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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645748/developmental-and-genetic-mechanisms-of-neural-circuit-evolution
#1
REVIEW
Maria Antonietta Tosches
No matter how a nervous system is genetically built, natural selection acts on the functional outcome of its activity. To understand how nervous systems evolve, it is essential to analyze how their functional units - the neural circuits - change and adapt over time. Different developmental and genetic mechanisms participate to the structural evolution of neural circuits. These mechanisms involve regulatory changes at the level of different gene sets. Functional constraints on neural circuit evolution suggest that these mechanisms are not employed randomly, and that the evolution of neuroanatomy might be biased...
June 20, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640704/immunotherapy-for-brain-tumors
#2
John H Sampson, Marcela V Maus, Carl H June
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most lethal form of brain tumor and remains a large, unmet medical need. This review focuses on recent advances in the neurosciences that converge with the broader field of immuno-oncology. Recent findings in neuroanatomy provide a basis for new approaches of cellular therapies for tumors that involve the CNS. The ultimate success of immunotherapy in the CNS will require improved imaging technologies and methods for analysis of the tumor microenvironment in patients with GBM. It is likely that combinatorial approaches with targeted immunotherapies will be required to exploit the vulnerabilities of GBM and other brain tumors...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628732/understanding-neurophobia-reasons-behind-impaired-understanding-and-learning-of-neuroanatomy-in-cross-disciplinary-healthcare-students
#3
Muhammad Asim Javaid, Shelly Chakraborty, John F Cryan, Harriët Schellekens, André Toulouse
Recent studies have highlighted a fear or difficulty with the study and understanding of neuroanatomy among medical and healthcare students. This has been linked with a diminished confidence of clinical practitioners and students to manage patients with neurological conditions. The underlying reasons for this difficulty have been queried among a broad cohort of medical, dental, occupational therapy, and speech and language sciences students. Direct evidence of the students' perception regarding specific difficulties associated with learning neuroanatomy has been provided and some of the measures required to address these issues have been identified...
June 19, 2017: Anatomical Sciences Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623335/complex-neuroanatomy-in-the-rostrum-of-the-isle-of-wight-theropod-neovenator-salerii
#4
Chris Tijani Barker, Darren Naish, Elis Newham, Orestis L Katsamenis, Gareth Dyke
The discovery of large, complex, internal canals within the rostra of fossil reptiles has been linked with an enhanced tactile function utilised in an aquatic context, so far in pliosaurids, the Cretaceous theropod Spinosaurus, and the related spinosaurid Baryonyx. Here, we report the presence of a complex network of large, laterally situated, anastomosing channels, discovered via micro-focus computed tomography (μCT), in the premaxilla and maxilla of Neovenator, a mid-sized allosauroid theropod from the Early Cretaceous of the UK...
June 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605376/anatomically-inspired-three-dimensional-micro-tissue-engineered-neural-networks-for-nervous-system-reconstruction-modulation-and-modeling
#5
Laura A Struzyna, Dayo O Adewole, Wisberty J Gordián-Vélez, Michael R Grovola, Justin C Burrell, Kritika S Katiyar, Dmitriy Petrov, James P Harris, D Kacy Cullen
Functional recovery rarely occurs following injury or disease-induced degeneration within the central nervous system (CNS) due to the inhibitory environment and the limited capacity for neurogenesis. We are developing a strategy to simultaneously address neuronal and axonal pathway loss within the damaged CNS. This manuscript presents the fabrication protocol for micro-tissue engineered neural networks (micro-TENNs), implantable constructs consisting of neurons and aligned axonal tracts spanning the extracellular matrix (ECM) lumen of a preformed hydrogel cylinder hundreds of microns in diameter that may extend centimeters in length...
