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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631594/human-picornaviruses-associated-with-neurological-diseases-and-their-neutralization-by-antibodies
#1
Maria Anastasina, Aušra Domanska, Kaia Palm, Sarah Butcher
Picornaviruses are the most commonly encountered infectious agents in mankind. They typically cause mild infections of the gastrointestinal or respiratory tract, but sometimes also invade the central nervous system. There, they can cause severe diseases with long-term sequelae and even be lethal. The most infamous picornavirus is poliovirus, for which significant epidemics of poliomyelitis were reported from the end of the nineteenth century. A successful vaccination campaign has brought poliovirus close to eradication, but neurological diseases caused by other picornaviruses have increasingly been reported since the late 1990s...
June 20, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630462/identification-and-molecular-characterization-of-non-polio-enteroviruses-from-children-with-acute-flaccid-paralysis-in-west-africa-2013-2014
#2
Maria D Fernandez-Garcia, Ousmane Kebe, Aichatou D Fall, Kader Ndiaye
Besides polioviruses, non-polio enteroviruses (NPEVs) may also be associated with acute flaccid paralysis (AFP). Because poliomyelitis is on the verge of eradication, more attention should be paid to study NPEVs from non-polio AFP cases and their epidemic patterns. In West African countries the epidemiology of NPEVs remains largely unexplored. We investigated the genetic diversity, frequency, circulation patterns, and molecular epidemiology of NPEVs in seven West African countries by analyzing retrospectively a panel of 3195 stool samples from children with AFP collected through routine poliomyelitis surveillance activities between 2013 and 2014...
June 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626021/acute-segmental-poliomyelitis-like-flaccid-paralysis-in-an-adult-in-the-uk-associated-with-enterovirus-d68
#3
Sybil R L Stacpoole, Adam Molyneux, Dirk Bäumer
Enterovirus D68 has been associated with a poliomyelitis-like illness, notably during an outbreak in 2014, and particularly affecting children in the USA. We report a case of acute segmental flaccid paralysis with respiratory involvement in an adult in the UK, with enterovirus D68 detected in a sputum sample. MR imaging of cervical spinal cord showed a longitudinally extensive T2 hyperintensity in the anterior cord. Cerebrospinal fluid showed an elevated white cell count, predominantly lymphocytic, with otherwise normal constituents and negative viral PCRs...
June 16, 2017: Practical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604777/risk-factors-and-short-term-projections-for-serotype-1-poliomyelitis-incidence-in-pakistan-a-spatiotemporal-analysis
#4
Natalie A Molodecky, Isobel M Blake, Kathleen M O'Reilly, Mufti Zubair Wadood, Rana M Safdar, Amy Wesolowski, Caroline O Buckee, Ananda S Bandyopadhyay, Hiromasa Okayasu, Nicholas C Grassly
BACKGROUND: Pakistan currently provides a substantial challenge to global polio eradication, having contributed to 73% of reported poliomyelitis in 2015 and 54% in 2016. A better understanding of the risk factors and movement patterns that contribute to poliovirus transmission across Pakistan would support evidence-based planning for mass vaccination campaigns. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We fit mixed-effects logistic regression models to routine surveillance data recording the presence of poliomyelitis associated with wild-type 1 poliovirus in districts of Pakistan over 6-month intervals between 2010 to 2016...
June 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582553/-silent-and-noisy-areas-acute-flaccid-paralysis-surveillance-at-subnational-level-australia-2001-2015
#5
Michelle Butler, Beverley J Paterson, Nicolee Martin, Linda Hobday, Bruce Thorley, David N Durrheim
Background: Acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) surveillance rates are used as an indicator of surveillance sensitivity to detect poliomyelitis with an expected rate of ≥1 case per 100 000 population in children under 15 years of age. Methods: The Australian AFP detection rates at sub-national (statistical local area) level were analysed using χ2 goodness of fit tests and exact Poisson probabilities for the combined years 2001-2015 to detect 'silent areas', which may require improved AFP detection efforts, and areas with greater than expected rates, which may indicate unexplained clusters such as those due to enterovirus infection...
