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Neuroanatomy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344456/early-clinical-exposure-as-a-learning-tool-to-teach-neuroanatomy-for-first-year-mbbs-students
#1
Maitreyee Kar, Chinmaya Kar, Hironmoy Roy, Parmod Goyal
Context: Early clinical exposure (ECE) is one of the important tools to teach basic science to the MBBS students. It is one form of vertical integration between basic science and clinical subjects. This study is an effort at exploring the use of ECE as a motivational tool toward better learning in neuroanatomy for first year MBBS students. Aim: This study aims to make the students interested and motivated to study neuroanatomy by using ECE as learning tool in neuroanatomy and to make the students enable to retain the knowledge of neuroanatomy more efficiently and correlate the knowledge of neuroanatomy with neuromedicine...
December 2017: International Journal of Applied and Basic Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338560/scientists-instruments-and-even-brains-in-transfer-german-spanish-postwar-networks-and-the-construction-of-the-neuroendocrine-system-1952-1960
#2
Raúl Velasco Morgado
This article presents the process of relocation of hegemonies and "center-periphery" dynamics in neuroanatomy after World War II through the study of the links between the Spanish anatomical school of José Escolar García and some German institutions. We have analyzed their works on the morphology of the neuroendocrine system as a case study, showing how the first contacts of the Spaniards with the United States started a material transfer process between centers on both sides of the Atlantic Ocean through the mediation-and adaptation-of the periphery...
January 1, 2018: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334768/angular-and-metric-analysis-of-the-neural-structures-in-the-cerebellopontine-angle
#3
Helbert de Oliveira Manduca Palmiero, Marcos Devanir Silva da Costa, Ricardo Lourenço Caramanti, Feres Eduardo Aparecido Chaddad-Neto
INTRODUCTION: The cerebellopontine angle (CPA) is a subarachnoid space in the lateral aspect of the posterior fossa. In this study, we propose a complementary analysis of the CPA from the cerebellopontine fissure. METHODS: We studied 50 hemi-cerebelli in the laboratory of neuroanatomy and included a description of the CPA anatomy from the cerebellopontine fissure and its relationship with the flocculus and the 5th, 6th, 7th, and 8th cranial nerves (CN) origins. RESULTS: The average distance from the 5th CN to the mid-line (ML) was 19...
January 15, 2018: British Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334640/not-single-brain-areas-but-a-network-is-involved-in-language-applications-in-presurgical-planning
#4
Razieh Alemi, Seyed Amir Hossein Batouli, Ebrahim Behzad, Mitra Ebrahimpoor, Mohammad Ali Oghabian
OBJECTIVES: Language is an important human function, and is a determinant of the quality of life. In conditions such as brain lesions, disruption of the language function may occur, and lesion resection is a solution for that. Presurgical planning to determine the language-related brain areas would enhance the chances of language preservation after the operation; however, availability of a normative language template is essential. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this study, using data from 60 young individuals who were meticulously checked for mental and physical health, and using fMRI and robust imaging and data analysis methods, functional brain maps for the language production, perception and semantic were produced...
January 10, 2018: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333488/dopamine-development-in-the-mouse-orbital-prefrontal-cortex-is-protracted-and-sensitive-to-amphetamine-in-adolescence
#5
Daniel Hoops, Lauren M Reynolds, Jose-Maria Restrepo-Lozano, Cecilia Flores
The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is divided into subregions, including the medial and orbital prefrontal cortices. Dopamine connectivity in the medial PFC (mPFC) continues to be established throughout adolescence as the result of the continuous growth of axons that innervated the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) prior to adolescence. During this period, dopamine axons remain vulnerable to environmental influences, such as drugs used recreationally by humans. The developmental trajectory of the orbital prefrontal dopamine innervation remains almost completely unstudied...
January 2018: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318091/nerve-blocks-in-the-geriatric-patient-with-hip-fracture-a-review-of-the-current-literature-and-relevant-neuroanatomy
#6
REVIEW
Nirav H Amin, Jacob A West, Travis Farmer, Hrayr G Basmajian
Introduction: Hip fracture is a common occurrence in the elderly population with high morbidity and mortality due to postoperative pain and opioid use. The goal of this article is to review the current literature on the neuroanatomy of the hip and the use of localized nerve block in controlling hip fracture pain. Methods: A thorough search of MEDLINE/PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews was conducted using the search terms "hip fracture" and "fascia iliaca block (FICB)...
December 2017: Geriatric Orthopaedic Surgery & Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317365/intraoperative-mri-guided-biopsy-in-the-diagnosis-of-suprasellar-langerhans-cell-histiocytosis
#7
Kate T Carroll, Bryson C Lochte, James Y Chen, Vivian S Snyder, Bob S Carter, Clark C Chen
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided biopsy is an emerging diagnostic technique that holds great promise for otherwise difficult to access neuroanatomy. Here we describe MRI-guided biopsy of a suprasellar lesion located posterior and superior to the pituitary stalk. The approach was successfully implemented in a 38-year-old woman who had developed progressive visual deterioration. Intra-operative MRI revealed the need for trajectory adjustment due to an unintended, minor deviation in the burr hole entry point, demonstrating the benefit of an MRI-guided approach...