May 31, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598580/neuroanatomy-of-the-pig-cardiac-ventricles-a-stereomicroscopic-confocal-and-electron-microscope-study
#6
Neringa Pauziene, Kristina Rysevaite-Kyguoliene, Paulius Alaburda, Audrys G Pauza, Monika Skukauskaite, Aiste Masaityte, Goda Laucaityte, Inga Saburkina, Hermanas Inokaitis, Jurgita Plisiene, Dainius H Pauza
Although the pig is a model for heart disease, the neuroanatomy of cardiac ventricles (CV) in this species remains undetailed. We aimed to define the innervation pattern of pig CV, combining histochemistry for acetylcholinesterase, immunofluorescent labeling and electron microscopy. Forty nine examined pig hearts show that the major nerves supplying the ventral side of CV descend from the venous part of the heart hilum. Fewer in number and smaller in size, epicardial nerves supply the dorsal half of the CV...
June 9, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596993/segmenting-subregions-of-the-human-hippocampus-on-structural-magnetic-resonance-image-scans-an-illustrated-tutorial
#7
Marshall A Dalton, Peter Zeidman, Daniel N Barry, Elaine Williams, Eleanor A Maguire
BACKGROUND: The hippocampus plays a central role in cognition, and understanding the specific contributions of its subregions will likely be key to explaining its wide-ranging functions. However, delineating substructures within the human hippocampus in vivo from magnetic resonance image scans is fraught with difficulties. To our knowledge, the extant literature contains only brief descriptions of segmentation procedures used to delineate hippocampal subregions in magnetic resonance imaging/functional magnetic resonance imaging studies...
2017: Brain and neuroscience advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595893/altered-morphology-of-the-nucleus-accumbens-in-persistent-developmental-stuttering
#8
Nicole E Neef, Christoph Bütfering, Tibor Auer, F Luise Metzger, Harald A Euler, Jens Frahm, Walter Paulus, Martin Sommer
PURPOSE: Neuroimaging studies in persistent developmental stuttering repeatedly report altered basal ganglia functions. Together with thalamus and cerebellum, these structures mediate sensorimotor functions and thus represent a plausible link between stuttering and neuroanatomy. However, stuttering is a complex, multifactorial disorder. Besides sensorimotor functions, emotional and social-motivational factors constitute major aspects of the disorder. Here, we investigated cortical and subcortical gray matter regions to study whether persistent developmental stuttering is also linked to alterations of limbic structures...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Fluency Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591795/socioeconomic-status-and-reading-disability-neuroanatomy-and-plasticity-in-response-to-intervention
#9
Rachel R Romeo, Joanna A Christodoulou, Kelly K Halverson, Jack Murtagh, Abigail B Cyr, Carly Schimmel, Patricia Chang, Pamela E Hook, John D E Gabrieli
Although reading disability (RD) and socioeconomic status (SES) are independently associated with variation in reading ability and brain structure/function, the joint influence of SES and RD on neuroanatomy and/or response to intervention is unknown. In total, 65 children with RD (ages 6-9) with diverse SES were assigned to an intensive, 6-week summer reading intervention (n = 40) or to a waiting-list control group (n = 25). Before and after, all children completed standardized reading assessments and magnetic resonance imaging to measure cortical thickness...
June 7, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590577/non-neural-androgen-receptors-affect-sexual-differentiation-of-brain-and-behavior
#10
REVIEW
D A Monks, A Swift-Gallant
Although gonadal testosterone is the principal endocrine factor that promotes masculine traits in mammals, the development of a male phenotype requires local production of both androgenic and estrogenic signals within target tissues. Much of our knowledge concerning androgenic components of testosterone signaling in sexual differentiation comes from studies of androgen receptor (Ar) loss of function mutants. Here, we review these studies of loss of Ar function and of AR overexpression either globally or selectively in the nervous system of mice...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578003/generating-level-dependent-models-of-cervical-and-thoracic-spinal-cord-injury-exploring-the-interplay-of-neuroanatomy-physiology-and-function
#11
Jared T Wilcox, Kajana Satkunendrarajah, Yasmin Nasirzadeh, Alex M Laliberte, Alyssa Lip, David W Cadotte, Warren D Foltz, Michael G Fehlings
The majority of spinal cord injuries (SCI) occur at the cervical level, which results in significant impairment. Neurologic level and severity of injury are primary endpoints in clinical trials; however, how level-specific damages relate to behavioural performance in cervical injury is incompletely understood. We hypothesized that ascending level of injury leads to worsening forelimb performance, and correlates with loss of neural tissue and muscle-specific neuron pools. A direct comparison of multiple models was made with injury realized at the C5, C6, C7 and T7 vertebral levels using clip compression with sham-operated controls...
