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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224525/assessing-transcendental-experiences-vs-mental-illnesses
#1
Shawn Lucas
In our experience, being able to differentiate between mental illness and transcendent experiences has led patients to remain engaged in treatment. This is important since those who have experienced religious preoccupation are the least likely to seek out mental health care. We have developed a "Transcendent Assessment Tool" to assist clinicians and clients in discerning whether an experience is a delusion or part of a transcendent experience.
December 2017: Journal of Pastoral Care & Counseling: JPCC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217937/are-past-adverse-pregnancy-outcomes-associated-with-maternal-anxiety-and-depressive-symptoms-in-a-sample-of-currently-pregnant-women
#2
Amanuel Alemu Abajobir, Rosa Alati, Steve Kisely, Jake Moses Najman
Background: There has been a great deal of concern about the mental health of women whose pregnancies involve miscarriage, termination of a pregnancy (ToP), child death or where a child has been given up for adoption. Despite this concern there has been remarkably little population-based research which has addressed the long-term consequences of pregnancy loss and child death. This study investigated the maternal mental health consequences of women whose pregnancies involve miscarriage, ToP, child death or where a child has been given up for adoption at two different time points, adjusting for socio-demographic characteristics and baseline mental health...
July 2017: Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210282/neuropsychiatric-profile-in-early-versus-late-onset-alzheimer-s-disease
#3
Maria do Céu Ferreira, Maria João Abreu, Célia Machado, Beatriz Santos, Álvaro Machado, Ana Sofia Costa
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency and severity of neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) in patients with early onset Alzheimer's disease (EAOD) and late onset AD (LOAD). METHODS: Patients were selected from a specialized memory outpatient clinic. The Mini-Mental State Examination, the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI), and the Global Deterioration Scale results were analyzed. RESULTS: By comparing EOAD (n = 35) and LOAD (n = 35) patients, no significant differences were found in clinical or demographic variables, matched for sex, education, and disease severity...
January 1, 2017: American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and Other Dementias
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209237/decreased-left-putamen-and-thalamus-volume-correlates-with-delusions-in-first-episode-schizophrenia-patients
#4
Xiaojun Huang, Weidan Pu, Xinmin Li, Andrew J Greenshaw, Serdar M Dursun, Zhimin Xue, Haihong Liu, Zhening Liu
Background: Delusional thinking is one of the hallmark symptoms of schizophrenia. However, the underlying neural substrate for delusions in schizophrenia remains unknown. In an attempt to further our understanding of the neural basis of delusions, we explored gray matter deficits and their clinical associations in first-episode schizophrenia patients with and without delusions. Methods: Twenty-four first-episode schizophrenia patients with delusions and 18 without delusions as well as 26 healthy controls (HC) underwent clinical assessment and whole-brain structural imaging which were acquired a 3...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208423/delusions-of-control-in-schizophrenia-resistant-to-the-mind-s-best-trick
#5
Martin Riemer
The existence of a free will is fiercely debated in neuroscience and philosophy. The debate has great impact on society and our self-understanding as human beings. Behavioral and electrophysiological data have challenged the intuitive assumption that human behavior is the result of conscious intentions. This notion has important implications for delusions of control in schizophrenia, where patients experience bodily movements as not being controlled by themselves. Current theories explain control delusions as a deficit to perceive certain aspects of motor control, but many findings are inconsistent with this idea...
December 2, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207980/pilot-randomised-controlled-trial-of-culturally-adapted-cognitive-behavior-therapy-for-psychosis-cacbtp-in-pakistan
#6
Muhammed Omair Husain, Imran B Chaudhry, Nasir Mehmood, Raza Ur Rehman, Ajmal Kazmi, Munir Hamirani, Tayyeba Kiran, Ameer Bukhsh, Paul Bassett, Muhammad Ishrat Husain, Farooq Naeem, Nusrat Husain
BACKGROUND: Evidence for efficacy of cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) in treatment of schizophrenia is growing. CBT is effective and cost efficient in treating positive and negative symptoms. To effectively meet the needs of diverse cultural groups, CBT needs to be adapted to the linguistic, cultural and socioeconomic context. We aimed to assess the feasibility, efficacy and acceptability of a culturally adapted CBT for treatment of psychosis (CaCBTp) in a low-income country. METHODS: Rater-blind, randomised, controlled trial of the use of standard duration CBT in patients with psychosis from a low-income country...
December 6, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202427/religiosity-and-religious-delusions-in-schizophrenia-an-observational-study-in-a-hindu-population
#7
Anand Mishra, Basudeb Das, Nishant Goyal
BACKGROUND: Religion exerts a significant effect on the lives of many individuals including people with mental illness. As evidences keep accumulating, role of religion in mental illness is gaining importance. OBJECTIVES: The study was designed to study the effects of religiosity on religious delusions, its presentation, acute course and outcome in schizophrenia. METHOD: The study was a naturalistic observational study. Subjects with schizophrenia were grouped into those with religious (RG) and with non-religious delusions (NG)...