January 6, 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301099/from-maps-to-multi-dimensional-network-mechanisms-of-mental-disorders
#8
REVIEW
Urs Braun, Axel Schaefer, Richard F Betzel, Heike Tost, Andreas Meyer-Lindenberg, Danielle S Bassett
The development of advanced neuroimaging techniques and their deployment in large cohorts has enabled an assessment of functional and structural brain network architecture at an unprecedented level of detail. Across many temporal and spatial scales, network neuroscience has emerged as a central focus of intellectual efforts, seeking meaningful descriptions of brain networks and explanatory sets of network features that underlie circuit function in health and dysfunction in disease. However, the tools of network science commonly deployed provide insight into brain function at a fundamentally descriptive level, often failing to identify (patho-)physiological mechanisms that link system-level phenomena to the multiple hierarchies of brain function...
January 3, 2018: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29296493/optical-projection-tomography-for-rapid-whole-mouse-brain-imaging
#9
David Nguyen, Paul J Marchand, Arielle L Planchette, Julia Nilsson, Miguel Sison, Jérôme Extermann, Antonio Lopez, Marcin Sylwestrzak, Jessica Sordet-Dessimoz, Anja Schmidt-Christensen, Dan Holmberg, Dimitri Van De Ville, Theo Lasser
In recent years, three-dimensional mesoscopic imaging has gained significant importance in life sciences for fundamental studies at the whole-organ level. In this manuscript, we present an optical projection tomography (OPT) method designed for imaging of the intact mouse brain. The system features an isotropic resolution of ~50 µm and an acquisition time of four to eight minutes, using a 3-day optimized clearing protocol. Imaging of the brain autofluorescence in 3D reveals details of the neuroanatomy, while the use of fluorescent labels displays the vascular network and amyloid deposition in 5xFAD mice, an important model of Alzheimer's disease (AD)...
December 1, 2017: Biomedical Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288394/endoscopic-transorbital-route-to-the-petrous-apex-a-feasibility-anatomic-study
#10
Alberto Di Somma, Norberto Andaluz, Luigi Maria Cavallo, Thomaz E Topczewski, Federico Frio, Rosa Maria Gerardi, Jose Pineda, Domenico Solari, Joaquim Enseñat, Alberto Prats-Galino, Paolo Cappabianca
BACKGROUND: While the subtemporal approach represents the surgical module milestone designed to reach the petrous apex, a novel ventral route, which is the superior eyelid endoscopic transorbital approach, has been proposed to access the skull base. Accordingly, we aimed to evaluate the feasibility of this route to the petrous apex, providing a qualitative and quantitative analysis of this relatively novel pathway. METHODS: Five human cadaveric heads were dissected at the Laboratory of Surgical NeuroAnatomy of the University of Barcelona...
December 29, 2017: Acta Neurochirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29252202/neuroanatomy-of-conversion-disorder-towards-a-network-approach
#11
Ismael Conejero, Eric Thouvenot, Mocrane Abbar, Stéphane Mouchabac, Philippe Courtet, Emilie Olié
The pathophysiology of conversion disorder is not well understood, although studies using functional brain imaging in patients with motor and sensory symptoms are progressively increasing. We conducted a systematic review of the literature with the aim of summarising the available data on the neuroanatomical features of this disorder. We also propose a general model of the neurobiological disturbance in motor conversion disorder. We systematically searched articles in Medline using the Medical Subject Headings terms '(conversion disorder or hysterical motor disorder) and (neuropsychology or cognition) or (functional magnetic resonance imaging or positron emission tomography or neuroimaging) or (genetics or polymorphisms or epigenetics) or (biomarkers or biology)', following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines...