May 31, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571652/functional-neuroanatomy-of-speech-signal-decoding-in-primary-progressive-aphasias
#12
Chris J D Hardy, Jennifer L Agustus, Charles R Marshall, Camilla N Clark, Lucy L Russell, Emilie V Brotherhood, Rebecca L Bond, Cassidy M Fiford, Sasha Ondobaka, David L Thomas, Sebastian J Crutch, Jonathan D Rohrer, Jason D Warren
The pathophysiology of primary progressive aphasias remains poorly understood. Here, we addressed this issue using activation fMRI in a cohort of 27 patients with primary progressive aphasia (nonfluent, semantic, and logopenic variants) versus 15 healthy controls. Participants listened passively to sequences of spoken syllables in which we manipulated 3-key auditory speech signal characteristics: temporal regularity, phonemic spectral structure, and pitch sequence entropy. Relative to healthy controls, nonfluent variant patients showed reduced activation of medial Heschl's gyrus in response to any auditory stimulation and reduced activation of anterior cingulate to temporal irregularity...
May 10, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570516/fiber-connections-of-the-supplementary-motor-area-revisited-methodology-of-fiber-dissection-dti-and-three-dimensional-documentation
#13
Baran Bozkurt, Kaan Yagmurlu, Erik H Middlebrooks, Zuzan Cayci, Orhun M Cevik, Ali Karadag, Sean Moen, Necmettin Tanriover, Andrew W Grande
The purpose of this study is to show the methodology for the examination of the white matter connections of the supplementary motor area (SMA) complex (pre-SMA and SMA proper) using a combination of fiber dissection techniques on cadaveric specimens and magnetic resonance (MR) tractography. The protocol will also describe the procedure for a white matter dissection of a human brain, diffusion tensor tractography imaging, and three-dimensional documentation. The fiber dissections on human brains and the 3D documentation were performed at the University of Minnesota, Microsurgery and Neuroanatomy Laboratory, Department of Neurosurgery...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28561922/master-in-oral-biology-program-a-path-to-addressing-the-need-for-future-dental-educators
#14
Margaret A Jergenson, Laura C Barritt, Barbara J O'Kane, Neil S Norton
In dental education, the anatomical sciences, which include gross anatomy, histology, embryology, and neuroanatomy, encompass an important component of the basic science curriculum. At Creighton University School of Dentistry, strength in anatomic science education has been coupled with a solid applicant pool to develop a novel Master of Science in Oral Biology, Anatomic Sciences track degree program. The program provides a heavy emphasis on developing teaching skills in predoctoral students as well as exposure to research processes to encourage the cohort to pursuing a career in academic dentistry...
May 31, 2017: Anatomical Sciences Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553839/a-primer-on-foraging-and-the-explore-exploit-trade-off-for-psychiatry-research
#15
REVIEW
M A Addicott, J M Pearson, M M Sweitzer, D L Barack, M L Platt
Foraging is a fundamental behavior, and many types of animals appear to have solved foraging problems using a shared set of mechanisms. Perhaps the most common foraging problem is the choice between exploiting a familiar option for a known reward and exploring unfamiliar options for unknown rewards-the so-called explore-exploit trade-off. This trade-off has been studied extensively in behavioral ecology and computational neuroscience, but is relatively new to the field of psychiatry. Explore/exploit paradigms can offer psychiatry research a new approach to studying motivation, outcome valuation, and effort-related processes, which are disrupted in many mental and emotional disorders...
