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Lisa L Morselli, Kristin E Claflin, Huxing Cui, Justin L Grobe
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Here, we review the current understanding of the functional neuroanatomy of neurons expressing Agouti-related peptide (AgRP) and the angiotensin 1A receptor (AT1A ) within the arcuate nucleus (ARC) in the control of energy balance. RECENT FINDINGS: The development and maintenance of obesity involves suppression of resting metabolic rate (RMR). RMR control is integrated via AgRP and proopiomelanocortin neurons within the ARC. Their projections to other hypothalamic and extrahypothalamic nuclei contribute to RMR control, though relatively little is known about the contributions of individual projections and the neurotransmitters involved...
March 19, 2018: Current Hypertension Reports
Adrienn Máté, Dávid Kis, Andrea Czigner, Tamás Fischer, László Halász, Pál Barzó
Diffusion magnetic resonance imaging is a non-invasive tool increasingly used for the investigation of brain connectivity in vivo. In this paper we propose a method that allows segmentation of the brainstem to four subregions (frontopontine, motor, sensory, and reticular) based on connections to supratentorial structures, thereby eliminating the need for using anatomical landmarks within the brainstem for the identification of these subregions. The feasibility of connectivity-based brainstem segmentation was investigated in a group of healthy subjects (n =20)...
March 16, 2018: Brain Research
Israel Ugalde, Ibrar Anjum, Saberio Lo Presti, Alfonso Tolentino
Acute coronary syndrome usually presents with retrosternal chest pain, nausea, vomiting, sweating, and jaw and arm pain. Some patients only present with neck, epigastric, or ear discomfort. A 47-year-old male with a history of hypertension and coronary artery disease presented to the emergency department complaining of bilateral otalgia. He never felt chest pain, jaw pain, nausea, diaphoresis, or shortness of breath. He had a history of 2 acute coronary events and had a stress test 2 months prior to admission, which was unremarkable...
January 2018: Journal of Investigative Medicine High Impact Case Reports
Lizhen Chen
Axon regeneration is a fundamental and conserved process that allows the nervous system to repair circuits after trauma. Due to its conserved genome, transparent body, and relatively simple neuroanatomy, C. elegans has become a powerful model organism for studying the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying axon regeneration. Various studies from different model organisms have found microtubule dynamics to be pivotal to axon regrowth. In this review, we will discuss the latest findings on how microtubule dynamics are regulated during axon regeneration in C...
March 15, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
Cameron K Schmidt, Shehzad Khalid, Marios Loukas, R Shane Tubbs
Anxiety disorders are among the most prevalent psychological issues worldwide, displaying the youngest age of onset and greatest chronicity of any mood or substance abuse disorder. Given the high social and economic cost imposed by these disorders, developing effective treatments is of the utmost importance. Anxiety disorders manifest in a variety of symptomatic phenotypes and are highly comorbid with other psychological diseases such as depression. These facts have made unraveling the complex underlying neural circuity an ever-present challenge for researchers...
January 12, 2018: Curēus
Deborah J Bird, William J Murphy, Lester Fox-Rosales, Iman Hamid, Robert A Eagle, Blaire Van Valkenburgh
The evolution of mammalian olfaction is manifested in a remarkable diversity of gene repertoires, neuroanatomy and skull morphology across living species. Olfactory receptor genes (ORGs), which initiate the conversion of odorant molecules into odour perceptions and help an animal resolve the olfactory world, range in number from a mere handful to several thousand genes across species. Within the snout, each of these ORGs is exclusively expressed by a discrete population of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs), suggesting that newly evolved ORGs may be coupled with new OSN populations in the nasal epithelium...
March 14, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Stuart J McCarter, David B Burkholder, James P Klaas, Christopher J Boes
Charles Edward Beevor (1854-1908) was a prominent English neurologist who served in a variety of positions at the National Hospital for the Paralysed and Epileptic, Queen Square, from 1883 until his sudden death due to coronary artery disease in 1908. Staunchly committed to the meticulous study of neuroanatomy and physiology and education of his fellow physicians, Beevor was an accomplished clinician-scientist. He is most well known for describing the Beevor sign (commonly known as "Beevor's sign"), which is the upward movement of the umbilicus with truncal flexion from a supine position, used to indicate a spinal cord lesion between the levels of T10 and T12...
