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Edit Szodorai, Konstantina Bampali, Roman A Romanov, Siegfried Kasper, Tomas Hökfelt, Margot Ernst, Gert Lubec, Tibor Harkany
In the hippocampus, GABA inhibition tunes network oscillations and shapes synchronous activity during spatial learning and memory coding. Once released from the presynapse, GABA primarily binds to ionotropic GABAA receptors (GABAA Rs), which are heteropentamers combinatorially assembled from nineteen known subunits to induce Cl- currents postsynaptically. Dissecting GABAA R subtype specificities in neurobiology is daunting because of differences in their developmental dynamics, regional distribution and subcellular compartmentalization...
July 10, 2018: Cellular Signalling
Dogu Baran Aydogan, Yonggang Shi
Topographic regularity of axonal connections is commonly understood as the preservation of spatial relationships between nearby neurons and is a fundamental structural property of the brain. In particular the retinotopic mapping of the visual pathway can even be quantitatively computed. Inspired from this previously untapped anatomical knowledge, we propose a novel tractography method that preserves both topographic and geometric regularity. We make use of parameterized curves with Frenet-Serret frame and introduce a highly flexible mechanism for controlling geometric regularity...
July 2, 2018: NeuroImage
Qiongmin Ma, Tianhao Zhang, Marcus V Zanetti, Hui Shen, Theodore D Satterthwaite, Daniel H Wolf, Raquel E Gur, Yong Fan, Dewen Hu, Geraldo F Busatto, Christos Davatzikos
With the advent of Big Data Imaging Analytics applied to neuroimaging, datasets from multiple sites need to be pooled into larger samples. However, heterogeneity across different scanners, protocols and populations, renders the task of finding underlying disease signatures challenging. The current work investigates the value of multi-task learning in finding disease signatures that generalize across studies and populations. Herein, we present a multi-task learning type of formulation, in which different tasks are from different studies and populations being pooled together...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Lutz Jäncke
In this mini-review, I summarize and interpret the current status of sex/gender differences in terms of brain anatomy, brain function, behavior, and cognition. Based on this review and the reported findings, I conclude that most of these sex/gender differences are not large enough to support the assumption of sexual dimorphism in terms of brain anatomy, brain function, cognition, and behavior. Instead, I suggest that many brain and cognitive features are modulated by environment, culture, and practice (and several other influences)...
2018: F1000Research
Lily R Qiu, Darren J Fernandes, Kamila U Szulc-Lerch, Jun Dazai, Brian J Nieman, Daniel H Turnbull, Jane A Foster, Mark R Palmert, Jason P Lerch
Sex differences exist in behaviors, disease and neuropsychiatric disorders. Sexual dimorphisms however, have yet to be studied across the whole brain and across a comprehensive time course of postnatal development. Here, we use manganese-enhanced MRI (MEMRI) to longitudinally image male and female C57BL/6J mice across 9 time points, beginning at postnatal day 3. We recapitulate findings on canonically dimorphic areas, demonstrating MEMRI's ability to study neuroanatomical sex differences. We discover, upon whole-brain volume correction, that neuroanatomical regions larger in males develop earlier than those larger in females...
July 5, 2018: Nature Communications
Charlène Aubinet, Stephen Karl Larroque, Lizette Heine, Charlotte Martial, Steve Majerus, Steven Laureys, Carol Di Perri
Patients in minimally conscious state (MCS) have been subcategorized in MCS plus and MCS minus, based on command-following, intelligible verbalization or intentional communication. We here aimed to better characterize the functional neuroanatomy of MCS based on this clinical subcategorization by means of resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Resting state fMRI was acquired in 292 MCS patients and a seed-based analysis was conducted on a convenience sample of 10 MCS plus patients, 9 MCS minus patients and 35 healthy subjects...