November 27, 2017: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200573/neural-effects-of-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-in-schizophrenia-a-case-study-using-functional-near-infrared-spectroscopy
#8
S Trevor Taylor, Harleen Chhabra, Vanteemar S Sreeraj, Venkataram Shivakumar, Sunil V Kalmady, Ganesan Venkatasubramanian
Schizophrenia is a severe neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by delusions, hallucinations, behavioral symptoms, and cognitive deficits. Roughly, 70%-80% of schizophrenia patients experience auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs), with 25%-30% demonstrating resistance to conventional antipsychotic medications. Studies suggest a promising role for add-on transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in the treatment of medication-refractory AVHs. The mechanisms through which tDCS could be therapeutic in such cases are unclear, but possibly involve neuroplastic effects...
September 2017: Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195805/-symptomatic-remission-and-its-relationship-to-social-functioning-in-tunisian-out-patients-with-schizophrenia
#9
I El Gharbi, M Chhoumi, A Mechri
INTRODUCTION: The concept of symptomatic and functional remission represents an important challenge in the care of the mentally ill, particularly in patients with schizophrenia. Operational criteria for symptomatic remission in schizophrenia have been proposed by Andreasen et al. (2005). Over the last decade, these criteria have been widely validated; however few studies have been conducted outside developed countries. Moreover, the association of symptomatic remission with functional outcome has not yet been established in developing countries including Tunisia, as there may be variability in the social and familial environment...
November 28, 2017: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193986/a-study-on-the-theory-of-mind-deficits-and-delusions-in-schizophrenic-patients
#10
Sungwon Park
PURPOSE: This study was conducted to find differences between patients with schizophrenia and healthy control group in ToM and to examine relationships among intelligence, ToM, and delusion in patients with schizophrenia. METHODS: Data was collected from 50 patients of schizophrenia and 32 healthy subjects. Participants were given the psychological test form with structured questionnaire. The SPSS 22.0 program was used for t-test, ANCOVA, and, Pearson's Correlation...
December 1, 2017: Issues in Mental Health Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187753/subchronic-olanzapine-exposure-leads-to-increased-expression-of-myelination-related-genes-in-rat-fronto-medial-cortex
#11
Kari M Ersland, Silje Skrede, Christine Stansberg, Vidar M Steen
Schizophrenia is a psychotic disorder with severe and disabling symptoms, such as hallucinations, delusions, blunted affect and social withdrawal. The neuropathology remains elusive, but disturbances in immunity-related processes, neuronal connectivity and myelination have consistently been linked to schizophrenia. Antipsychotic drugs can be efficient in reducing symptoms, acting primarily on the dopamine system, but additional biological targets are likely to exist. Here we have screened for novel mechanisms of action in an animal model, using adult rats exposed to long-acting olanzapine, achieving stable and clinically relevant antipsychotic drug concentrations...
November 30, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185820/delusional-misidentification-in-parkinson-s-disease-report-of-two-cases-and-a-review
#12
Neal Hermanowicz
Syndromes of delusional misidentification consist of disordered familiarity and have been reported in diverse diagnoses, including Parkinson's disease. Although the most common delusional misidentification is Capgras syndrome, in which the sufferer believes a familiar person has been replaced by an identical imposter, other forms have been also described. The pathogenesis of delusions of misidentification appears to require dysfunction of or connection to a left cerebral cortical area involved in recognition of familiarity, and also right frontal cortex serving belief evaluation...
November 29, 2017: Postgraduate Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183893/brief-psychotic-episode-in-a-patient-with-chromosome-2q37-microdeletion-syndrome
#13
Kevin Lally, Nuraini Ibrahim, Mary Kelly, Gautam Gulati
A 21-year-old woman with moderate learning disability secondary to chromosome 2 microdeletion at q37 was admitted to a general adult psychiatric ward following a period of agitation with incessant pressure of speech, nihilistic delusions and worsening of sleep and eating patterns. Her presentation was preceded for a number of weeks by social stressors of an ill family member and another family member moving away. She had also been diagnosed and treated for a respiratory infection several weeks prior to presentation...
November 27, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180231/regional-gray-matter-volume-and-structural-network-strength-in-somatic-vs-non-somatic-delusional-disorders
#14
Markus Huber, Robert Christian Wolf, Peter Lepping, Erwin Kirchler, Martin Karner, Fabio Sambataro, Bärbel Herrnberger, Philip R Corlett, Roland W Freudenmann
BACKGROUND: Monothematic delusional disorders are characterized by a single tenacious belief. They provide a great opportunity to study underlying brain structures in the absence of confounding symptoms that accompany delusions in schizophrenia. Delusional beliefs include persecution, jealousy or somatic delusions including infestation. It is unclear whether specific delusional content is associated with distinct neural substrates. METHODS: We used magnetic resonance imaging in patients presenting with somatic vs...
