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Neuroanatomy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910135/towards-a-terminologia-neuroanatomica
#1
Hans J Ten Donkelaar, Jonas Broman, Paul E Neumann, Luis Puelles, Alessandro Riva, R Shane Tubbs, David Kachlik
This article deals with a recent revision of the terminology of the Sections Central Nervous System (CNS; Systema nervosum centrale) and Peripheral Nervous System (PNS; Systema nervosum periphericum) of the Terminologia Anatomica (TA, 1998) and the Terminologia Histologica (TH, 2008). These sections were extensively updated by the Federative International Programme for Anatomical Terminology (FIPAT) Working Group Neuroanatomy of the International Federation of Associations of Anatomists (IFAA). After extensive discussions by FIPAT, and consultation with the IFAA Member Societies, these parts were merged to form a Terminologia Neuroanatomica (TNA)...
November 7, 2016: Clinical Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909802/brain-transcriptome-atlases-a-computational-perspective
#2
REVIEW
Ahmed Mahfouz, Sjoerd M H Huisman, Boudewijn P F Lelieveldt, Marcel J T Reinders
The immense complexity of the mammalian brain is largely reflected in the underlying molecular signatures of its billions of cells. Brain transcriptome atlases provide valuable insights into gene expression patterns across different brain areas throughout the course of development. Such atlases allow researchers to probe the molecular mechanisms which define neuronal identities, neuroanatomy, and patterns of connectivity. Despite the immense effort put into generating such atlases, to answer fundamental questions in neuroscience, an even greater effort is needed to develop methods to probe the resulting high-dimensional multivariate data...
December 1, 2016: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903793/the-serotonin-5-ht2c-receptor-and-the-non-addictive-nature-of-classic-hallucinogens
#3
REVIEW
Clinton E Canal, Kevin S Murnane
Classic hallucinogens share pharmacology as serotonin 5-HT2A, 5-HT2B, and 5-HT2C receptor agonists. Unique among most other Schedule 1 drugs, they are generally non-addictive and can be effective tools in the treatment of addiction. Mechanisms underlying these attributes are largely unknown. However, many preclinical studies show that 5-HT2C agonists counteract the addictive effects of drugs from several classes, suggesting this pharmacological property of classic hallucinogens may be significant. Drawing from a comprehensive analysis of preclinical behavior, neuroanatomy, and neurochemistry studies, this review builds rationale for this hypothesis, and also proposes a testable, neurobiological framework...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891163/the-visual-system-of-harvestmen-opiliones-arachnida-chelicerata-a-re-examination
#4
Tobias Lehmann, Eva Lodde-Bensch, Roland R Melzer, Martina Metz
BACKGROUND: The visual systems in chelicerates are poorly understood, even though they show strong variation in eye and visual neuropil architecture, thus may provide valuable insights for the understanding of chelicerate phylogeny and eye evolution. Comparable morphological characters are desperately sought for reconstructions of the phylogeny of Chelicerata, especially with respect to Arachnida. So far, reliable data exist only for Pycnogonida, Xiphosura, Scorpiones, and Araneae. The few earlier studies of the organisation of the visual system in harvestmen are contradictory concerning the number, morphology, and position of the visual neuropils...
2016: Frontiers in Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891081/the-brain-of-the-archerfish-toxotes-chatareus-a-nissl-based-neuroanatomical-atlas-and-catecholaminergic-cholinergic-systems
#5
Naomi Karoubi, Ronen Segev, Mario F Wullimann
Over recent years, the seven-spot archerfish (Toxotes chatareus) has emerged as a new model for studies in visual and behavioral neuroscience thanks to its unique hunting strategy. Its natural ability to spit at insects outside of water can be used in the laboratory for well controlled behavioral experiments where the fish is trained to aim at targets on a screen. The need for a documentation of the neuroanatomy of this animal became critical as more research groups use it as a model. Here we present an atlas of adult T...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887995/chronic-stress-and-hippocampal-dendritic-complexity-methodological-and-functional-considerations
#6
REVIEW
Cheryl D Conrad, J Bryce Ortiz, Jessica M Judd
The current understanding of how chronic stress impacts hippocampal dendritic arbor complexity and the subsequent relationship to hippocampal-dependent spatial memory is reviewed. A surge in reports investigating hippocampal dendritic morphology is occurring, but with wide variations in methodological detail being reported. Consequently, this review systematically outlines the basic neuroanatomy of relevant hippocampal features to help clarify how chronic stress or glucocorticoids impact hippocampal dendritic complexity and how these changes occur in parallel with spatial cognition...
