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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911311/risk-factors-and-pathological-substrates-associated-with-agitation-aggression-in-alzheimer-s-disease-a-preliminary-study-using-nacc-data
#1
Simrin Sennik, Tom A Schweizer, Corinne E Fischer, David G Munoz
BACKGROUND: Neuropsychiatric symptoms are common manifestations of Alzheimer's disease (AD). A number of studies have targeted psychosis, i.e., hallucinations and delusions in AD, but few have assessed agitation/aggression in AD. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the risk factors and pathological substrates associated with presence [A(+)] and absence [A(-)] of agitation/aggression (A) in autopsy-confirmed AD. METHODS: Data was collected from the UDS data as of 2015 on the NACC database...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899170/confabulation-developing-the-emotion-dysregulation-hypothesis
#2
REVIEW
Oliver H Turnbull, Christian E Salas
Confabulations offer unique opportunities for establishing the neurobiological basis of delusional thinking. As regards causal factors, a review of the confabulation literature suggests that neither amnesia nor executive impairment can be the sole (or perhaps even the primary) cause of all delusional beliefs - though they may act in concert with other factors. A key perspective in the modern literature is that many delusions have an emotionally positive or 'wishful' element, that may serve to modulate or manage emotional experience...
October 19, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893346/the-preoedipal-and-oedipal-structure-of-termination-an-in-depth-case-study
#3
Trevor Lubbe
Much has been written about the Oedipus complex as a central organizing focus for the understanding of early developmental attainments as well as for the structuring of the personality, but nowhere are triangular forces more vitally active, clinically, than in the termination phase. The decision to end, once agreed upon, typically sets in motion a symmetrical process in which two dynamics occur concurrently. First, what drives the termination is a mourning process in which the primary task is to relinquish the analyst as a transference object and to establish the analyst as an internal object...
December 2016: Psychoanalytic Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893344/from-hallucination-to-fiction-the-invention-of-meaning-in-psychosis
#4
Silvia Lippi, Célia Lehaire, Laetitia Petit
Taking their inspiration from a case history, the authors explore the effects of a writing workshop led by a professional writer for patients in a psychiatric hospital. This workshop allowed different modes of transference to unfold: transference to the analyst-therapist, transference to the writer who led the workshop, and transference to the other members of the group. The writing activity created conditions in which there could be a movement from hallucination to delusion-a delusion expressed in fiction through the act of writing...
December 2016: Psychoanalytic Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887704/aberrant-modulation-of-brain-activation-by-emotional-valence-during-self-referential-processing-among-patients-with-delusions-of-reference
#5
Todd A Girard, Louis Lakatos, Mahesh Menon
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Delusions of reference are thought to reflect abnormally heightened attributions of salience to mundane events or stimuli that lead to convictions that they are personally significant or directed at the observer. Recent findings highlight abnormal recruitment of brain regions associated with self-referential processes among patients with referential delusions. Given the inherent overlap of emotion, incentive salience, and self-relevance, as well as with aberrant thought processes in psychosis, this study investigated the implicit relations between participants' perception of the emotional valence of stimuli on neural correlates of self-referent judgments among schizophrenia-spectrum patients with referential delusions...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877142/the-proximity-between-hallucination-and-delusion-dimensions-an-observational-analytic-cross-sectional-multicentre-study
#6
Diogo Telles-Correia, Ana L Moreira, João Gama Marques, Sérgio Saraiva, Cátia A Moreira, Filipa Antunes, Carolina Almeida, Nuno B Rocha
In psychiatric classifications, hallucinations (mainly auditory hallucinations) are one of the fundamental criteria for establishing a schizophrenia diagnosis or any of the related psychotic disorder's diagnoses. The conceptual proximity between delusions and hallucinations was maintained until the end of the XIX century, with several supporters during the XX century. Their limits were not yet definitely defined in terms of Descriptive Psychopathology, and much less so in terms of biochemical and anatomical models...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869872/-towards-dsm-5-1-proposals-for-schizophrenia
#7
Cinzia Niolu, Emanuela Bianciardi, Michele Ribolsi, Alberto Siracusano
Schizophrenia is a debilitating illness, present in approximately 1% of the global population. It is manifested through positive symptoms including delusions, hallucinations, disorganized thoughts and negative symptoms such as avolition, alogia, and apathy. In 2013 the 5th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) has been released and some changes were introduced to make diagnosis of schizophrenia more accurate and precise, but researchers are already studying how to improve again the diagnostic criteria of this disorder...
