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Neuroanatomy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439230/from-anxious-to-reckless-a-control-systems-approach-unifies-prefrontal-limbic-regulation-across-the-spectrum-of-threat-detection
#1
REVIEW
Lilianne R Mujica-Parodi, Jiook Cha, Jonathan Gao
Here we provide an integrative review of basic control circuits, and introduce techniques by which their regulation can be quantitatively measured using human neuroimaging. We illustrate the utility of the control systems approach using four human neuroimaging threat detection studies (N = 226), to which we applied circuit-wide analyses in order to identify the key mechanism underlying individual variation. In so doing, we build upon the canonical prefrontal-limbic control system to integrate circuit-wide influence from the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG)...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438070/creation-of-a-novel-simulator-for-minimally-invasive-neurosurgery-fusion-of-3d-printing-and-special-effects
#2
Peter Weinstock, Roberta Rehder, Sanjay P Prabhu, Peter W Forbes, Christopher J Roussin, Alan R Cohen
OBJECTIVE Recent advances in optics and miniaturization have enabled the development of a growing number of minimally invasive procedures, yet innovative training methods for the use of these techniques remain lacking. Conventional teaching models, including cadavers and physical trainers as well as virtual reality platforms, are often expensive and ineffective. Newly developed 3D printing technologies can recreate patient-specific anatomy, but the stiffness of the materials limits fidelity to real-life surgical situations...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434769/kleine-levin-syndrome-an-update-and-mini-review
#3
REVIEW
Natan Gadoth, Arie Oksenberg
Since 1962, when Critchley and Hoffman coined the term Kleine-Levin Syndrome (KLS) for the triad of hypersomnia, excessive eating and "often abnormal behavior" which they have observed in 11 adolescent boys, the number of patients recognized with this rare syndrome expanded, the spectrum of the clinical presentation, disease course, prognosis, gender specificity and the presence of familial cases were established. However, in spite of the progress made in neuroscience, the search for the cause, neuroanatomy, pathophysiology and drug treatment of KLS is still ongoing...
April 20, 2017: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433420/dna-methylation-program-in-normal-and-alcohol-induced-thinning-cortex
#4
Nail Can Öztürk, Marisol Resendiz, Hakan Öztürk, Feng C Zhou
While cerebral underdevelopment is a hallmark of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD), the mechanism(s) guiding the broad cortical neurodevelopmental deficits are not clear. DNA methylation is known to regulate early development and tissue specification through gene regulation. Here, we examined DNA methylation in the onset of alcohol-induced cortical thinning in a mouse model of FASD. C57BL/6 (B6) mice were administered a 4% alcohol (v/v) liquid diet from embryonic (E) days 7-16, and their embryos were harvested at E17, along with isocaloric liquid diet and lab chow controls...
February 20, 2017: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431201/teaching-neuroanatomy-using-computer-aided-learning-what-makes-for-successful-outcomes
#5
Elena Svirko, Jane Mellanby
Computer-aided learning (CAL) is an integral part of many medical courses. The neuroscience course at Oxford University for medical students includes CAL course of neuroanatomy. CAL is particularly suited to this since neuroanatomy requires much detailed three-dimensional visualization, which can be presented on screen. The CAL course was evaluated using the concept of approach to learning. The aims of university teaching are congruent with the deep approach-seeking meaning and relating new information to previous knowledge-rather than to the surface approach of concentrating on rote learning of detail...
April 21, 2017: Anatomical Sciences Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418237/what-gene-mutations-affect-serotonin-in-mice
#6
Richard C Tenpenny, Kathryn G Commons
Although serotonin neurotransmission has been implicated in several neurodevelopmental and psychological disorders, the factors that drive dysfunction of the serotonin system are poorly understood. Current research regarding the serotonin system revolves around its dysfunction in neuropsychiatric disorders, but there is no database collating genetic mutations that result in serotonin abnormalities. To bridge this gap, we developed a list of genes in mice that, when perturbed, result in altered levels of serotonin either in brain or blood...