May 1, 2017: International Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549939/scientific-consultation-on-the-safety-and-containment-of-new-poliovirus-strains-for-vaccine-production-clinical-regulatory-testing-and-research-report-of-a-meeting-held-at-nibsc-potters-bar-hertfordshire-uk-6-7th-july-2016
#6
Philip D Minor, Blanche Lane, South Mimms, Potters Bar
When poliomyelitis is totally eradicated from the natural world containment will be vital to prevent its re-emergence. The matter has become pressing as type 2 component of oral polio vaccine was completely withdrawn by May 2016 as wild ty[e 2 was declared eradicated. Work on polioviruses must be contained in accordance with GAPIII (the third version of the Global Action Plan of WHO). Some activities will be essential for years after eradication. Vaccine production and control, surveillance and supportive applied and academic research must all continue...
May 23, 2017: Biologicals: Journal of the International Association of Biological Standardization
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549485/an-assessment-of-the-geographical-risks-of-wild-and-vaccine-derived-poliomyelitis-outbreaks-in-africa-and-asia
#7
Kathleen M O'Reilly, Christine Lamoureux, Natalie A Molodecky, Hil Lyons, Nicholas C Grassly, Graham Tallis
BACKGROUND: The international spread of wild poliomyelitis outbreaks continues to threaten eradication of poliomyelitis and in 2014 a public health emergency of international concern was declared. Here we describe a risk scoring system that has been used to assess country-level risks of wild poliomyelitis outbreaks, to inform prioritisation of mass vaccination planning, and describe the change in risk from 2014 to 2016. The methods were also used to assess the risk of emergence of vaccine-derived poliomyelitis outbreaks...
May 26, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547947/virologic-monitoring-of-poliovirus-type-2-after-opv2-withdrawal-in-april-2016-an-important-advance-in-eradicating-poliomyelitis-and-eliminating-live-oral-poliovirus-vaccines-worldwide-2016%C3%A2-2017
#8
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 26, 2017: Relevé épidémiologique Hebdomadaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480271/epidemiological-surveillance-of-poliomyelitis-during-the-military-and-political-conflict-in-the-central-african-republic-2013-and-2014
#9
Alain Farra, Ella C Gonofio, Alexandre Manirakiza, Arthur Mazitchi, Raphaël Mbaïlao, Casimir Manengu, Ionela Gouandjika-Vasilache
BACKGROUND: Since December 2012, the Central African Republic (CAR) has been undergoing a severe military and political conflict. This situation has resulted in general insecurity and total disorganization of surveillance activities, including those for acute flaccid paralysis (AFP). In this study, we used laboratory data to evaluate surveillance of AFP in 2013 and 2014, the most critical period of the conflict. METHODS: The laboratory data on AFP were analyzed retrospectively for the age, sex, vaccination status (oral poliovirus vaccines), and geographical origin of the samples...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474295/individual-preferences-for-child-and-adolescent-vaccine-attributes-a-systematic-review-of-the-stated-preference-literature
#10
REVIEW
Christine Michaels-Igbokwe, Shannon MacDonald, Gillian R Currie
BACKGROUND: Discrete choice experiments are increasingly used to assess preferences for vaccines and vaccine service delivery. OBJECTIVES: To synthesize and critically assess the application of discrete choice experiments in childhood/adolescent vaccines, to describe how discrete choice experiments have been applied to understand preferences, and to evaluate the use of discrete choice experiment data to inform estimates of vaccine uptake. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review of six electronic databases...