November 2016: Recenti Progressi in Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866082/auditory-verbal-hallucinations-and-continuum-models-of-psychosis-a-systematic-review-of-the-healthy-voice-hearer-literature
#8
REVIEW
David Baumeister, Ottilie Sedgwick, Oliver Howes, Emmanuelle Peters
Recent decades have seen a surge of research interest in the phenomenon of healthy individuals who experience auditory verbal hallucinations, yet do not exhibit distress or need for care. The aims of the present systematic review are to provide a comprehensive overview of this research and examine how healthy voice-hearers may best be conceptualised in relation to the diagnostic versus 'quasi-' and 'fully-dimensional' continuum models of psychosis. A systematic literature search was conducted, resulting in a total of 398 article titles and abstracts that were scrutinised for appropriateness to the present objective...
November 1, 2016: Clinical Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863934/child-death-and-maternal-psychosis-like-experiences-in-44-low-and-middle-income-countries-the-role-of-depression
#9
Ai Koyanagi, Hans Oh, Josep Maria Haro, Fumi Hirayama, Jordan DeVylder
BACKGROUND: Studies on the effect of child death on the mental wellbeing of women in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are scarce despite the high child mortality rates. Thus, the aim of the current study was to assess the association between child death and psychosis-like experiences (PLEs), as well as the role of depression in this association. METHODS: Data from 44 LMICs which participated in the World Health Survey (WHS) were analyzed. A total of 59,444 women who ever gave birth, aged 18-49years, without a self-reported lifetime psychosis diagnosis, were included in the analysis...
November 15, 2016: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852968/-treatment-of-metacognitive-impairments-in-schizophrenia-the-metacognitive-training
#10
Zita Fekete, Edit Vass, Alexander Kancsev, Ildikó Kuritárné Szabó
In the recent years plenty of therapeutic treatment methods have been developed, aimed at neurocognitive impairments in schizophrenia. These trainingprograms can hold up promising results in the improvement of neurocognitive functions. Nevertheless the generalisation on the daily life is not perspicuous. A reason for it might be the supposition, that further factors such as metacognition and social cognition may play a mediator role between neurocognition and functional outcomes. As a result, many socialcognitive remediation methods and programs have emerged targeting the impairment of deficits both in the field of neuro- and social cognition and deficits of metacognition...
2016: Psychiatria Hungarica: A Magyar Pszichiátriai Társaság Tudományos Folyóirata
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847929/the-effectiveness-of-metacognitive-training-for-patients-with-schizophrenia-a-narrative-systematic-review-of-studies-published-between-2009-and-2015
#11
Daniel Pankowski, Joachim Kowalski, Łukasz Gawęda
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this paper is to review results of studies on the effectiveness of metacognitive training (MCT) for patients with schizophrenia in reduction of psychotic symptoms and cognitive biases. Furthermore, other variables, like social functioning, insight and neurocognitive functions, are analyzed. METHODS: Systematic search in databases PubMed, EBSCO, Google Scholar, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and PsycINFO regarding studies on the effectiveness of the MCT was made...
2016: Psychiatria Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846651/-delusion-and-gender-in-paranoid-schizophrenia-results-of-a-clinical-study
#12
V Rössler, R Richter, M H Walter
Aim: The aim of the present study was to investigate whether men and women differ in the frequency and phenomenology of delusions. Sample: Medical records of all patients who had been admitted to a psychiatric hospital in Germany between 2008 and 2011 for paranoid schizophrenia were analyzed. The sample consisted of 182 delusional inpatients (90 women, 92 men) with the diagnosis of a paranoid schizophrenia. Results: Men and women did not differ in the frequency of delusional themes. Analysis of delusional content, however, revealed considerable differences between them...
November 2016: Fortschritte der Neurologie-Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845321/-syndrome-of-%C3%A2-delusional-fantasies%C3%A2-in-the-concept-of-k-birnbaum
#13
N Yu Pyatnitsky
The author analyzes the features of the syndrome of «delusional fantasies» (delusion-like fantasies) in the concept of K. Birnbaum. According to this concept, psychopathic constitutions, due to the presence in the structure of dissociation, are the basis for the development of delusions per se. «Dreamer» and «vershroben» types are predisposed to the syndrome of «delusional fantasies». It is emphasized that initially the syndrome of «delusional fantasies» was described as a peculiar phasic episode of delusions in psychopaths, aged between 20-30 years...
2016: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843197/a-correlative-classification-study-of-schizophrenic-patients-with-results-of-clinical-evaluation-and-structural-magnetic-resonance-images
#14
Wen-Lin Chu, Min-Wei Huang, Bo-Lin Jian, Chih-Yao Hsu, Kuo-Sheng Cheng
Patients with schizophrenia suffer from symptoms such as hallucination and delusion. There are currently a number of publications that discuss the treatment, diagnosis, prognosis, and damage in schizophrenia. This study utilized joint independent component analysis to process the images of GMV and WMV and incorporated the Wisconsin card sorting test (WCST) and the positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS) to examine the correlation of obtained brain characteristics. We also used PANSS score to classify schizophrenic patients into acute and subacute cases, to analyze the brain structure differences...