March 13, 2018: Neurology
Miquel A Fullana, Anton Albajes-Eizagirre, Carles Soriano-Mas, Bram Vervliet, Narcís Cardoner, Olívia Benet, Joaquim Radua, Ben J Harrison
The study of fear extinction represents an important example of translational neuroscience in psychiatry and promises to improve the understanding and treatment of anxiety and fear-related disorders. We present the results of a set of meta-analyses of human fear extinction studies in healthy participants, conducted with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and reporting whole-brain results. Meta-analyses of fear extinction learning primarily implicate consistent activation of brain regions linked to threat appraisal and experience, including the dorsal anterior cingulate and anterior insular cortices...
March 9, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Edward H Reynolds
The word hysteria originated in the Corpus Hippocraticum (c420 BCE) as a natural explanation for a variety of diseases in women linked in the Greco-Roman mind to an animate or inanimate womb, but which in the last five centuries has evolved to describe an elusive disorder of brain ± mind in men and women, currently referred to by neurologists as "functional neurological disorder". The Babylonians, Assyrians and Egyptians had no knowledge of brain or psychological function. Babylonian and Assyrian descriptions of disease and behaviour include only rare examples suggestive of modern hysteria...
February 17, 2018: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
Laurel J Buxbaum, Jennifer Randerath
Limb apraxia is a heterogeneous disorder of skilled action and tool use that has long perplexed clinicians and researchers. It occurs after damage to various loci in a densely interconnected network of regions in the left temporal, parietal, and frontal lobes. Historically, a highly classificatory approach to the study of apraxia documented numerous patterns of performance related to two major apraxia subtypes: ideational and ideomotor apraxia. More recently, there have been advances in our understanding of the functional neuroanatomy and connectivity of the left-hemisphere "tool use network," and the patterns of performance that emerge from lesions to different loci within this network...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Magdalena Chechlacz
In 1909 Rezsö Bálint published an extraordinary case study of a man with complex visuospatial deficits resulting from bilateral parietal lesions. Despite some controversies over the nature of reported symptoms, in 1954 Hecaen and Ajuriaguerra conceived the term "Bálint syndrome," not only to honor Bálint's influential work but to firmly conceptualize this striking neurologic disorder. Nowadays it is largely agreed that, while Bálint syndrome may result from multiple etiologies, it is principally diagnosed based on the presence of three symptoms: simultanagnosia, optic ataxia, and ocular apraxia...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Özlem Ece Demir-Lira, Salomi S Asaridou, Anjali Raja Beharelle, Anna E Holt, Susan Goldin-Meadow, Steven L Small
Gesture is an integral part of children's communicative repertoire. However, little is known about the neurobiology of speech and gesture integration in the developing brain. We investigated how 8- to 10-year-old children processed gesture that was essential to understanding a set of narratives. We asked whether the functional neuroanatomy of gesture-speech integration varies as a function of (1) the content of speech, and/or (2) individual differences in how gesture is processed. When gestures provided missing information not present in the speech (i...
March 8, 2018: Developmental Science
Chelsea Ekstrand, Ali Jamal, Ron Nguyen, Annalise Kudryk, Jennifer Mann, Ivar Mendez
BACKGROUND: Spatial 3-dimensional understanding of the brain is essential to learning neuroanatomy, and 3-dimensional learning techniques have been proposed as tools to enhance neuroanatomy training. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of immersive virtual-reality neuroanatomy training and compare it to traditional paper-based methods. METHODS: In this randomized controlled study, participants consisted of first- or second-year medical students from the University of Saskatchewan recruited via email and posters displayed throughout the medical school...
