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Neuroanatomy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160088/resting-state-functional-connectivity-of-the-subthalamic-nucleus-to-limbic-associative-and-motor-networks
#1
Sheeba Arnold Anteraper, Xavier Guell, Susan Whitfield-Gabrieli, Christina Triantafyllou, Aaron Mattfeld, John D Gabrieli, Maiya Geddes
The subthalamic nucleus (STN) is a small structure situated deep in the mid-brain that exhibits wide-ranging functionality. In addition to its role in motor control, the STN is considered a hub for synchronizing aspects of emotion and cognition including attention, inhibitory control, motivation, and working memory. Evidence from neuroanatomical tracer studies suggests that the medial, ventromedial, and dorsolateral parts of the STN correspond to limbic, associative, and motor subdivisions respectively. While the extent of STN functional anatomical overlap remains unclear, BOLD imaging of the STN may provide complementary information about the diverse functions of this structure...
November 21, 2017: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155719/exploring-deep-space-uncovering-the-anatomy-of-periventricular-structures-to-reveal-the-lateral-ventricles-of-the-human-brain
#2
Alexandru S Colibaba, Aicee Dawn B Calma, Alexandra L Webb, Krisztina Valter
Anatomy students are typically provided with two-dimensional (2D) sections and images when studying cerebral ventricular anatomy and students find this challenging. Because the ventricles are negative spaces located deep within the brain, the only way to understand their anatomy is by appreciating their boundaries formed by related structures. Looking at a 2D representation of these spaces, in any of the cardinal planes, will not enable visualisation of all of the structures that form the boundaries of the ventricles...
October 22, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155433/-neuroanatomy-of-the-visual-pathway
#3
Stephan Heermann
Precise knowledge of the neuroanatomy of the visual system including the perception of visual stimuli in the retina, the transmission of visual information to other areas of the central nervous system and the processing of visual information, are most important for diagnostics of diseases, which are affecting this system. Such knowledge allows, even after just a clinical examination, already a quite precise localisation of potential lesions. The aim of this article is to illustrate the neuroanatomy of the visual system with the focus on the visual pathway and the processing of visual information...
November 2017: Klinische Monatsblätter Für Augenheilkunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152666/neuroanatomical-background-and-functional-considerations-for-stereotactic-interventions-in-the-h-fields-of-forel
#4
REVIEW
Clemens Neudorfer, Mohammad Maarouf
The H fields of Forel constitute an intricate neuroanatomical structure that occupies a central position within the posterior subthalamus. Anatomically, it features a dense concentration of fiber bundles including corticofugal, pallidothalamic, cerebellothalamic and other projections that connect functionally relevant areas of the brain. Functionally, the fields of Forel are embedded within the cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical circuit and constitute the main link between the striatopallidal system and the thalamocortical network...
November 20, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136105/same-genes-different-brains-neuroanatomical-differences-between-monozygotic-twins-discordant-for-musical-training
#5
Örjan de Manzano, Fredrik Ullén
Numerous cross-sectional and observational longitudinal studies show associations between expertise and regional brain anatomy. However, since these designs confound training with genetic predisposition, the causal role of training remains unclear. Here, we use a discordant monozygotic (identical) twin design to study expertise-dependent effects on neuroanatomy using musical training as model behavior, while essentially controlling for genetic factors and shared environment of upbringing. From a larger cohort of monozygotic twins, we were able to recruit 18 individuals (9 pairs) that were highly discordant for piano practice...
November 9, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129723/neural-correlates-of-impaired-self-regulation-in-male-youths-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-a-voxel-based-morphometry-study
#6
Hsing-Chang Ni, Hsiang-Yuan Lin, Wen-Yih Isaac Tseng, Yen-Nan Chiu, Yu-Yu Wu, Wen-Che Tsai, Susan Shur-Fen Gau
Although recent studies revealed impaired self-regulation (dysregulation) in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), neural correlates of dysregulation and its impacts on autistic neuroanatomy remain unclear. Voxel-based morphometry was applied on structural MRI images in 81 ASD and 61 typically developing (TD) boys aged 7-17years. Dysregulation was defined by the sum of T-scores of Attention, Aggression, and Anxiety/Depression subscales in the Child Behavior Checklist>180. There were 53 and 28 boys in the ASD+Dysregulation and ASD-Dysregulation groups, respectively...
November 9, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110821/corrigendum-to-generating-level-dependent-models-of-cervical-and-thoracic-spinal-cord-injury-exploring-the-interplay-of-neuroanatomy-physiology-and-function-neurobiology-of-disease-105-2017-194-212
#7
Jared T Wilcox, Kajana Satkunendrarajah, Yasmin Nasirzadeh, Alex M Laliberte, Alyssa Lip, David W Cadotte, Warren D Foltz, Michael G Fehlings
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101974/the-collateral-ligament-of-the-digits-of-the-hand-anatomy-physiology-biomechanics-injury-and-treatment
#8
REVIEW
Leo M Rozmaryn
Ligament injuries are among the most common musculoskeletal injuries seen in clinical practice and ligaments are the most frequently injured structures in a joint. Ligaments play an important role in balancing joint mobility and joint stability. Disruption of joint ligaments severely impairs joint function. Over the past 10 years, a new appreciation of a neuroanatomy and neurophysiology of joint ligaments and its biofeedback loops to surrounding muscles and tendons has emerged to explain the relationship between primary and secondary restraints that allow normal joint motion yet prevent pathological motion...