July 4, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Peter S Pressman, Suzanne Shdo, Michaela Simpson, Kuan-Hua Chen, Clinton Mielke, Bruce L Miller, Katherine P Rankin, Robert W Levenson
Perceiving another person's emotional expression often sparks a corresponding signal in the observer. Shared conversational laughter is a familiar example. Prior studies of shared laughter have made use of task-based functional neuroimaging. While these methods offer insight in a controlled setting, the ecological validity of such controlled tasks has limitations. Here, we investigate the neural correlates of shared laughter in patients with one of a variety of neurodegenerative disease syndromes ( N = 75), including Alzheimer's disease (AD), behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD), right and left temporal variants of semantic dementia (rtvFTD, svPPA), nonfluent/agrammatic primary progressive aphasia (nfvPPA), corticobasal syndrome (CBS), and progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP)...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Atsushi Sugie, Giovanni Marchetti, Gaia Tavosanis
Neurons extend and retract dynamically their neurites during development to form complex morphologies and to reach out to their appropriate synaptic partners. Their capacity to undergo structural rearrangements is in part maintained during adult life when it supports the animal's ability to adapt to a changing environment or to form lasting memories. Nonetheless, the signals triggering structural plasticity and the mechanisms that support it are not yet fully understood at the molecular level. Here, we focus on the nervous system of the fruit fly to ask to which extent activity modulates neuronal morphology and connectivity during development...
July 1, 2018: Neural Development
Kalanit Grill-Spector, Kevin S Weiner, Jesse Gomez, Anthony Stigliani, Vaidehi S Natu
A central goal in neuroscience is to understand how processing within the ventral visual stream enables rapid and robust perception and recognition. Recent neuroscientific discoveries have significantly advanced understanding of the function, structure and computations along the ventral visual stream that serve as the infrastructure supporting this behaviour. In parallel, significant advances in computational models, such as hierarchical deep neural networks (DNNs), have brought machine performance to a level that is commensurate with human performance...
August 6, 2018: Interface Focus
Florian Groessl, Thomas Munsch, Susanne Meis, Johannes Griessner, Joanna Kaczanowska, Pinelopi Pliota, Dominic Kargl, Sylvia Badurek, Klaus Kraitsy, Arash Rassoulpour, Johannes Zuber, Volkmar Lessmann, Wulf Haubensak
Functional neuroanatomy of Pavlovian fear has identified neuronal circuits and synapses associating conditioned stimuli with aversive events. Hebbian plasticity within these networks requires additional reinforcement to store particularly salient experiences into long-term memory. Here we have identified a circuit that reciprocally connects the ventral periaqueductal gray and dorsal raphe region with the central amygdala and that gates fear learning. We found that ventral periaqueductal gray and dorsal raphe dopaminergic (vPdRD) neurons encode a positive prediction error in response to unpredicted shocks and may reshape intra-amygdala connectivity via a dopamine-dependent form of long-term potentiation...
June 27, 2018: Nature Neuroscience
Vincent Kong, Gabriel A Devenyi, Daniel Gallino, Gülebru Ayranci, Jürgen Germann, Colleen Rollins, M Mallar Chakravarty
Animal models of Alzheimer's disease (AD) can be used to determine the progressive neurodegeneration characteristics of AD in vivo using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Given the need for therapeutic interventions before the onset of frank AD, it is critical to examine if AD models demonstrate neuroanatomical remodeling in an equivalent preclinical phase. This manuscript examines the trajectories of brain and behavioural changes in the Triple transgenic mouse model (3xTg) prior to the development of AD-like behaviours...
June 13, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
Nicole Eichert, Lennart Verhagen, Davide Folloni, Saad Jbabdi, Alexandre A Khrapitchev, Nicola R Sibson, Dante Mantini, Jerome Sallet, Rogier B Mars
Evolutionary adaptations of the human brain are the basis for our unique abilities such as language. An expansion of the arcuate fasciculus (AF), the dorsal language tract, in the human lineage involving left lateralization is considered canonical, but this hypothesis has not been tested in relation to other architectural adaptations in the human brain. Using diffusion-weighted MRI, we examined AF in the human and macaque and quantified species differences in white matter architecture and surface representations...
