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George Joseph, Mithun J Varghese, Oommen K George
Balloon mitral valvotomy (BMV) performed by the conventional transfemoral approach can be difficult or even impossible in the presence of structural impediments such as severe kyphoscoliosis, gross cardiac anatomic distortion and inferior vena caval anomalies. A 25-year-old woman with severe thoracolumbar kyphoscoliosis due to poliomyelitis presented with symptomatic rheumatic mitral valve stenosis. After the failure of transfemoral BMV, the procedure was attempted from the right jugular access, using a modified septal puncture technique...
September 2016: Indian Heart Journal
Zhuoran Zhang, Enzhuo Yang, Chunmiao Hu, Han Cheng, Crystal Y Chen, Dan Huang, Richard Wang, Yue Zhao, Lijun Rong, Marco Vignuzzi, Hongbo Shen, Ling Shen, Zheng W Chen
While we are approaching the global eradication of circulating wild-type polioviruses(PV), vaccination with oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) has led to emergence of circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV) and vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis (VAPP). Complete cessation of all poliovirus infections may require stopping use of OPV and formulating improved vaccines and new antiviral drugs. Currently, no licensed drugs are available to treat chronically infected poliovirus excretors. Here, we created a modified PV expressing Gaussia Luciferase (PV-GLuc) and developed a cell-based high-throughput screening (HTS) antiviral assay...
October 12, 2016: ACS Infectious Diseases
Shoaib Fahad Hussain, Peter Boyle, Preeti Patel, Richard Sullivan
Since the launch of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) in 1988 the global incidence of poliomyelitis has fallen by nearly 99 %. From a situation where wild type poliovirus was endemic in 125 countries across five continents, transmission is now limited to regions of just three countries - Pakistan, Afghanistan and Nigeria. A sharp increase in Pakistan's poliomyelitis cases in 2014 prompted the International Health Regulations Emergency Committee to declare the situation a 'public health emergency of international concern'...
October 12, 2016: Globalization and Health
Donatella Lippi, Eduardo Gotuzzo, Saverio Caini
Cholera is an acute disease of the gastrointestinal tract caused by Vibrio cholerae. Cholera was localized in Asia until 1817, when a first pandemic spread from India to several other regions of the world. After this appearance, six additional major pandemics occurred during the 19th and 20th centuries, the latest of which originated in Indonesia in the 1960s and is still ongoing. In 1854, a cholera outbreak in Soho, London, was investigated by the English physician John Snow (1813 to 1858). He described the time course of the outbreak, managed to understand its routes of transmission, and suggested effective measures to stop its spread, giving rise to modern infectious disease epidemiology...
August 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
Margarita Pons-Salort, Natalie A Molodecky, Kathleen M O'Reilly, Mufti Zubair Wadood, Rana M Safdar, Andrew Etsano, Rui Gama Vaz, Hamid Jafari, Nicholas C Grassly, Isobel M Blake
BACKGROUND: Global withdrawal of serotype-2 oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV2) took place in April 2016. This marked a milestone in global polio eradication and was a public health intervention of unprecedented scale, affecting 155 countries. Achieving high levels of serotype-2 population immunity before OPV2 withdrawal was critical to avoid subsequent outbreaks of serotype-2 vaccine-derived polioviruses (VDPV2s). METHODS AND FINDINGS: In August 2015, we estimated vaccine-induced population immunity against serotype-2 poliomyelitis for 1 January 2004-30 June 2015 and produced forecasts for April 2016 by district in Nigeria and Pakistan...
October 2016: PLoS Medicine
Jean-Daniel Masson, Michel Thibaudon, Laurent Bélec, Guillemette Crépeaux
Calcium phosphate was used as an adjuvant in France in diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis and poliomyelitis vaccines. It was later completely substituted by alum salts in the late 80's, but it still remains as an approved adjuvant for the World Health Organization for human vaccination. Area covered: Thus, calcium phosphate is now considered as one of the substances that could replace alum salts in vaccines. The aim of this paper is to draw a review of existing data on calcium phosphate as an adjuvant in order to bring out the strengths and weaknesses for its use on a large scale...