May 4, 2017: Patient
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473732/anti-inflammatory-and-neuroprotective-role-of-natural-product-securinine-in-activated-glial-cells-implications-for-parkinson-s-disease
#11
Dmitri Leonoudakis, Anand Rane, Suzanne Angeli, Gordon J Lithgow, Julie K Andersen, Shankar J Chinta
Glial activation and subsequent release of neurotoxic proinflammatory factors are believed to play an important role in the pathogenesis of several neurological disorders including Parkinson's disease (PD). Inhibition of glial activation and inflammatory processes may represent a therapeutic target to alleviate neurodegeneration. Securinine, a major natural alkaloid product from the root of the plant Securinega suffruticosa, has been reported to have potent biological activity and is used in the treatment of neurological conditions such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, poliomyelitis, and multiple sclerosis...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419204/immune-serum-from-sabin-inactivated-poliovirus-vaccine-immunization-neutralizes-multiple-individual-wild-and-vaccine-derived-polioviruses
#12
Mingbo Sun, Changgui Li, Wenbo Xu, Guoyang Liao, Rongcheng Li, Jian Zhou, Yanping Li, Wei Cai, Dongmei Yan, Yanchun Che, Zhifang Ying, Jianfeng Wang, Huijuan Yang, Yan Ma, Lei Ma, Guang Ji, Li Shi, Shude Jiang, Qihan Li
Background: A Sabin strain-based inactivated poliomyelitis vaccine (Sabin-IPV) is the rational option for completely eradicating poliovirus transmission. The neutralizing capacity of Sabin-IPV immune serum to different strains of poliovirus is a key indicator of the clinical protective efficacy of this vaccine. Methods: Sera collected from 500 infants enrolled in a randomized, blinded, positive control, phase 2 clinical trial were randomly divided into 5 groups: Groups A, B, and C received high, medium, and low doses, respectively, of Sabin-IPV, while groups D and E received trivalent oral polio vaccine and Salk strain-based IPV, respectively, all on the same schedule...
May 15, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409290/comparison-of-clinical-and-laboratory-characteristics-during-two-major-paediatric-meningitis-outbreaks-of-echovirus-30-and-other-non-polio-enteroviruses-in-germany-in-2008-and-2013
#13
H Rudolph, R Prieto Dernbach, M Walka, P Rey-Hinterkopf, V Melichar, E Muschiol, S Schweitzer-Krantz, J W Richter, C Weiss, S Böttcher, S Diedrich, H Schroten, T Tenenbaum
Viral meningitis is mainly caused by non-polio enteroviruses (NPEV). Large-scale data on the clinical characteristics between different outbreaks within the same region are lacking. This study aimed to analyse a possible influence of the circulating NPEV genotype on the disease outcome of affected children. A retrospective cohort study analysing two major outbreaks of NPEV meningitis in Germany in 2008 and 2013 was conducted in cooperation with the National Reference Centre for Poliomyelitis and Enteroviruses (NRC PE) and five German children's hospitals...
April 13, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390186/acute-flaccid-paralysis-surveillance-in-bosnia-and-herzegovina-recent-isolation-of-two-sabin-like-type-2-poliovirus
#14
Stefano Fontana, Gabriele Buttinelli, Stefano Fiore, Mirsada Mulaomerovic, Jela Aćimović, Concetta Amato, Roberto Delogu, Giovanni Rezza, Paola Stefanelli
The WHO Regional Commission for the Certification of Poliomyelitis Eradication has recently indicated Bosnia and Herzegovina (B&H) as a high risk country for transmission, following importation, of wild poliovirus (WPV) or circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV). We analyzed data on Acute Flaccid Paralysis (AFP) surveillance between 2007 to 2016, and the trend of polio immunization coverage in B&H. The majority of AFP cases was recorded in 2016 suggesting an enhancement of the AFP surveillance activities...
April 8, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387112/175-performance-of-acute-flaccid-paralysis-afp-surveillance-and-incidence-of-poliomyelitis-2017
#15
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 7, 2017: Relevé épidémiologique Hebdomadaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380696/long-term-neuromuscular-outcomes-of-west-nile-virus-infection-a-clinical-and-electromyographic-evaluation-of-patients-with-a-history-of-infection
#16
Parveen Athar, Rodrigo Hasbun, Melissa S Nolan, Lucrecia Salazar, Steven P Woods, Kazim Sheikh, Kristy O Murray
INTRODUCTION: Neuromuscular clinical manifestations during acute West Nile virus (WNV) infection are well documented; however, long-term neurologic outcomes still require investigation. METHODS: We conducted a long-term follow-up study in patients with history of WNV infection. Of the 117 patients who participated in neurologic and neurocognitive evaluations, 30 were referred for neuromuscular and electrodiagnostic evaluation based on abnormal findings. RESULTS: We found that 33% of these patients (10 of 30) showed abnormalities on nerve conduction and/or needle electromyography due to primary or secondary outcomes of WNV infection...
