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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165636/reducing-redundant-anaerobic-therapy-through-spaced-education-and-antimicrobial-stewardship-interventions
#1
Kelly B Flett, Athos Bousvaros, Jane Carpenter, Carly E Millrinen, Patricia Martin, Thomas J Sandora
Background: Decreasing the use of redundant anaerobic therapy is a key target for antimicrobial stewardship. Education techniques that optimize knowledge retention could be an important component of reducing these regimens. Methods: We implemented a quality improvement project that incorporated spaced education to reduce the use of redundant anaerobic therapy. The initial interventions (November through December 2015) included education in a hospital-wide newsletter and review of redundant anaerobic regimens by the antimicrobial stewardship program...
November 20, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165120/high-prevalence-of-dental-fluorosis-among-adolescents-is-a-growing-concern-a-school-based-cross-sectional-study-from-southern-india
#2
Anand Verma, Bharatesh K Shetty, Vasudeva Guddattu, Mehul K Chourasia, Prachi Pundir
BACKGROUND: Fluorosis, caused by ingestion of excessive amount of fluoride through food or water, is a major public health problem in India. This study was undertaken to quantify the dental fluorosis burden among school going adolescents and to find factors associated with dental fluorosis in Kolar taluka, Karnataka, India. METHODS: A total of 1026 high school adolescents (12-17 years) were enrolled from different schools selected by stratified sampling method. Dental examination was done to record Dean's fluorosis index, and socio-demographic, food consumption and oral hygiene data were recorded using a pre-tested structured questionnaire...
April 4, 2017: Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162189/altered-ventral-striatal-medial-prefrontal-cortex-resting-state-connectivity-mediates-adolescent-social-problems-after-early-institutional-care
#3
Dominic S Fareri, Laurel Gabard-Durnam, Bonnie Goff, Jessica Flannery, Dylan G Gee, Daniel S Lumian, Christina Caldera, Nim Tottenham
Early caregiving adversity is associated with increased risk for social difficulties. The ventral striatum and associated corticostriatal circuitry, which have demonstrated vulnerability to early exposures to adversity, are implicated in many aspects of social behavior, including social play, aggression, and valuation of social stimuli across development. Here, we used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging to assess the degree to which early caregiving adversity was associated with altered coritocostriatal resting connectivity in previously institutionalized youth (n = 41) relative to youth who were raised with their biological families from birth (n = 47), and the degree to which this connectivity was associated with parent-reported social problems...
December 2017: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161271/a-mathematical-function-for-the-description-of-nutrient-response-curve
#4
Hamed Ahmadi
Several mathematical equations have been proposed to modeling nutrient-response curve for animal and human justified on the goodness of fit and/or on the biological mechanism. In this paper, a functional form of a generalized quantitative model based on Rayleigh distribution principle for description of nutrient-response phenomena is derived. The three parameters governing the curve a) has biological interpretation, b) may be used to calculate reliable estimates of nutrient response relationships, and c) provide the basis for deriving relationships between nutrient and physiological responses...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161005/esi-ms-for-microsized-bioparticles
#5
Abdil Ozdemir, Jung-Lee Lin, Mustafa Gulfen, Szu-Hsueh Lai, Chun-Jen Hsiao, Nelson Gee-Con Chen, Chung-Hsuan Chen
An ESI ion trap mass spectrometer was designed for high throughput and rapid mass analysis of large bio-particles. Mass calibration of the instrument was performed using commercially available polystyrene micro-particles, and the selected sizes of the polystyrene (PS) particles were approximately 3 to 15 µm, which is consistent with the size of the cancer cells selected for this work. It provides the analysis of micro-sized inorganic and bioparticles. Different sizes of MCF-7 breast cancer cells (8 to 15 µm) were used in this study...
November 21, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160606/the-relationship-between-hazardous-alcohol-use-and-violence-among-street-involved-youth
#6
Nadia Fairbairn, Evan Wood, Sabina Dobrer, Huiru Dong, Thomas Kerr, Kora Debeck
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Alcohol is a major contributor to premature disability and death among youth, often due to physical trauma, violence, and suicide. The purpose of this study was to longitudinally examine the association between hazardous alcohol use and experiences of violence among a cohort of street-involved youth. METHODS: Data were derived from the At-Risk Youth Study (ARYS), a prospective cohort of street-involved youth who use illicit substances in Vancouver, Canada...
December 2017: American Journal on Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160408/cognitive-performance-of-stunted-pre-school-children-undergoing-nutritional-recovery-treatment
#7
Thaíse Morais Silva, Nassib Bezerra Bueno, Maria de Lourdes da Silva Gomes de Azevedo, Ana Paula Grotti Clemente, Telma Maria de Menezes Toledo Florêncio
OBJECTIVE: To determine if the treatment of stunted children offered at a specialized center influences their cognitive performance. METHODS: Two groups of children from vulnerable families were selected, one consisting of stunted children being treated at the Nutrition Education and Recovery Center (CREN), and the other group of eutrophic children from a local, public day care center. At CREN, children are treated in a day-hospital system (9 hours/day, 5 days/week), receiving medical, nutritional and psycho-pedagogical support...