April 27, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413721/aspects-of-gorgonopsian-paleobiology-and-evolution-insights-from-the-basicranium-occiput-osseous-labyrinth-vasculature-and-neuroanatomy
#7
Ricardo Araújo, Vincent Fernandez, Michael J Polcyn, Jörg Fröbisch, Rui M S Martins
Synapsida, the clade including therapsids and thus also mammals, is one of the two major branches of amniotes. Organismal design, with modularity as a concept, offers insights into the evolution of therapsids, a group that experienced profound anatomical transformations throughout the past 270 Ma, eventually leading to the evolution of the mammalian bauplan. However, the anatomy of some therapsid groups remains obscure. Gorgonopsian braincase anatomy is poorly known and many anatomical aspects of the brain, cranial nerves, vasculature, and osseous labyrinth, remain unclear...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401046/functional-neuroanatomy-in-panic-disorder-status-quo-of-the-research
#8
Thomas Sobanski, Gerd Wagner
AIM: To provide an overview of the current research in the functional neuroanatomy of panic disorder. METHODS: Panic disorder (PD) is a frequent psychiatric disease. Gorman et al (1989; 2000) proposed a comprehensive neuroanatomical model of PD, which suggested that fear- and anxiety-related responses are mediated by a so-called "fear network" which is centered in the amygdala and includes the hippocampus, thalamus, hypothalamus, periaqueductal gray region, locus coeruleus and other brainstem sites...
March 22, 2017: World Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400103/common-marmoset-callithrix-jacchus-as-a-primate-model-for-behavioral-neuroscience-studies
#9
Noeline W Prins, Eric A Pohlmeyer, Shubham Debnath, Ramanamurthy Mylavarapu, Shijia Geng, Justin C Sanchez, Daniel Rothen, Abhishek Prasad
BACKGROUND: The common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) has been proposed as a suitable bridge between rodents and larger primates. They have been used in several types of research including auditory, vocal, visual, pharmacological and genetics studies. However, marmosets have not been used as much for behavioral studies. NEW METHOD: Here we present data from training 12 adult marmosets for behavioral neuroscience studies. We discuss the husbandry, food preferences, handling, acclimation to laboratory environments and neurosurgical techniques...
April 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395192/comparative-functional-neuroanatomy-between-implicit-and-explicit-memory-tasks-under-negative-emotional-condition-in-schizophrenia
#10
Xiao-Li Song, Gwang-Won Kim, Chung-Man Moon, Gwang-Woo Jeong
PURPOSE: To evaluate the brain activation patterns in response to negative emotion during implicit and explicit memory in patients with schizophrenia. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Fourteen patients with schizophrenia and 14 healthy controls were included in this study. The 3.0T fMRI was obtained while the subjects performed the implicit and explicit retrievals with unpleasant words. RESULTS: The different predominant brain activation areas were observed during the implicit retrieval and explicit with unpleasant words...
April 6, 2017: Clinical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389816/brain-architecture-of-the-pacific-white-shrimp-penaeus-vannamei-boone-1931-malacostraca-dendrobranchiata-correspondence-of-brain-structure-and-sensory-input
#11
Rebecca Meth, Christin Wittfoth, Steffen Harzsch
Penaeus vannamei (Dendrobranchiata, Decapoda) is best known as the "Pacific White Shrimp" and is currently the most important crustacean in commercial aquaculture worldwide. Although the neuroanatomy of crustaceans has been well examined in representatives of reptant decapods ("ground-dwelling decapods"), there are only a few studies focusing on shrimps and prawns. In order to obtain insights into the architecture of the brain of P. vannamei, we use neuroanatomical methods including X-ray micro-computed tomography, 3D reconstruction and immunohistochemical staining combined with confocal laser-scanning microscopy and serial sectioning...
April 7, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385461/the-cerebellum-adaptive-prediction-for-movement-and-cognition
#12
REVIEW
Arseny A Sokolov, R Chris Miall, Richard B Ivry
Over the past 30 years, cumulative evidence has indicated that cerebellar function extends beyond sensorimotor control. This view has emerged from studies of neuroanatomy, neuroimaging, neuropsychology, and brain stimulation, with the results implicating the cerebellum in domains as diverse as attention, language, executive function, and social cognition. Although the literature provides sophisticated models of how the cerebellum helps refine movements, it remains unclear how the core mechanisms of these models can be applied when considering a broader conceptualization of cerebellar function...
April 3, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382935/neuroanatomical-correlates-of-forgiving-unintentional-harms
#13
Indrajeet Patil, Marta Calò, Federico Fornasier, Liane Young, Giorgia Silani
Mature moral judgments rely on the consideration of a perpetrator's mental state as well as harmfulness of the outcomes produced. Prior work has focused primarily on the functional correlates of how intent information is neurally represented for moral judgments, but few studies have investigated whether individual differences in neuroanatomy can also explain variation in moral judgments. In the current study, we conducted voxel-based morphometry analyses to address this question. We found that local grey matter volume in the left anterior superior temporal sulcus, a region in the functionally defined theory of mind or mentalizing network, was associated with the degree to which participants relied on information about innocent intentions to forgive accidental harms...