November 24, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174998/psychosis-and-clinical-outcomes-in-alzheimer-disease-a-longitudinal-study
#15
Michael H Connors, David Ames, Michael Woodward, Henry Brodaty
OBJECTIVE: Psychotic symptoms are a common feature in Alzheimer disease (AD), occurring in approximately 40% of patients. These symptoms are associated with worse clinical outcomes. Comparatively little research, however, has distinguished delusions and hallucinations, which may have distinct clinical, neuropathological, and genetic correlates. To address this, the current study examined the clinical outcomes associated with delusions and hallucinations in AD. DESIGN: Three-year observational study...
October 20, 2017: American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172307/the-paradoxes-of-phantom-bite-syndrome-or-occlusal-dysaesthesia-%C3%A2-dysesthesia%C3%A2
#16
Martin G Kelleher, Lakshmi Rasaratnam, Serpil Djemal
Phantom bite syndrome was first described by Marbach over 40 years ago as a mono-symptomatic hypochondriacal psychosis. He used the term to describe a prolonged syndrome in which patients report that their ‘bite is wrong’ or that ‘their dental occlusion is abnormal’ with this causing them great difficulties. This strong belief about ‘their bite’ being the source of their problems leads to them demanding, and subsequently getting, various types of dentistry carried out by multiple dentists and ‘specialists’...
January 2017: Dental Update
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29171995/high-caregiver-burden-in-young-onset-dementia-what-factors-need-attention
#17
Linda Lim, Angeline Zhang, Levinia Lim, Tanya-Marie Choong, Eveline Silva, Adeline Ng, Nagaendran Kandiah
BACKGROUND: There is an increase in prevalence of young onset dementia (YOD). The specific problems among YOD patients and levels of caregiver burden (CB) in this group warrants further evaluation. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate and compare level of CB in YOD and late onset dementia (LOD). Also, we sought to understand the specific factors, such as neuropsychiatric symptoms, that may affect the levels of caregiver burden in the YOD group. METHODS: Patient-caregiver dyads with YOD and LOD were recruited from a tertiary neurology center...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29171010/prenatal-exposure-to-ketamine-in-rats-implications-on-animal-models-of-schizophrenia
#18
Carlos M Coronel-Oliveros, Renny Pacheco-Calderón
Schizophrenia is a complex neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by hallucinations, delusions, anhedonia, flat affect and cognitive impairments. The aim of this study was to propose a prenatal treatment with ketamine, a psychedelic drug that acts as a non-competitive inhibitor of glutamate NMDA receptors, as a neurodevelopmental animal model of schizophrenia. The drug was applied (i.m. 60 mg.kg(-1)  h(-1) ) in pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats on gestational Day 14. Offspring behavior was studied on pubertal (4 weeks old) and adult (10 weeks old) stages...
November 24, 2017: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169775/in-and-out-of-schizophrenia-activation-and-deactivation-of-the-negative-and-positive-schemas
#19
Aaron T Beck, Robyn Himelstein, Paul M Grant
Theorists, clinicians, and investigators have attempted to find a common source for the negative and positive symptoms of schizophrenia. We propose that a unified theory, based on a common cognitive structure not only has explanatory value, but can serve as a framework for a psychotherapeutic intervention. Specifically, we propose that the cognitive triad - the negative view of the self, others, and the future - is the source of the content for the negative and positive symptoms. We report literature supporting the relationship between each facet of the negative triad and each of the key symptoms: expressive negative symptoms, delusions, and verbal hallucinations...
November 20, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167040/delirium-in-the-intensive-care-setting-and-the-richmond-agitation-and-sedation-scale-rass-drowsiness-increases-the-risk-and-is-subthreshold-for-delirium
#20
Soenke Boettger, David Garcia Nuñez, Rafael Meyer, André Richter, Susana Franco Fernandez, Alain Rudiger, Maria Schubert, Josef Jenewein
INTRODUCTION: Sedation is a core concept in the intensive care setting, however, the impact of sedation on delirium has not yet been studied to date. METHODS: In this prospective cohort study, 225 patients with Richmond Agitation and Sedation (RASS) scores of -1 - drowsiness and 0 - alert- and calmness were assessed with the Delirium Rating Scale-Revised 1998 (DRS-R-98) and DSM-IV-TR-determined diagnosis of delirium assessing drowsiness versus alertness. RESULTS: By itself, drowsiness increased the odds for developing delirium eightfold (OR 7...
December 2017: Journal of Psychosomatic Research
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