May 29, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552825/viral-strategies-for-targeting-cortical-circuits-that-control-cocaine-taking-and-cocaine-seeking-in-rodents
#16
REVIEW
Aaron F Garcia, Kanichi G Nakata, Susan M Ferguson
Addiction to cocaine is a chronic disease characterized by persistent drug-taking and drug-seeking behaviors, and a high likelihood of relapse. The prefrontal cortex (PFC) has long been implicated in the development of cocaine addiction, and relapse. However, the PFC is a heterogeneous structure, and understanding the role of PFC subdivisions, cell types and afferent/efferent connections is critical for gaining a comprehensive picture of the contribution of the PFC in addiction-related behaviors. Here we provide an update on the role of the PFC in cocaine addiction from recent work that used viral-mediated optogenetic and chemogenetic tools to study the role of the PFC in drug-taking and drug-seeking behavior in rodents...
May 25, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551749/neuroanatomy-and-neuropathology-of-autism-spectrum-disorder-in-humans
#17
Christine Ecker, Michael J Schmeisser, Eva Loth, Declan G Murphy
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a lifelong heterogeneous neurodevelopmental condition that is associated with differences in brain anatomy and connectivity. Yet, the molecular and cellular mechanisms that underpin the atypical developmental of the brain in ASD remain poorly understood. Here, we review the findings of in vivo neuroimaging studies examining the time course of atypical brain development in ASD and relate the different neurodevelopmental stages that are atypical in ASD to the known neurobiological mechanisms that drive the maturation of the typically developing brain...
2017: Advances in Anatomy, Embryology, and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548226/multimodal-connectivity-based-parcellation-reveals-a-shell-core-dichotomy-of-the-human-nucleus-accumbens
#18
Xiaoluan Xia, Lingzhong Fan, Chen Cheng, Simon B Eickhoff, Junjie Chen, Haifang Li, Tianzi Jiang
The subdifferentiation of the nucleus accumbens (NAc) has been extensively studied using neuroanatomy and histochemistry, yielding a well-accepted dichotomic shell/core architecture that reflects dissociable roles, such as in reward and aversion, respectively. However, in vivo parcellation of these structures in humans has been rare, potentially impairing future research into the structural and functional characteristics and alterations of putative NAc subregions. Here, we used three complementary parcellation schemes based on tractography, task-independent functional connectivity, and task-dependent co-activation to investigate the regional differentiation within the NAc...
May 26, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534721/evaluation-of-3d-additively-manufactured-canine-brain-models-for-teaching-veterinary-neuroanatomy
#19
Regina M Schoenfeld-Tacher, Timothy J Horn, Tyler A Scheviak, Kenneth D Royal, Lola C Hudson
Physical specimens are essential to the teaching of veterinary anatomy. While fresh and fixed cadavers have long been the medium of choice, plastinated specimens have gained widespread acceptance as adjuncts to dissection materials. Even though the plastination process increases the durability of specimens, these are still derived from animal tissues and they require periodic replacement if used by students on a regular basis. This study investigated the use of three-dimensional additively manufactured (3D AM) models (colloquially referred to as 3D-printed models) of the canine brain as a replacement for plastinated or formalin-fixed brains...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531897/magnetic-resonance-imaging-of-the-brain-of-a-monotreme-the-short-beaked-echidna-tachyglossus-aculeatus
#20
Sandilya Cherupalli, Craig D Hardman, Andre Bongers, Ken W S Ashwell
We used magnetic resonance imaging to study the anatomy of cortical regions, nuclear groups, and major tracts in the brain of a monotreme, i.e., the short-beaked echidna (Tachyglossus aculeatus). Our specimens were from a collection held at the Australian Museum in Sydney and had been stored in formaldehyde solution for at least 70 years. Despite this, we were able to detect fine detail in the nuclear divisions of structures as well as in fiber tracts. In particular, we could detect the medial lemniscus as it approached the ventral posterior thalamic nucleus, subdivisions within the ventral posterior thalamic nucleus, lamination and subdivisions within the hippocampal formation, components of the olfactory pathways, and nuclei within the temporal amygdala...
May 23, 2017: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
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