November 2017: Journal of Hand Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101460/ioannis-n-mavridis-stereotactic-brain-microanatomy-mathematical-principles-and-applications-neuroanatomy-research-at-the-leading-edge-nova-biomedical-nova-science-publishers-new-york-2017-xxxvi%C3%A2-%C3%A2-128-p-33-illustrations-format-15-6%C3%A2-%C3%A3-%C3%A2-23%C3%A2-cm-isbn-978-1-53612
#9
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100838/alice-a-tool-for-automatic-localization-of-intra-cranial-electrodes-for-clinical-and-high-density-grids
#10
Mariana P Branco, Anna Gaglianese, Daniel Glen, Dora Hermes, Ziad S Saad, Natalia Petridou, Nick F Ramsey
BACKGROUND: Electrocorticographic (ECoG) measurements require the accurate localization of implanted electrodes with respect to the subject's neuroanatomy. Electrode localization is particularly relevant to associate structure with function. Several procedures have attempted to solve this problem, namely by co-registering a post-operative computed tomography (CT) scan, with a pre-operative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) anatomy scan. However, this type of procedure requires a manual and time-consuming detection and transcription of the electrode coordinates from the CT volume scan and restricts the extraction of smaller high-resolution ECoG grid electrodes due to the downsampling of the CT...
October 31, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098716/neuroanatomy-of-hyalinella-punctata-common-patterns-and-new-characters-in-phylactolaemate-bryozoans
#11
Magdalena Ambros, Andreas Wanninger, Thomas F Schwaha
Studies on the bryozoan adult nervous system employing immunocytochemical techniques and confocal laser scanning microscopy are scarce. To gain a better view into the structure and evolution of the nervous system of the Phylactolaemata, the earliest extant branch and sister taxon to the remaining Bryozoa, this work aims to characterize the nervous system of Hyalinella punctata with immunocytochemical techniques and confocal laser scanning microscopy. The cerebral ganglion is located between the anus and the pharynx and contains a lumen...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094675/associations-between-psychosis-endophenotypes-across-brain-functional-structural-and-cognitive-domains
#12
R Blakey, S Ranlund, E Zartaloudi, W Cahn, S Calafato, M Colizzi, B Crespo-Facorro, C Daniel, Á Díez-Revuelta, M Di Forti, C Iyegbe, A Jablensky, R Jones, M-H Hall, R Kahn, L Kalaydjieva, E Kravariti, K Lin, C McDonald, A M McIntosh, M Picchioni, J Powell, A Presman, D Rujescu, K Schulze, M Shaikh, J H Thygesen, T Toulopoulou, N Van Haren, J Van Os, M Walshe, R M Murray, E Bramon
BACKGROUND: A range of endophenotypes characterise psychosis, however there has been limited work understanding if and how they are inter-related. METHODS: This multi-centre study includes 8754 participants: 2212 people with a psychotic disorder, 1487 unaffected relatives of probands, and 5055 healthy controls. We investigated cognition [digit span (N = 3127), block design (N = 5491), and the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (N = 3543)], electrophysiology [P300 amplitude and latency (N = 1102)], and neuroanatomy [lateral ventricular volume (N = 1721)]...
November 2, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094303/high-thickness-histological-sections-as-alternative-to-study-the-three-dimensional-microscopic-human-sub-cortical-neuroanatomy
#13
Eduardo Joaquim Lopes Alho, Ana Tereza Di Lorenzo Alho, Lea Grinberg, Edson Amaro, Gláucia Aparecida Bento Dos Santos, Rafael Emídio da Silva, Ricardo Caires Neves, Maryana Alegro, Daniel Boari Coelho, Manoel Jacobsen Teixeira, Erich Talamoni Fonoff, Helmut Heinsen
Stereotaxy is based on the precise image-guided spatial localization of targets within the human brain. Even with the recent advances in MRI technology, histological examination renders different (and complementary) information of the nervous tissue. Although several maps have been selected as a basis for correlating imaging results with the anatomical locations of sub-cortical structures, technical limitations interfere in a point-to-point correlation between imaging and anatomy due to the lack of precise correction for post-mortem tissue deformations caused by tissue fixation and processing...