December 19, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250017/-when-music-speaks-auditory-cortex-morphology-as-a-neuroanatomical-marker-of-language-aptitude-and-musicality
#12
Sabrina Turker, Susanne M Reiterer, Annemarie Seither-Preisler, Peter Schneider
Recent research has shown that the morphology of certain brain regions may indeed correlate with a number of cognitive skills such as musicality or language ability. The main aim of the present study was to explore the extent to which foreign language aptitude, in particular phonetic coding ability, is influenced by the morphology of Heschl's gyrus (HG; auditory cortex), working memory capacity, and musical ability. In this study, the auditory cortices of German-speaking individuals (N = 30; 13 males/17 females; aged 20-40 years) with high and low scores in a number of language aptitude tests were compared...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249943/the-suprachiasmatic-nucleus-of-the-dromedary-camel-camelus-dromedarius-cytoarchitecture-and-neurochemical-anatomy
#13
Khalid El Allali, Mohamed R Achaâban, Mohammed Piro, Mohammed Ouassat, Etienne Challet, Mohammed Errami, Nouria Lakhdar-Ghazal, André Calas, Paul Pévet
In mammals, biological rhythms are driven by a master circadian clock located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus. Recently, we have demonstrated that in the camel, the daily cycle of environmental temperature is able to entrain the master clock. This raises several questions about the structure and function of the SCN in this species. The current work is the first neuroanatomical investigation of the camel SCN. We carried out a cartography and cytoarchitectural study of the nucleus and then studied its cell types and chemical neuroanatomy...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249927/principled-approaches-to-direct-brain-stimulation-for-cognitive-enhancement
#14
REVIEW
Vishnu Sreekumar, John H Wittig, Timothy C Sheehan, Kareem A Zaghloul
In this brief review, we identify key areas of research that inform a systematic and targeted approach for invasive brain stimulation with the goal of modulating higher cognitive functions such as memory. We outline several specific challenges that must be successfully navigated in order to achieve this goal. Specifically, using direct brain stimulation to support memory requires demonstrating that (1) there are reliable neural patterns corresponding to different events and memory states, (2) stimulation can be used to induce these target activity patterns, and (3) inducing such patterns modulates memory in the expected directions...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248158/the-role-of-left-insula-in-executive-set-switching-lesion-evidence-from-an-acute-stroke-cohort
#15
Andreja Varjačić, Dante Mantini, Jacob Levenstein, Elitsa D Slavkova, Nele Demeyere, Céline R Gillebert
Impairments in executive functions are common in stroke survivors, both in the acute and in the chronic phase. However, little is known about the underlying lesion neuroanatomy of these deficits. This study aimed to elucidate the pattern of brain damage underlying executive dysfunction in a large and acute stroke cohort. Executive set-switching deficits were evaluated by a shape-based analogue of the Trail Making Test (from the Oxford Cognitive Screen) in a consecutive sample of 144 stroke patients (age: 70 ± 15 years, examination: 5 ± 4 days post-stroke; brain imaging: 1...
November 22, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243182/the-facial-nerve-anatomy-and-associated-disorders-for-oral-health-professionals
#16
Kojiro Takezawa, Grant Townsend, Mounir Ghabriel
The facial nerve, the seventh cranial nerve, is of great clinical significance to oral health professionals. Most published literature either addresses the central connections of the nerve or its peripheral distribution but few integrate both of these components and also highlight the main disorders affecting the nerve that have clinical implications in dentistry. The aim of the current study is to provide a comprehensive description of the facial nerve. Multiple aspects of the facial nerve are discussed and integrated, including its neuroanatomy, functional anatomy, gross anatomy, clinical problems that may involve the nerve, and the use of detailed anatomical knowledge in the diagnosis of the site of facial nerve lesion in clinical neurology...
December 14, 2017: Odontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243106/quantitative-validation-of-immunofluorescence-and-lectin-staining-using-reduced-clarity-acrylamide-formulations
#17
D M Krolewski, V Kumar, B Martin, R Tomer, K Deisseroth, R M Myers, A F Schatzberg, F S Lee, J D Barchas, W E Bunney, H Akil, S J Watson
The CLARITY technique enables three-dimensional visualization of fluorescent-labeled biomolecules in clarified intact brain samples, affording a unique view of molecular neuroanatomy and neurocircuitry. It is therefore, essential to find the ideal combination for clearing tissue and detecting the fluorescent-labeled signal. This method requires the formation of a formaldehyde-acrylamide fixative-generated hydrogel mesh through which cellular lipid is removed with sodium dodecyl sulfate. Several laboratories have used differential acrylamide and detergent concentrations to achieve better tissue clearing and antibody penetration, but the potential effects upon fluorescent signal retention is largely unknown...
December 14, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236686/convergent-evolution-of-bilaterian-nerve-cords
#18
José M Martín-Durán, Kevin Pang, Aina Børve, Henrike Semmler Lê, Anlaug Furu, Johanna Taylor Cannon, Ulf Jondelius, Andreas Hejnol
It has been hypothesized that a condensed nervous system with a medial ventral nerve cord is an ancestral character of Bilateria. The presence of similar dorsoventral molecular patterns along the nerve cords of vertebrates, flies, and an annelid has been interpreted as support for this scenario. Whether these similarities are generally found across the diversity of bilaterian neuroanatomies is unclear, and thus the evolutionary history of the nervous system is still contentious. Here we study representatives of Xenacoelomorpha, Rotifera, Nemertea, Brachiopoda, and Annelida to assess the conservation of the dorsoventral nerve cord patterning...
December 13, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230397/circuitry-based-human-neuroanatomy-for-the-next-generation-in-psychiatry-and-neuroscience
#19
Takeshi Sakurai
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2017: Molecular Neuropsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226044/neuroanatomy-and-neuropsychology-of-pain
#20
REVIEW
Shehzad Khalid, R Shane Tubbs
We have reviewed here the neuroanatomical and neuropsychological literature of the human brain and have proposed the various pain mechanisms that we currently know of. Essentially when tissue is damaged, peripheral nociceptors are activated continuously and prostanoids are hence produced. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and medications aim to target these prostanoids to treat the inflammatory component of pain. Normal pain tends to have a protective response. It is important for the nervous system to learn and recognize this painful stimulus earlier and quicker with repeated exposure to avoid tissue damage...
October 6, 2017: Curēus
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