May 12, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
Brian J Nieman, Matthijs C van Eede, Shoshana Spring, Jun Dazai, R Mark Henkelman, Jason P Lerch
This article describes a detailed set of protocols for mouse brain imaging using MRI. We focus primarily on measuring changes in neuroanatomy, and provide both instructions for mouse preparation and details on image acquisition, image processing, and statistics. Practical details as well as theoretical considerations are provided. © 2018 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
June 2018: Current Protocols in Mouse Biology
Daniel J Tobiansky, Kathryn G Wallin-Miller, Stan B Floresco, Ruth I Wood, Kiran K Soma
Multiple lines of evidence indicate that androgens, such as testosterone, modulate the mesocorticolimbic system and executive function. This review integrates neuroanatomical, molecular biological, neurochemical, and behavioral studies to highlight how endogenous and exogenous androgens alter behaviors, such as behavioral flexibility, decision making, and risk taking. First, we briefly review the neuroanatomy of the mesocorticolimbic system, which mediates executive function, with a focus on the ventral tegmental area (VTA), nucleus accumbens (NAc), medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC)...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Julien Lefèvre, Antonietta Pepe, Jennifer Muscato, Francois De Guio, Nadine Girard, Guillaume Auzias, David Germanaud
Understanding the link between structure, function and development in the brain is a key topic in neuroimaging that benefits from the tremendous progress of multi-modal MRI and its computational analysis. It implies, inter alia , to be able to parcellate the brain volume or cortical surface into biologically relevant regions. These parcellations may be inferred from existing atlases (e.g., Desikan) or sets of rules, as would do a neuroanatomist for lobes, but also directly driven from the data (e.g., functional or structural connectivity) with minimum a priori...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Christophe Habas, Mario Manto
Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is a noninvasive neuroimaging tool assessing the organization of white-matter tracts and brain microstructure in vivo. The technique takes into account the three-dimensional (3D) direction of diffusion of water in space, the brownian movements of water being constrained by the brain microstructure. The main direction of diffusion in the brain is extracted to obtain the principal direction of axonal projection within a given voxel. Overall, the diffusion tensor is a mathematic analysis of the magnitude/directionality (anisotropy) of the movement of water molecules in 3D space...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Peter Mariën, Renato Borgatti
During the past decades neuroanatomic, neuroimaging, and clinical studies have substantially changed the long-standing view of the role of the cerebellum as a sole coordinator of sensorimotor function. Currently, the cerebellum is considered to be crucially implicated in a variety of cognitive, affective, social, and behavioral processes as well. In this chapter we aim to summarize a number of critical insights from different research areas (neuroanatomy, functional neuroimaging, clinical practice) that provide evidence for a role of the cerebellum in motor speech and nonmotor language processing in both adults and children...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Fenglai Xiao, Lorenzo Caciagli, Britta Wandschneider, Josemir W Sander, Meneka Sidhu, Gavin Winston, Jane Burdett, Karin Trimmel, Andrea Hill, Christian Vollmar, Sjoerd B Vos, Sebastien Ourselin, Pamela J Thompson, Dong Zhou, John S Duncan, Matthias J Koepp
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of sodium channel-blocking antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) on functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) language network activations in patients with focal epilepsy. METHODS: In a retrospective study, we identified patients who were treated at the time of language fMRI scanning with either carbamazepine (CBZ; n = 42) or lamotrigine (LTG; n = 42), but not another sodium channel-blocking AED. We propensity-matched 42 patients taking levetiracetam (LEV) as "patient-controls" and included further 42 age- and gender-matched healthy controls...
June 13, 2018: Epilepsia
Murad Atmaca
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a disorder which is important and disturbing the quality of life and is characterized by repetitive thoughts and behaviors, now in a different category in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders Fifth Edition (DSM 5). Neuroimaging investigations are very useful to reveal a neurobiological model of the OCD. Studies conducted in the last quarter century have shown clear results and revealed that specific cortico-subcortical circuits could be involved in the occurrence of OCD symptomatology...
June 12, 2018: Current Neuropharmacology
Alessia Celeghin, Arianna Bagnis, Matteo Diano, Andrés Méndez Guerrero, Tommaso Costa, Marco Tamietto
Blindsight, the residual abilities of patients with cortical blindness to respond proficiently to stimuli they do not consciously acknowledge, offers a unique opportunity to study the functional and anatomical mechanisms sustaining visual awareness. Over decades, the phenomenon has been documented in a wide number of different patients, across independent laboratories, and for a variety of tasks and stimulus properties. Nevertheless, the functional neuroanatomy of blindsight remains elusive and alternative proposals have been put forth...
June 9, 2018: Neuropsychologia
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