November 1, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093658/on-the-complexity-of-human-neuroanatomy-at-the-millimeter-morphome-scale-developing-codes-and-characterizing-entropy-indexed-to-spatial-scale
#14
Daniel J Tward, Michael I Miller
In this work we devise a strategy for discrete coding of anatomical form as described by a Bayesian prior model, quantifying the entropy of this representation as a function of code rate (number of bits), and its relationship geometric accuracy at clinically relevant scales. We study the shape of subcortical gray matter structures in the human brain through diffeomorphic transformations that relate them to a template, using data from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative to train a multivariate Gaussian prior model...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29083338/enlarged-virchow-robin-spaces-in-a-young-man-a-constrained-spherical-deconvolution-tractography-study
#15
Alberto Cacciola, Rocco Salvatore Calabrò, Antonio Costa, Antonino Naro, Demetrio Milardi, Daniele Bruschetta
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Virchow-Robin spaces are mainly located along the path of the lenticulo-striate arteries in the basal ganglia through the anterior perforate substance, and can be found both in normal subjects, as a rare phenomenon, and in patients with different diseases. We report a case of a healthy young man with unilateral enlarged Virchow-Robin spaces in the left capsule-lenticulostriate area. Aim of this case report is to show the potential of probabilistic Constrained Spherical Deconvolution (CSD) tractography in showing abnormal diffusion tensor imaging and tractography of the anterior thalamic tracts caused by mass effect from adjacent enlarged Virchow-Robin spaces...
October 23, 2017: Acta Bio-medica: Atenei Parmensis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080023/bidirectional-effects-of-mother-young-contact-on-the-maternal-and-neonatal-brains
#16
Gabriela González-Mariscal, Angel I Melo
Adaptive plasticity occurs intensely during the early postnatal period through processes like proliferation, migration, differentiation, synaptogenesis, myelination and apoptosis. Exposure to particular stimuli during this critical period has long-lasting effects on cognition, stress reactivity and behavior. Maternal care is the main source of social, sensory and chemical stimulation to the young and is, therefore, critical to "fine-tune" the offspring's neural development. Mothers providing a low quantity or quality of stimulation produce offspring that will exhibit reduced cognitive performance, impaired social affiliation and increased agonistic behaviors...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077492/motor-evoked-potentials-of-the-abductor-hallucis-muscle-and-their-relationship-with-foot-arch-functional-anatomy
#17
Tyrone Mayorga, Erato Giokas, Anaida Abagyan, Dhaval Patel, Yasmin Sarraf, Michael Paula, Eileen Chusid, Anthony D'antoni, Fortunato Battaglia
BACKGROUND: The present study aimed to investigate the correlation between abductor hallucis (AH) muscle motor evoked potential (MEP) amplitude and foot arch anatomy. METHODS: Twelve healthy individuals underwent foot arch measurement using a digital photographic technique and measurements of cortical excitability using transcranial magnetic stimulation applied on the cortical representation area of the right AH muscle. Truncated foot length and dorsal height were then measured and used to create the arch height index (AHI)...
September 2017: Journal of the American Podiatric Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075183/the-role-of-functional-neuroanatomy-of-the-lumbar-spinal-cord-in-effect-of-epidural-stimulation
#18
Carlos A Cuellar, Aldo A Mendez, Riazul Islam, Jonathan S Calvert, Peter J Grahn, Bruce Knudsen, Tuan Pham, Kendall H Lee, Igor A Lavrov
In this study, the neuroanatomy of the swine lumbar spinal cord, particularly the spatial orientation of dorsal roots was correlated to the anatomical landmarks of the lumbar spine and to the magnitude of motor evoked potentials during epidural electrical stimulation (EES). We found that the proximity of the stimulating electrode to the dorsal roots entry zone across spinal segments was a critical factor to evoke higher peak-to-peak motor responses. Positioning the electrode close to the dorsal roots produced a significantly higher impact on motor evoked responses than rostro-caudal shift of electrode from segment to segment...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070905/the-morphology-of-antennal-lobe-projection-neurons-is-controlled-by-a-pou-domain-transcription-factor-bmacj6-in-the-silkmoth-bombyx-mori
#19
Shigehiro Namiki, Tsuguru Fujii, Toru Shimada, Ryohei Kanzaki
How to wire a neural circuit is crucial for the functioning of the nervous system. Here, we describe the neuroanatomy of the olfactory neurons in the spli mutant strain of silkmoth (Bombyx mori) to investigate the function of a transcription factor involved in neuronal wiring in the central olfactory circuit. The genomic structure of the gene Bmacj6, which encodes a class IV POU domain transcription factor, is disrupted in the spli mutant. We report the neuroanatomical abnormality in the morphology of the antennal lobe projection neurons (PNs) that process the sex pheromone...
October 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069907/head-neck-and-neuroanatomy-thieme-atlas-of-anatomy-schuenke-m-schulte-e-schumacher-u-head-neck-and-neuroanatomy-thieme-atlas-of-anatomy-thieme-stuttgart-2016-600-pp-9781626231696-%C3%A2-69-99-pbk
#20
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