, Patrícia M De Paula, Débora S A Colombari, Laurival A De Luca, Eduardo Colombari, José V Menani
Angiotensin II (ANG II) is a typical facilitatory stimulus for sodium appetite. Surprisingly, hyperosmolarity and central cholinergic stimulation, two classical antinatriorexigenic stimuli, also facilitate NaCl intake when they are combined with injections of the α2-adrenoceptor/imidazoline agonist moxonidine into the lateral parabrachial nucleus (LPBN). In the present study, we tested the relative importance of central angiotensinergic and cholinergic mechanisms for the control of water and NaCl intake by combining different dipsogenic or natriorexigenic stimuli with moxonidine injection into the LPBN...
June 15, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625139/targeting-cholinergic-system-to-modulate-liver-injury
#14
Ravirajsinh N Jadeja, Vikrant P Rachakonda, Sandeep Khurana
Over the past few decades, evidence accumulated to indicate that parasympathetic innervation regulates liver injury and regeneration. Liver derives its parasympathetic input via vagus nerve. In animal models, vagus nerve stimulation and transection are frequently used to determine the impact of parasympathetic input on liver injury responses. Such strategies provide limited understanding of post-neuronal mechanisms involved in regulation of liver injury. The hepatic branch of vagus nerve releases acetylcholine (ACh), which activates muscarinic and nicotinic receptors in hepatocytes as well as non-parenchymal cells to modulate cellular functions...
June 18, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622369/comparative-sequence-analysis-reveals-regulation-of-genes-in-developing-schistosomula-of-schistosoma-mansoni-exposed-to-host-portal-serum
#15
Wander de Jesus Jeremias, Flávio Marcos Gomes Araújo, Fábio Ribeiro Queiroz, Fabiano Sviatopolk Mirsky Pais, Ana Carolina Alves de Mattos, Anna Christina de Matos Salim, Paulo Marcos Zech Coelho, Guilherme Correa Oliveira, John Robert Kusel, Renata Guerra-Sá, Roney Santos Coimbra, Élio Hideo Babá
Once inside a vertebrate host after infection, individual schistosomula of the parasite Schistosoma mansoni find a new and complex environment, which requires quick adjustments for survival, such as those that allow it to avoid the innate immune response of the host. Thus, it is very important for the parasite to remain within the skin after entering the host for a period of about 3 days, at which time it can then reach the venous system, migrate to the lungs and, by the end of eighth day post-infection, it reach the portal venous system, while undergoing minimal changes in morphology...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622077/a-comparative-study-of-the-effects-of-sodium-selenite-and-glutathione-mono-ethyl-ester-on-aged-adipose-derived-stem-cells-the-telomerase-and-cellular-responses
#16
N Aminizadeh, Taki M Tiraihi, S A Mesbah-Namin, Taher Taheri
The proliferation and differentiation potential of adipose derived stem cells (ADSCs) declines with ageing. Moreover, Alzheimer's disease is associated with progressive decline in cholinergic neurons. The purpose of this study is to enhance the proliferation potential of aged rat ADSCs and their differentiation into cholinergic neurons. The ADSCs were collected from aged male rats cultured and treated with different concentrations of sodium selenite for 3 days or glutathione mono ethyl ester (GSH-MEE) for 1 day...
June 16, 2017: Rejuvenation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620187/discovery-and-identification-of-o-o-diethyl-o-4-5-phenyl-4-5-dihydroisoxazol-3-yl-phenyl-phosphorothioate-xp-1408-as-a-novel-mode-of-action-of-organophosphorus-insecticides
#17
Zhigang Zeng, Ying Yan, Bingfeng Wang, Niu Liu, Hanhong Xu
Organophosphorus (OP) insecticides play an important role in pest control. Many OP insecticides have been removed from the market because of their high toxicity to humans. We designed and synthesized a new OP insecticide with the goal of providing a low cost, and less toxic insecticide. The mode of action of O, O-diethyl O-(4-(5-phenyl-4, 5-dihydroisoxazol-3-yl) phenyl) phosphorothioate (XP-1408) was studied in Drosophila melanogaster. Bioassays showed that XP-1408 at a concentration of 50 mg/L delayed larval development...
June 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619712/targeting-acetylcholine-receptor-m3-prevents-the-progression-of-airway-hyperreactivity-in-a-mouse-model-of-childhood-asthma
#18
Kruti R Patel, Yan Bai, Kenneth G Trieu, Juliana Barrios, Xingbin Ai
Asthma often progresses into adulthood from early-life episodes of adverse environmental exposures. However, how the injury to developing lungs contributes to the pathophysiology of persistent asthma remains poorly understood. In this study, we identified an age-related mechanism along the cholinergic nerve-airway smooth muscle (ASM) axis that underlies prolonged airway hyperreactivity (AHR) in mice. We showed that ASM continued to mature until ∼3 wk after birth. Coinciding with postnatal ASM maturation, there was a critical time window for the development of ASM hypercontractility after cholinergic stimulation...
June 15, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618650/anti-amnesic-effects-of-ganoderma-species-a-possible-cholinergic-and-antioxidant-mechanism
#19
Ravneet Kaur, Varinder Singh, Richa Shri
Mushrooms are valued for their nutritional as well as medicinal properties. Ganoderma species are used traditionally to treat neurological disorders but scientific evidence for this is insufficient. The present study was designed to systematically evaluate the anti-amnesic effect of selected Ganoderma species i.e. G. mediosinense and G. ramosissimum. Extracts of selected mushroom species were evaluated for their antioxidant activity and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition using in-vitro assays (DPPH and Ellman tests respectively)...
June 10, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617379/-immunohistochemical-characteristics-of-the-substantia-nigra-neurons-of-the-human
#20
D E Korzhevskii, I P Grigor'ev, E G Sukhorukova, V V Gusel'nikova
AIM: To determine the cytochemical characteristics of unchanged neurons of the human substantia nigra using a wide range of immunocytochemical markers some of which (glutamate decarboxylase-65, PGP 9.5, non-phosphorylated neurofilament proteins, alpa-tubulin) have never been used for study of human dopaminergic neurons. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Fragments of human midbrain (17 men and women, aged from 28 to 78 years) from the archives of the Department of General and Specific Morphology of the Institute of Experimental Medicine were used...
2017: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
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