November 22, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887721/comparative-multimodal-meta-analysis-of-structural-and-functional-brain-abnormalities-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#7
Christina O Carlisi, Luke J Norman, Steve S Lukito, Joaquim Radua, David Mataix-Cols, Katya Rubia
BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) share inhibitory control deficits possibly underlying poor control over stereotyped and repetitive g., v/r/ dACC /MPFC); and (iv) to indicate a pathway (e.g., if this is a pathway: bilateral putamen/caudate/nucleus accumbens / pallidum /amygdala/insula). BPS style does not allow virgules to be used to represent expressions of duality or alternatives. Please express these as and/or, and, or or . BPS style does not allow virgules to be used to represent a compound modifier such as "rostral/ dorsomedial ," which should be changed to hyphen(s), such as rostral- dorsomedial ...
October 13, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886811/morphoarchitectural-variation-in-south-african-fossil-cercopithecoid-endocasts
#8
Amélie Beaudet, Jean Dumoncel, Frikkie de Beer, Benjamin Duployer, Stanley Durrleman, Emmanuel Gilissen, Jakobus Hoffman, Christophe Tenailleau, John Francis Thackeray, José Braga
Despite the abundance of well-preserved crania and natural endocasts in the South African Plio-Pleistocene cercopithecoid record, which provide direct information relevant to the evolution of their endocranial characteristics, few studies have attempted to characterize patterns of external brain morphology in this highly successful primate Superfamily. The availability of non-destructive penetrating radiation imaging systems, together with recently developed computer-based analytical tools, allow for high resolution virtual imaging and modeling of the endocranial casts and thus disclose new perspectives in comparative paleoneurology...
December 2016: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881953/connectomic-analysis-of-brain-networks-novel-techniques-and-future-directions
#9
REVIEW
J Leonie Cazemier, Francisco Clascá, Paul H E Tiesinga
Brain networks, localized or brain-wide, exist only at the cellular level, i.e., between specific pre- and post-synaptic neurons, which are connected through functionally diverse synapses located at specific points of their cell membranes. "Connectomics" is the emerging subfield of neuroanatomy explicitly aimed at elucidating the wiring of brain networks with cellular resolution and a quantified accuracy. Such data are indispensable for realistic modeling of brain circuitry and function. A connectomic analysis, therefore, needs to identify and measure the soma, dendrites, axonal path, and branching patterns together with the synapses and gap junctions of the neurons involved in any given brain circuit or network...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876444/the-functional-neuroanatomy-of-verbal-memory-in-alzheimer-s-disease-18-f-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose-positron-emission-tomography-fdg-pet-correlates-of-recency-and-recognition-memory
#10
Adam M Staffaroni, Rebecca J Melrose, Lorraine P Leskin, Hannah Riskin-Jones, Dylan Harwood, Mark Mandelkern, David L Sultzer
INTRODUCTION: The objective of this study was to distinguish the functional neuroanatomy of verbal learning and recognition in Alzheimer's disease (AD) using the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease (CERAD) Word Learning task. METHOD: In 81 Veterans diagnosed with dementia due to AD, we conducted a cluster-based correlation analysis to assess the relationships between recency and recognition memory scores from the CERAD Word Learning Task and cortical metabolic activity measured using [(18)F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET)...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870393/sexual-modulation-of-sex-shared-neurons-and-circuits-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#11
REVIEW
Douglas S Portman
Studies using the nematode C. elegans have provided unique insights into the development and function of sex differences in the nervous system. Enabled by the relative simplicity of this species, comprehensive studies have solved the complete cellular neuroanatomy of both sexes as well as the complete neural connectomes of the entire adult hermaphrodite and the adult male tail. This work, together with detailed behavioral studies, has revealed three aspects of sex differences in the nervous system: sex-specific neurons and circuits; circuits with sexually dimorphic synaptic connectivity; and sex differences in the physiology and functions of shared neurons and circuits...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866039/sleep-eeg-maps-the-functional-neuroanatomy-of-executive-processes-in-adolescents-born-very-preterm
#12
Flavia M Wehrle, Beatrice Latal, Ruth L O'Gorman, Cornelia F Hagmann, Reto Huber
Executive function deficits are among the most frequent sequela of very preterm birth but the underlying neuronal mechanisms are not fully understood. We used high-density electroencephalography (EEG) recordings during sleep to assess alterations in the functional neuroanatomy of executive processes in adolescents born very preterm. The topographical distribution of sleep slow wave activity (SWA; 1-4.5 Hz EEG power) has previously been used to map cognitive abilities and is known to reflect the intensity of the prior use of the respective neuronal networks...
October 28, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859344/commentary-mapping-the-young-resilient-brain-reflections-on-burt-et%C3%A2-al-2016
#13
Philip Shaw
The resilience of many children in the face of adversity has long been a research focus. The study by Burt et al. delineates the neuroanatomy of resilience, using in vivo magnetic resonance images acquired on 1,800 youth. They find that resilient youth had a larger right lateral prefrontal cortex compared to youth who either lacked resilience or did not experience adversity. The size of the right lateral prefrontal cortex was further associated with a likelihood of a maladaptive problem of alcohol use. These findings implicate high-order regulatory processes supported by the right lateral prefrontal cortex as pivotal in resilience...