November 13, 2017: Revista Paulista de Pediatria: Orgão Oficial da Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159965/improvement-in-lipids-after-switch-to-boosted-atazanavir-or-darunavir-in-children-adolescents-with-perinatally-acquired-hiv-on-older-protease-inhibitors-results-from-the-pediatric-hiv-aids-cohort-study
#8
J Jao, W Yu, K Patel, T L Miller, B Karalius, M E Geffner, L A DiMeglio, A Mirza, J S Chen, M Silio, E J McFarland, R B Van Dyke, D Jacobson
OBJECTIVES: Dyslipidaemia is common in perinatally HIV-infected (PHIV) youth receiving protease inhibitors (PIs). Few studies have evaluated longitudinal lipid changes in PHIV youth after switch to newer PIs. METHODS: We compared longitudinal changes in fasting lipids [total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and TC:HDL-C ratio] in PHIV youth enrolled in the Pediatric HIV/AIDS Cohort Study (PHACS) Adolescent Master Protocol (AMP) study who switched to atazanavir/ritonavir (ATV/r)- or darunavir/ritonavir (DRV/r)-based antiretroviral therapy (ART) from an older PI-based ART and those remaining on an older PI...
November 21, 2017: HIV Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159532/a-multiphysics-approach-for-modeling-early-atherosclerosis
#9
M P Thon, A Hemmler, A Glinzer, M Mayr, M Wildgruber, A Zernecke-Madsen, M W Gee
This work is devoted to the development of a mathematical model of the early stages of atherosclerosis incorporating processes of all time scales of the disease and to show their interactions. The cardiovascular mechanics is modeled by a fluid-structure interaction approach coupling a non-Newtonian fluid to a hyperelastic solid undergoing anisotropic growth and a change of its constitutive equation. Additionally, the transport of low-density lipoproteins and its penetration through the endothelium is considered by a coupled set of advection-diffusion-reaction equations...
November 20, 2017: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159403/not-your-typical-st-elevation-myocardial-infarction
#10
Alicia Morehead-Gee, Arun Padmanabhan, Nora Goldschlager
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 20, 2017: JAMA Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159191/soluble-cd163-in-intracerebral-hemorrhage-biomarker-for-perihematomal-edema
#11
Meaghan Roy-O'Reilly, Liang Zhu, Louise Atadja, Glenda Torres, Jaroslaw Aronowski, Louise McCullough, Nancy J Edwards
Objective: Patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) may elaborate varying degrees of perihematomal edema (PHE), requiring closer monitoring and a higher intensity of treatment. Here, we explore whether the soluble form of CD163, a scavenger receptor responsible for hemoglobin sequestration, can serve as a prognostic biomarker of PHE development and poor outcome after ICH. Methods: Our study cohort was comprised of 51 primary age- and sex-matched ICH patients with moderate-sized, hypertensive deep hemorrhages...
November 2017: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158232/development-and-validation-of-qdiabetes-2018-risk-prediction-algorithm-to-estimate-future-risk-of-type-2-diabetes-cohort-study
#12
Julia Hippisley-Cox, Carol Coupland
Objectives To derive and validate updated QDiabetes-2018 prediction algorithms to estimate the 10 year risk of type 2 diabetes in men and women, taking account of potential new risk factors, and to compare their performance with current approaches.Design Prospective open cohort study.Setting Routinely collected data from 1457 general practices in England contributing to the QResearch database: 1094 were used to develop the scores and a separate set of 363 were used to validate the scores.Participants 11...
November 20, 2017: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157452/evolution-of-linear-and-nonlinear-fetal-heart-rate-indices-throughout-pregnancy-in-appropriate-small-for-gestational-age-and-preterm-fetuses-a-cohort-study
#13
Hernâni Gonçalves, Célia Amorim-Costa, Diogo Ayres-de-Campos, João Bernardes
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: To assess the evolution of linear and nonlinear fetal heart rate (FHR) analysis throughout pregnancy in appropriate (AGA), small for gestational age (SGA) and preterm (PTB) fetuses. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was carried out in 171 singleton pregnancies divided in three groups: AGA (n = 147), SGA (n = 13) fetuses and spontaneous PTB (n = 11). FHR was recorded with an external sensor from the 24th to the 40th week of gestation...
January 2018: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157301/family-support-discrimination-and-quality-of-life-among-art-treated-hiv-infected-patients-a-two-year-study-in-china
#14
Jun-Fang Xu, Zhong-Qiang Ming, Yu-Qian Zhang, Pei-Cheng Wang, Jun Jing, Feng Cheng
BACKGROUND: By September 2016, approximately 653,865 people in China were living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) and 492,725 people were receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART). PLWHA frequently experience discrimination in all domains of their personal and social lives. The World Health Organization includes discrimination in its list of social determinants of health factors that have been linked to poor physical and psychological health. This paper identifies the family support enjoyed and discrimination faced by people infected with HIV and examines the effect they have on patients' quality of life (QOL) as they undergo ART in China...