April 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377435/drawing-on-student-knowledge-of-neuroanatomy-and-neurophysiology
#14
Tara N Slominski, Jennifer L Momsen, Lisa M Montplaisir
Drawings are an underutilized assessment format in Human Anatomy and Physiology (HA&P), despite their potential to reveal student content understanding and alternative conceptions. This study used student-generated drawings to explore student knowledge in a HA&P course. The drawing tasks in this study focused on chemical synapses between neurons, an abstract concept in HA&P. Using two preinstruction drawing tasks, students were asked to depict synaptic transmission and summation. In response to the first drawing task, 20% of students (n = 352) created accurate representations of neuron anatomy...
June 1, 2017: Advances in Physiology Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375915/common-entrapment-neuropathies
#15
Lisa D Hobson-Webb, Vern C Juel
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article addresses relevant peripheral neuroanatomy, clinical presentations, and diagnostic findings in common entrapment neuropathies involving the median, ulnar, radial, and fibular (peroneal) nerves. RECENT FINDINGS: Entrapment neuropathies are a common issue in general neurology practice. Early diagnosis and effective management of entrapment mononeuropathies are essential in preserving limb function and maintaining patient quality of life...
April 2017: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370817/behavioral-and-neuroanatomical-analyses-in-a-genetic-mouse-model-of-2q13-duplication
#16
Keiko Kishimoto, Jun Nomura, Jacob Ellegood, Keita Fukumoto, Jason P Lerch, Daniel Moreno-De-Luca, Thomas Bourgeron, Kota Tamada, Toru Takumi
Duplications of human chromosome 2q13 have been reported in patients with neurodevelopmental disorder including autism spectrum disorder. Nephronophthisis-1 (NPHP1) was identified as a causative gene in the minimal deletion on chromosome 2q13 for familial juvenile type 1 nephronophthisis and Joubert syndrome, an autosomal recessive neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by a cerebellar and brain stem malformation, hypotonia, developmental delay, ataxia, and sometimes associated with cognitive impairment...
March 29, 2017: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331887/android-application-for-determining-surgical-variables-in-brain-tumor-resection-procedures
#17
Rohan C Vijayan, Reid C Thompson, Lola B Chambless, Peter J Morone, Le He, Logan W Clements, Rebekah H Griesenauer, Hakmook Kang, Michael I Miga
The fidelity of image-guided neurosurgical procedures is often compromised due to the mechanical deformations that occur during surgery. In recent work, a framework was developed to predict the extent of this brain shift in brain-tumor resection procedures. The approach uses preoperatively determined surgical variables to predict brain shift and then subsequently corrects the patient's preoperative image volume to more closely match the intraoperative state of the patient's brain. However, a clinical workflow difficulty with the execution of this framework is the preoperative acquisition of surgical variables...
January 2017: Journal of Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326682/nervous-system-development-and-regeneration-in-freshwater-planarians
#18
REVIEW
Kelly G Ross, Ko W Currie, Bret J Pearson, Ricardo M Zayas
Planarians have a long history in the fields of developmental and regenerative biology. These animals have also sparked interest in neuroscience due to their neuroanatomy, spectrum of simple behaviors, and especially, their almost unparalleled ability to generate new neurons after any type of injury. Research in adult planarians has revealed that neuronal subtypes homologous to those found in vertebrates are generated from stem cells throughout their lives. This feat is recapitulated after head amputation, wherein animals are capable of regenerating whole brains and regaining complete neural function...
March 22, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320461/neuroanatomy-of-sepsis-associated-encephalopathy
#19
REVIEW
Nicholas Heming, Aurelien Mazeraud, Franck Verdonk, Fernando A Bozza, Fabrice Chrétien, Tarek Sharshar
This article is one of ten reviews selected from the Annual Update in Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine 2017. Other selected articles can be found online at http://ccforum.com/series/annualupdate2017 . Further information about the Annual Update in Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine is available from http://www.springer.com/series/8901 .Originally published in the Annual Update in Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine 2017. The number of authors differs in the two versions due to constraints regarding the number of authors in the Annual Update in Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine...
March 21, 2017: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315740/population-based-mri-and-dti-templates-of-the-adult-ferret-brain-and-tools-for-voxelwise-analysis
#20
E B Hutchinson, S C Schwerin, K L Radomski, N Sadeghi, J Jenkins, M E Komlosh, M O Irfanoglu, S L Juliano, C Pierpaoli
Non-invasive imaging has the potential to play a crucial role in the characterization and translation of experimental animal models to investigate human brain development and disorders, especially when employed to study animal models that more accurately represent features of human neuroanatomy. The purpose of this study was to build and make available MRI and DTI templates and analysis tools for the ferret brain as the ferret is a well-suited species for pre-clinical MRI studies with folded cortical surface, relatively high white matter volume and body dimensions that allow imaging with pre-clinical MRI scanners...
March 16, 2017: NeuroImage
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