2016: Behavioural Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837574/there-is-no-safe-threshold-for-lead-exposure-%C3%AE-literature-review
#15
Th Vorvolakos, S Arseniou, M Samakouri
: Lead was one of the most dangerous environmental toxic substances for a long time in western countries, and this is still the case for many places on earth today. Its neurotoxic potential is highly significant but its secure blood level concentration remains unknown. The aim of this study was to approach the above issue from the perspective of social psychiatry. A systematic search was made of Dialog and Datastar interfaces for data regarding the neuropsychiatric complications of direct or chronic exposure to lead, and a review of the relevant literature was conducted using the databases Medline, Embase, CAB Global Health and Cochrane...
July 2016: Psychiatrikē, Psychiatriki
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829870/the-intrasubjectivity-of-self-voices-and-delusions-a-phenomenological-analysis
#16
Cherise Rosen, Nev Jones, Kayla A Chase, Hannah Gin, Linda S Grossman, Rajiv P Sharma
To advance the area of phenomenology of voices and their interrelatedness to forms of delusions this study investigated the prevalence and interrelatedness of co-occurring auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs) and delusions. Additionally we explored the characterization of distinct sub-categories/clusters of AVHs and delusions. Ninety-two participants experiencing psychosis were administered standardized clinical measures. We found a significant diagnostic difference with increased prevalence of co-occurring AVHs and delusions within the schizophrenia group compared to the bipolar with psychosis group...
2016: Psychosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821329/an-investigation-into-the-jumping-to-conclusions-bias-in-social-anxiety
#17
Kristy M Johnstone, Junwen Chen, Ryan P Balzan
'Jumping-to-Conclusions' (JTC) is a data-gathering bias characterised by hasty decision-making, and is typically seen in individuals with high levels of delusions or paranoia. JTC has also been found in people with high trait and state anxiety. The present study aimed to explore the relationship between JTC and trait social anxiety and state anxiety, given paranoia is common in both social anxiety and psychotic disorders. One-hundred-and-eighty-six undergraduate students were allocated to a manipulation or control condition, and classified as high or low socially anxious...
November 4, 2016: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815512/schizophrenia-impact-of-psychopathology-faith-healers-and-psycho-education-on-adherence-to-medications
#18
Karim Abdel Aziz, Mohammed H Elamin, Nisrin M El-Saadouni, Dina Aly El-Gabry, Mahmoud Barakat, Fatima Alhayyas, Hamdy F Moselhy
BACKGROUND: Many patients suffering from psychosis are nonadherent to their medications. Nonadherence can range from treatment refusal to irregular use or partial change in daily medication doses. AIM: To investigate whether symptom dimensions, post-discharge care plans and being involved with faith healer affect the adherence to treatment in patients with schizophrenia. METHOD: A total of 121 patients with schizophrenia were examined 6 weeks post-discharge from the inpatient unit and assessed for full, partial or nonadherence to medication...
December 2016: International Journal of Social Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810615/attentional-focus-moderates-the-relationship-between-attention-to-threat-bias-and-delusion-like-experiences-in-healthy-adults
#19
K Prochwicz, J Kłosowska
BACKGROUND: The role of cognitive biases in delusion and delusion-like experiences has been widely investigated in recent years. However, little is known about individual differences, which may influence association between cognitive biases and formation of delusional beliefs. The aim of this study was to examine the moderating effect of self-reported attentional control on the relationship between attention to threat bias (ATB) and delusion-like experiences (DLEs) in healthy adults. METHODS: Participants (n=138) completed the Davos Assessment of the Cognitive Biases Scale (DACOBS), the Attentional Control Scale (ACS) and the Peters et al...
October 28, 2016: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27808537/the-effect-of-positive-symptoms-on-social-cognition-in-first-episode-schizophrenia-is-modified-by-the-presence-of-negative-symptoms
#20
Vibeke Bliksted, Poul Videbech, Birgitte Fagerlund, Chris Frith
Objective: There is considerable evidence that patients with schizophrenia have neurocognitive and social-cognitive deficits. It is unclear how such deficits in first-episode schizophrenia relate to current clinical symptoms. Method: Fifty-nine patients with first-episode schizophrenia (FES) were tested using the Danish version of NART (premorbid IQ), subtests from WAIS-III (current IQ), and global cognition using Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrena (BACS), a neurocognitive test battery. Social perception was tested using film clips of everyday interactions (TASIT)...
November 3, 2016: Neuropsychology
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