October 3, 2016: Expert Review of Vaccines
P Flanagan, P O'Lorcain, S Cotter, J Connell, B Lynch, R Cunney, D O'Flanagan
Acute Flaccid Paralysis (AFP) surveillance, including case investigation and specimen collection is a gold standard method for poliomyelitis surveillance. The expected annual non-polio AFP rate <15 years of age in Ireland is = 1/100 000 population. This study reviewed all cases of AFP reported to the Irish Paediatric Surveillance Unit and the Health Protection Surveillance Centre between January 2009 and December 2014 and compared reporting rates with the expected incidence rate annually. We assessed quality of surveillance data in terms of completeness of investigation for each case reported...
2016: Irish Medical Journal
Tara D Mangal, R Bruce Aylward, Faisal Shuaib, Michael Mwanza, Muhammed A Pate, Emmanuel Abanida, Nicholas C Grassly
The polio eradication programme in Nigeria has been successful in reducing incidence to just six confirmed cases in 2014 and zero to date in 2015, but prediction and management of future outbreaks remains a concern. A Poisson mixed effects model was used to describe poliovirus spread between January 2001 and November 2013, incorporating the strength of connectivity between districts (local government areas, LGAs) as estimated by three models of human mobility: simple distance, gravity and radiation models. Potential explanatory variables associated with the case numbers in each LGA were investigated and the model fit was tested by simulation...
2016: PloS One
Guoyang Liao, Rongcheng Li, Changgui Li, Mingbo Sun, Shude Jiang, Yanping Li, Zhaojun Mo, Jielai Xia, Zhongping Xie, Yanchun Che, Jingsi Yang, Zhifang Yin, Jianfeng Wang, Jiayou Chu, Wei Cai, Jian Zhou, Junzhi Wang, Qihan Li
BACKGROUND:  The development of a Sabin strain-based inactivated poliovirus vaccine (Sabin-IPV) is imperative to protecting against vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis in developing countries. METHODS:  In this double-blind, parallel-group, non-inferiority trial, eligible infants aged 60-90 days were randomly assigned in a ratio of 1:1 to receive either three doses of Sabin-IPV or Salk-IPV at 30-day intervals and a booster at the age of 18 months. Immunogenicity and safety were assessed based on a protocol...
September 22, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
L Bertolasi, A Danese, S Monaco, M Turri, K Borg, L Werhagen
BACKGROUND: Poliomyelitis was before the immunization an important medical problem. Nowadays polio prior patients (PP) suffer from polio sequelae or have developed post-polio-syndrome (PPS) with increasing paresis, pain and fatigue. OBJECTIVES: To analyze the medical situation 50 years after acute polio. The degree of paresis was compared between the recovery 1952-1961 and 2012.The prevalence of patients fulfilling the criteria for PPS was estimated. METHOD: The study was performed in Italy...
2016: Open Neurology Journal
Mohammadreza Shaghaghi, Shohreh Shahmahmoodi, Hassan Abolhassani, Saeed Soleyman-Jahi, Leila Parvaneh, Sussan Mahmoudi, Zahra Chavoshzadeh, Reza Yazdani, Seyed Mohsen Zahraei, Mohsen Ebrahimi, Mohammad H Eslamian, Hamideh Tabatabaie, Maryam Yousefi, Yaghoob M Kandelousi, Aliasghar Oujaghlou, Nima Rezaei, Asghar Aghamohammadi
Widespread use of oral poliovirus vaccine has led to an ≈99.9% decrease in global incidence of poliomyelitis (from ≈350,000 cases in 1988 to 74 cases in 2015) and eradication of wild-type poliovirus serotypes 2 and 3. However, patients with primary immunodeficiency might shed vaccine-derived polioviruses (VDPVs) for an extended period, which could pose a major threat to polio eradication programs. Since 1995, sixteen VDPV populations have been isolated from 14 patients with immunodeficiency in Iran. For these patients, vaccine-associated paralysis, mostly in >1 extremity, was the first manifestation of primary immunodeficiency...
October 2016: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Yong Zhang, Qiang Sun, Hui Cui, Dongmei Yan, Qin Fan, Yang Song, Shuangli Zhu, Xiaolei Li, Guohong Huang, Tianjiao Ji, Lan Hu, Dongyan Wang, Qian Yang, Wenbo Xu
Poliomyelitis associated with circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses (cVDPVs) is a serious public health issue in the post-eradication era, and the occurrence of recombinant cVDPVs emphasizes the need to elucidate enterovirus C (EV-C) epidemiology. Stool samples were collected from 826 healthy children in Southern Xinjiang in 2011 to investigate EV-C circulation and epidemiology. Thirty-six EV-Cs were isolated and assigned to eight EV-C serotypes by molecular serotyping, suggesting the circulation of diverse EV-Cs in Xinjiang...