December 2016: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858571/endoscopic-transorbital-route-to-the-cavernous-sinus-through-the-meningo-orbital-band-a-descriptive-anatomical-study
#14
Iacopo Dallan, Alberto Di Somma, Alberto Prats-Galino, Domenico Solari, Isam Alobid, Mario Turri-Zanoni, Giacomo Fiacchini, Paolo Castelnuovo, Giuseppe Catapano, Matteo de Notaris
OBJECTIVE Exposure of the cavernous sinus is technically challenging. The most common surgical approaches use well-known variations of the standard frontotemporal craniotomy. In this paper the authors describe a novel ventral route that enters the lateral wall of the cavernous sinus through an interdural corridor that includes the removal of the greater sphenoid wing via a purely endoscopic transorbital pathway. METHODS Five human cadaveric heads (10 sides) were dissected at the Laboratory of Surgical NeuroAnatomy of the University of Barcelona...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852025/-neuroanatomy-of-temporal-association-cortex
#15
Noritaka Ichinohe
The temporal lobe of the cerebrum consists of several spatially segregated functional regions. There are discrete regions of the temporal lobe where auditory (primary, secondary and tertiary), visual (motion detection and object recognition) and meta-cognitive (memory and social communication) functions are processed. The subcortical amygdala and hippocampal-complex can also be considered temporal structures. Several nomenclature systems have been promoted over the years resulting in multiple names for most individual gyri and sulci...
November 2016: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852021/-neuroanatomy-of-the-parietal-association-areas
#16
Yasushi Kobayashi
The parietal association cortex comprises the superior and inferior parietal lobules, the precuneus and the cortices in the intraparietal, parietooccipital and lunate sulci. By processing somatic, visual, acoustic and vestibular sensory information, the parietal association cortex plays a pivotal role in spatial cognition and motor control of the eyes and the extremities. Sensory information from the primary and secondary somatosensory areas enters the superior parietal lobule and is transferred to the inferior parietal lobule...
November 2016: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852016/-neuroanatomy-of-frontal-association-cortex
#17
Masahiko Takada
The frontal association cortex is composed of the prefrontal cortex and the motor-related areas except the primary motor cortex (i.e., the so-called higher motor areas), and is well-developed in primates, including humans. The prefrontal cortex receives and integrates large bits of diverse information from the parietal, temporal, and occipital association cortical areas (termed the posterior association cortex), and paralimbic association cortical areas. This information is then transmitted to the primary motor cortex via multiple motor-related areas...
November 2016: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843362/isolated-oculomotor-nerve-palsy-resulting-from-acute-traumatic-tentorial-subdural-hematoma
#18
Victoria Cui, Timur Kouliev
Acute subdural hematoma (SDH) resulting from head trauma is a potentially life-threatening condition that requires expedient diagnosis and intervention to ensure optimal patient outcomes. Rapidly expanding or large hematomas, elevated intracranial pressure, and associated complications of brain herniation are associated with high mortality rates and poor recovery of neurological function. However, smaller bleeds (clot thickness <10 mm) or hematomas occurring in infrequent locations, such as the tentorium cerebelli, may be difficult to recognize and patients may present with unusual or subtle signs and symptoms, including isolated cranial nerve palsies...
2016: Open Access Emergency Medicine: OAEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825394/shared-atypical-brain-anatomy-and-intrinsic-functional-architecture-in-male-youth-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-their-unaffected-brothers
#19
H-Y Lin, W-Y I Tseng, M-C Lai, Y-T Chang, S S-F Gau
BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a highly heritable neurodevelopmental disorder, yet the search for definite genetic etiologies remains elusive. Delineating ASD endophenotypes can boost the statistical power to identify the genetic etiologies and pathophysiology of ASD. We aimed to test for endophenotypes of neuroanatomy and associated intrinsic functional connectivity (iFC) via contrasting male youth with ASD, their unaffected brothers and typically developing (TD) males...
November 9, 2016: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822666/the-top-5-neurotransmitters-from-a-clinical-neurologist-s-perspective
#20
Daniel Kondziella
Neurologists are proficient in neuroanatomy and -physiology but their understanding of neurochemistry tends to be mediocre. As a rule, we do not think in biochemical pathways and complex metabolic interactions but rather associate a few neurotransmitters with well-known brain diseases or drugs that we routinely prescribe. Most of us can hardly come up with more than a handful of relevant neurochemicals. From our point of view the most important neurotransmitters are, in alphabetical order, acetylcholine (associated with Alzheimer's disease and myasthenia gravis), dopamine (Parkinson's disease), glutamate and GABA (epilepsy and seizures), and serotonin (major depression; although this is arguably the domain of psychiatrists)...
November 8, 2016: Neurochemical Research
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