November 21, 2017: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155850/pre-pubertal-exposure-with-phthalates-and-bisphenol-a-and-pubertal-development
#15
Monika Kasper-Sonnenberg, Jürgen Wittsiepe, Katharina Wald, Holger M Koch, Michael Wilhelm
OBJECTIVE: Epidemiological studies indicate associations between childhood exposure with phthalates and bisphenol A (BPA) and the pubertal development. We examined associations between the pre-pubertal phthalate and BPA body burden and the longitudinally assessed sexual maturation of eight- to thirteen-year-old children. METHODS: We started with eight- to ten-year-old children in the baseline study and quantified phthalate metabolites and BPA in 472 urine samples (250 boys; 222 girls; mean age: 8...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155435/periventricular-white-matter-hyperintensities-and-functional-decline
#16
Mandip S Dhamoon, Ying-Kuen Cheung, Ahmet Bagci, Noam Alperin, Ralph L Sacco, Mitchell S V Elkind, Clinton B Wright
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: We previously showed that global brain white matter hyperintensity volume (WMHV) was associated with accelerated long-term functional decline. The objective of the current study was to determine whether WMHV in particular brain regions is more predictive of functional decline. DESIGN: Prospective population-based study. SETTING: Northern Manhattan magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study. PARTICIPANTS: Individuals free of stroke at baseline (N = 1,195; mean age 71 ± 9; n = 460 (39%) male)...
November 20, 2017: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154463/establishing-upper-limits-on-neuronal-activity-evoked-ph-changes-with-apt-cest-mri-at-7-t
#17
Vitaliy Khlebnikov, Jeroen C W Siero, Alex A Bhogal, Peter R Luijten, Dennis W J Klomp, Hans Hoogduin
PURPOSE: To detect neuronal activity-evoked pH changes by amide proton transfer-chemical exchange saturation transfer (APT-CEST) MRI at 7 T. METHODS: Three healthy subjects participated in the study. A low-power 3-dimensional APT-CEST sequence was optimized through the Bloch-McConnell equations. pH sensitivity of the sequence was estimated both in phantoms and in vivo. The feasibility of pH-functional MRI was tested in Bloch-McConnell-simulated data using the optimized sequence...
November 20, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154305/an-active-transition-from-offshore-work-to-family-life-activities-that-may-impact-recovery
#18
Suzanne L Merkus, Maaike A Huysmans, Kari Anne Holte, Willem van Mechelen, Allard J van der Beek
BACKGROUND: Night shift workers, particularly those working offshore, take a long time to recover from their shifts. The activities that shift workers, such as offshore employees, pursue during their leisure time can influence the process of recovery from work-related fatigue, but little is known about these leisure time activities. OBJECTIVE: To explore what leisure time activities are pursued that may be relevant to recovery for offshore employees. METHODS: Sixty-one offshore working family men-20 night shift, 16 swing shift, and 25 day shift workers-reported on six predefined activities for 14 days following their offshore tours...
2017: Work: a Journal of Prevention, Assessment, and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153630/increasing-hiv-testing-in-inpatient-psychiatry
#19
Martha Shumway, Christina Mangurian, Noah Carraher, Amanda Momenzadeh, Mark Leary, Emily K Lee, James W Dilley
BACKGROUND: People with serious mental illness (SMI) are at elevated risk of HIV infection, but do not receive HIV tests regularly. Inpatient psychiatric admissions provide opportunities for HIV testing. OBJECTIVE: This study retrospectively examined the impact of three sequential interventions designed to increase HIV testing on an acute inpatient psychiatry service: (1) advocacy by an administrative champion, (2) an on-site HIV counselor, and (3) a clinician championing HIV testing...
October 23, 2017: Psychosomatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153363/uterine-fibroids-influence-of-t2-rim-sign-on-immediate-therapeutic-responses-to-magnetic-resonance-imaging-guided-high-intensity-focused-ultrasound-ablation
#20
Sin Yuin Yeo, Young-Sun Kim, Hyo Keun Lim, Hyunchul Rhim, Sin-Ho Jung, Na Young Hwang
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the influence of a high-signal-intensity peripheral rim on T2-weighted MR images (i.e., T2-rim sign) on the immediate therapeutic responses of MR-guided high intensity focused ultrasound (MR-HIFU) ablation of uterine fibroids. METHODS: This retrospective study was approved by the institutional review board, and patient informed consent was obtained for MR-HIFU ablation. In total, 196 fibroids (diameter 6.2±2.6cm) in 123 women (age 43...
December 2017: European Journal of Radiology
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