2016: Scientific Reports
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 9, 2016: Relevé épidémiologique Hebdomadaire
Eelco F M Wijdicks
Historically, neurologists were not involved in the day-to-day management of critically ill patients with bulbar poliomyelitis, but some were. The major contributions of 3 neurologists-W. Ritchie Russell, A.B. Baker, and Fred Plum-in the respiratory management of poliomyelitis have not been recognized. Russell's work was instrumental in identifying multiple types of poliomyelitis defined by their respiratory needs, and he advised treatment that varied from simple postural drainage to use of respirators. He participated in the development of the Radcliffe respiratory pump...
September 13, 2016: Neurology
Maël Bessaud, Serge A Sadeuh-Mba, Marie-Line Joffret, Richter Razafindratsimandresy, Patsy Polston, Romain Volle, Mala Rakoto-Andrianarivelo, Bruno Blondel, Richard Njouom, Francis Delpeyroux
Enteroviruses are among the most common viruses infecting humans and can cause diverse clinical syndromes ranging from minor febrile illness to severe and potentially fatal diseases. Enterovirus species C (EV-C) consists of more than 20 types, among which the three serotypes of polioviruses, the etiological agents of poliomyelitis, are included. Biodiversity and evolution of EV-C genomes are shaped by frequent recombination events. Therefore, identification and characterization of circulating EV-C strains require the sequencing of different genomic regions...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Lee M Hampton, Margaret Farrell, Alejandro Ramirez-Gonzalez, Lisa Menning, Stephanie Shendale, Ian Lewis, Jennifer Rubin, Julie Garon, Jennifer Harris, Terri Hyde, Steven Wassilak, Manish Patel, Robin Nandy, Diana Chang-Blanc
Since the 1988 World Health Assembly resolution to eradicate poliomyelitis, transmission of the three types of wild poliovirus (WPV) has been sharply reduced (1). WPV type 2 (WPV2) has not been detected since 1999 and was declared eradicated in September 2015. Because WPV type 3 has not been detected since November 2012, WPV type 1 (WPV1) is likely the only WPV that remains in circulation (1). This marked progress has been achieved through widespread use of oral poliovirus vaccines (OPVs), most commonly trivalent OPV (tOPV), which contains types 1, 2, and 3 live, attenuated polioviruses and has been a mainstay of efforts to prevent polio since the early 1960s...
2016: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Robert D Henderson, Pamela A McCombe
The motor unit comprises the anterior horn cell, its axon, and the muscle fibers that it innervates. Although the true number of motor units is unknown, the number of motor units appears to vary greatly between different muscles and between different individuals. Assessment of the number and function of motor units is needed in diseases of the anterior horn cell and other motor nerve disorders. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is the most important disease of anterior horn cells. The need for an effective biomarker for assessing disease progression and for use in clinical trials in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis has stimulated the study of methods to measure the number of motor units...
September 6, 2016: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
Jiang-Nan Wu, Da-Jin Li, Yong Zhou
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the association between the initiation of hepatitis B vaccine (HB vaccine) at birth and completion of the HB vaccine and the national immunization program vaccine (NIPV) series in Fujian, China. METHODS: A provincial survey, including children in the community and newborns in hospital, was conducted to evaluate coverage with a timely first dose of HB vaccine and the completion of three doses of HB vaccine and the NIPV series in 2013...
August 31, 2016: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
Chih-Hsuan Changchien, Wei-Chen Chen, Yu-Min Su
We report two cases of poliomyelitis in which an anterolateral thigh myocutaneous free flap was harvested from the paralytic limb for oral reconstruction. We observed a decrease in the pedicle diameter of the anterolateral thigh flap, but the blood supply to the skin paddle was adequate.
2016: Case Reports in Plastic Surgery & Hand Surgery
Matshidiso Moeti
INTRODUCTION: Recently we have recorded some progress against the transmission of poliovirus in the African Region. This is attributable to a number of factors, including commitment of global partnerships against polio, improvement of existing strategies as well as a number of innovations in response to the disease in the Region. METHODS: The WHO Regional Office in Africa documented these practices that led to the noticeable progress in the polio eradication initiative in the African Region, as lessons learnt and as part of polio legacy planning...
October 10, 2016: Vaccine
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