February 23, 2018: CMAJ Open
Marc Valera-Melé, Anna Puigdellívol-Sánchez, Marija Mavar-Haramija, Juan A Juanes-Méndez, Luis San-Román, Matteo de Notaris, Alberto Prats-Galino
We describe a new and freely available 3D interactive model of the intracranial internal carotid artery (ICA) and the skull base that also allows to display and compare its main segment classifications. High-resolution 3D human angiography (isometric voxel's size 0.36 mm) and Computed Tomography angiography images were exported to Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML) format for processing in a 3D software platform and embedding in a 3D Portable Document Format (PDF) document that can be freely downloaded at http://diposit...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Medical Systems
Dulcie A Vousden, Christina Corre, Shoshana Spring, Lily R Qiu, Ariane Metcalf, Elizabeth Cox, Jason P Lerch, Mark R Palmert
Biological sex influences brain anatomy across many species. Sex differences in brain anatomy have classically been attributed to differences in sex chromosome complement (XX versus XY) and/or in levels of gonadal sex steroids released from ovaries and testes. Using the four core genotype (4CG) mouse model in which gonadal sex and sex chromosome complement are decoupled, we previously found that sex hormones and chromosomes influence the volume of distinct brain regions. However, recent studies suggest there may be more complex interactions between hormones and chromosomes, and that circulating steroids can compensate for and/or mask underlying chromosomal effects...
March 1, 2018: NeuroImage
Michael P Santa Maria, Benjamin D Hill, Joshua Kline
Lead (Pb) is a neurotoxic substance. While it is widely understood that Pb exposure in early childhood adversely impacts neurodevelopment and intelligence, other aspects of cognition that are negatively affected, and the neuroanatomy and neurophysiology underlying Pb-related cognitive impairment are not widely appreciated by clinicians. This critical review gives a broad synopsis of the current literature in the field. The means by which Pb enters the body, crosses the blood-brain barrier, alters brain structure and function, and consequently impacts measurable aspects of cognition are reviewed...
March 1, 2018: Applied Neuropsychology. Child
Jill L Silverman, Jacob Ellegood
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review highlights the invaluable contribution of in-vivo rodent models in dissecting the underlying neurobiology for numerous neurodevelopmental disorders. Currently, models are routinely generated with precision genomics and characterized for research on neurodevelopmental disorders. In order to impact translation, outcome measures that are translationally relevant are essential. This review emphasizes the importance of accurate neurobehavioral and anatomical analyses...
April 2018: Current Opinion in Neurology
Prantik Kundu, Brenda E Benson, Dana Rosen, Sophia Frangou, Ellen Leibenluft, Wen-Ming Luh, Peter A Bandettini, Daniel S Pine, Monique Ernst
Age-related changes in human functional neuroanatomy are poorly understood. This is partly due to the limits to interpretation of standard fMRI. These limits relate to age-related variation in noise levels across subjects, and the frequent need for standard adult parcellations in developmental studies. Here we used an emerging MRI approach called multi-echo (ME)-fMRI to characterize functional brain changes with age. ME-fMRI acquires blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signals while also quantifying T2* signal decay...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
I Trofimova, T W Robbins, W H Sulis, J Uher
This Editorial highlights a unique focus of this theme issue on the biological perspectives in deriving psychological taxonomies coming from neurochemistry, neuroanatomy, neurophysiology, genetics, psychiatry, developmental and comparative psychology-as contrasted to more common discussions of socio-cultural concepts (personality) and methods (lexical approach). It points out the importance of the distinction between temperament and personality for studies in human and animal differential psychophysiology, psychiatry and psycho-pharmacology, sport and animal practices during the past century...
April 19, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Bruno Rossion, Corentin Jacques, Jacques Jonas
The neural basis of face categorization has been widely investigated with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), identifying a set of face-selective local regions in the ventral occipitotemporal cortex (VOTC). However, indirect recording of neural activity with fMRI is associated with large fluctuations of signal across regions, often underestimating face-selective responses in the anterior VOTC. While direct recording of neural activity with subdural grids of electrodes (electrocorticography, ECoG) or depth electrodes (stereotactic electroencephalography, SEEG) offers a unique opportunity to fill this gap in knowledge, these studies rather reveal widely distributed face-selective responses...
February 26, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
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