April 5, 2017: Muscle & Nerve
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362135/immunogenicity-and-safety-evaluation-of-bivalent-types-1-and-3-oral-poliovirus-vaccine-by-comparing-different-poliomyelitis-vaccination-schedules-in-china-a-randomized-controlled-non-inferiority-clinical-trial
#17
Jingjun Qiu, Yunkai Yang, Lirong Huang, Ling Wang, Zhiwei Jiang, Jian Gong, Wei Wang, Hongyan Wang, Shaohong Guo, Chanjuan Li, Shuyuan Wei, Zhaojun Mo, Jielai Xia
BACKGROUND: The type 2 component of the oral poliovirus vaccine is targeted for global withdrawal through a switch from the trivalent oral poliovirus vaccine (tOPV) to a bivalent oral poliovirus vaccine (bOPV). The switch is intended to prevent paralytic polio caused by circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2. We aimed to assess the immunogenicity and safety profile of 6 vaccination schedules with different sequential doses of inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV), tOPV, or bOPV...
June 3, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361789/vaccine-associated-paralytic-poliomyelitis-unmasking-common-variable-immunodeficiency
#18
Sunil Gomber, Vanny Arora, Pooja Dewan
BACKGROUND: Oral polio vaccine can rarely lead to Vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis (VAPP). CASE CHARACTERISTICS: A 2-year-old child with asymmetric paralysis of lower limbs following first booster of oral polio vaccine; type 2 Vaccine-derived poliovirus (VDPV) isolated. Subsequently, the child was diagnosed to have common variable immunodeficiency. OUTCOME: Paralysis gradually improved on follow-up; monthly intravenous immunoglobulin therapy started for primary immunodeficiency...
March 15, 2017: Indian Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357974/immunisation-status-and-determinants-of-left-behind-children-aged-12-72-months-in-central-china
#19
Z L Ni, X D Tan, H Y Shao, Y Wang
Many parents move from rural China to urban areas in search of job opportunities, and leave their children behind to be raised by relatives. We aimed to assess the immunisation coverage, including the 1:3:3:3:1 vaccine series (one dose of Bacilli Chalmette-Guérin vaccine; three doses of live attenuated oral poliomyelitis vaccine; three doses of diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis combined; three doses of hepatitis B vaccine; and one dose of measles-containing vaccine), in children aged 12-72 months and identify the determinants of immunisation uptake among left-behind children in Hubei Province, Central China, in 2014...
July 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356537/pathogenic-events-in-a-nonhuman-primate-model-of-oral-poliovirus-infection-leading-to-paralytic-poliomyelitis
#20
Ling Shen, Crystal Y Chen, Dan Huang, Richard Wang, Meihong Zhang, Lixia Qian, Yanfen Zhu, Alvin Zhuoran Zhang, Enzhuo Yang, Arwa Qaqish, Konstantin Chumakov, Diana Kouiavskaia, Marco Vignuzzi, Neal Nathanson, Andrew J Macadam, Raul Andino, Olen Kew, Junfa Xu, Zheng W Chen
Despite a great deal of prior research, the early pathogenic events in natural oral poliovirus infection remain poorly defined. To establish a model for study, we infected 39 macaques by feeding single high doses of the virulent Mahoney strain of wild type 1 poliovirus. Doses ranging from10(7)-10(9) TCID50 consistently infected all animals, and most monkeys receiving 10(8) or 10(9) TCID50 developed paralysis. There was no apparent difference in the susceptibility of the three macaque species (rhesus, cynomolgus, and bonnet) used...
March 29, 2017: Journal of Virology
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