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Autism & Communication

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101829/autism-spectrum-disorders%C3%A2-diagnosis-and-management
#1
REVIEW
Sharmila Banerjee Mukherjee
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a neuro-developmental disorder commonly seen in children. It is characterized by age inappropriate, impaired social communication and the presence of stereotypic behavior. This disorder is hypothesized to result from cerebral dysfunction arising from a complex interaction between genetic, epigenetic and environmental factors. ASD should be suspected in children failing ASD specific screening tests, in the presence of red flags in social, language and/or play domains, in children with developmental or language delay, abnormal behavior, poor school performance or in those who are at high risk...
January 19, 2017: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095057/age-of-parental-concern-diagnosis-and-service-initiation-among-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#2
Benjamin Zablotsky, Lisa J Colpe, Beverly A Pringle, Michael D Kogan, Catherine Rice, Stephen J Blumberg
Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) require substantial support to address the core symptoms of ASD and co-occurring behavioral/developmental conditions. This study explores the early diagnostic experiences of school-aged children with ASD using survey data from a large probability-based national sample. Multivariate linear regressions were used to examine age when parent reported developmental concern to doctor, received ASD diagnosis, and first obtained services. Children whose parents had concerns about their child's verbal communication reported earlier ages for all outcomes when compared to children of parents who did not have verbal communication concerns...
January 2017: American Journal on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093677/communication-intervention-for-young-children-with-severe-neurodevelopmental-disabilities-via-telehealth
#3
Jessica Simacek, Adele F Dimian, Jennifer J McComas
Young children with neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and Rett syndrome often experience severe communication impairments. This study examined the efficacy of parent-implemented communication assessment and intervention with remote coaching via telehealth on the acquisition of early communication skills of three young children with ASD (2) and Rett syndrome (1). Efficacy of the intervention was evaluated using single-case experimental designs. First, functional assessment was used to identify idiosyncratic/potentially communicative responses and contexts for each child...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093239/application-of-technology-to-social-communication-impairment-in-childhood-and-adolescence
#4
REVIEW
Andrea Trubanova Wieckowski, Susan W White
Social communication impairment has been implicated in various mental health disorders. The primary aim of this review paper is to summarize the extant research on the development and application of technologies to address social communication deficits, conceptualized according to the four constructs outlined by the NIMH's Research Domain Criteria (RDoC), transdiagnostically in children and adolescents. An exhaustive and systematic search yielded 69 peer-reviewed articles meeting all inclusion criteria (i.e...
January 13, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092661/interactions-between-the-microbiota-immune-and-nervous-systems-in-health-and-disease
#5
REVIEW
Thomas C Fung, Christine A Olson, Elaine Y Hsiao
The diverse collection of microorganisms that inhabit the gastrointestinal tract, collectively called the gut microbiota, profoundly influences many aspects of host physiology, including nutrient metabolism, resistance to infection and immune system development. Studies investigating the gut-brain axis demonstrate a critical role for the gut microbiota in orchestrating brain development and behavior, and the immune system is emerging as an important regulator of these interactions. Intestinal microbes modulate the maturation and function of tissue-resident immune cells in the CNS...
January 16, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091344/a-comprehensive-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-pharmacological-and-dietary-supplement-interventions-in-paediatric-autism-moderators-of-treatment-response-and-recommendations-for-future-research
#6
A Masi, A Lampit, M M DeMayo, N Glozier, I B Hickie, A J Guastella
BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are pervasive and multifactorial neurodevelopmental conditions, characterized by impairments in social communication and interaction, and restricted, repetitive patterns of behaviour, interests or activities. Treatment options to ameliorate symptoms of ASDs are limited. Heterogeneity complicates the quest for personalized medicine in this population. Our aim was to investigate if there are baseline characteristics of patients that moderate response or trial design features that impede the identification of efficacious interventions for ASDs...
January 16, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087269/mitochondrial-roles-of-the-psychiatric-disease-risk-factor-disc1
#7
REVIEW
R Norkett, S Modi, J T Kittler
Ion transport during neuronal signalling utilizes the majority of the brain's energy supply. Mitochondria are key sites for energy provision through ATP synthesis and play other important roles including calcium buffering. Thus, tightly regulated distribution and function of these organelles throughout the intricate architecture of the neuron is essential for normal synaptic communication. Therefore, delineating mechanisms coordinating mitochondrial transport and function is essential for understanding nervous system physiology and pathology...
January 10, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075089/autism-spectrum-disorder-primary-care-principles
#8
Kristian E Sanchack, Craig A Thomas
Autism spectrum disorder is characterized by difficulty with social communication and restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior, interest, or activities. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th ed., created an umbrella diagnosis that includes several previously separate conditions: autistic disorder, Asperger syndrome, childhood disintegrative disorder, and pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified. There is insufficient evidence to recommend screening for autism spectrum disorder in children 18 to 30 months of age in whom the disorder is not suspected; however, there is a growing body of evidence that early intensive behavioral intervention based on applied behavior analysis improves cognitive ability, language, and adaptive skills...
December 15, 2016: American Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074357/the-longitudinal-effects-of-parenting-on-adaptive-behavior-in-children-with-fragile-x-syndrome
#9
Steven F Warren, Nancy Brady, Kandace K Fleming, Laura J Hahn
Several studies have reported declines in adaptive behavior amongst children with fragile X syndrome (FXS) starting in middle childhood. We examined the effects of maternal responsivity on adaptive behavior in 55 children with FXS visited 5-6 times in their homes from early through middle childhood. Our analyses indicated that sustained maternal responsivity had a significant positive impact on the trajectories of communication and to a lesser extent other adaptive behavior domains through middle childhood with many effects remaining significant after controlling for autism symptoms and developmental level...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074354/parent-reported-developmental-regression-in-autism-epilepsy-iq-schizophrenia-spectrum-symptoms-and-special-education
#10
Kenneth D Gadow, Greg Perlman, Rebecca J Weber
Examined the psychiatric and clinical correlates of loss of previously acquired skills (regression) as reported by parents of youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Study sample comprised 6- to 18-year old (N = 213) children and adolescents with ASD. Parents reported regression in 77 (36%) youth. A more homogeneous subgroup with regression between 18 and 36 months (n = 48) had higher rates of intellectual disability, epilepsy, and special education, more socially restrictive educational settings, and more severe ASD communication deficits and schizophrenia spectrum symptoms than non-regressed youth (n = 136)...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064558/a-hyperlexic-like-reading-style-is-associated-with-increased-autistic-features-in-girls-with-adhd
#11
Jakob Åsberg Johnels, Christopher Gillberg, Svenny Kopp
OBJECTIVE: Hyperlexic-like reading (defined as word decoding much better than comprehension) has been associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Here we study correlates of a hyperlexic-like reading style (HPL) in ADHD, a condition known to co-occur both with reading difficulties and ASD. METHOD: We compared 10 girls with an ADHD diagnosis plus HPL with 26 with ADHD minus HPL. RESULTS: Girls with HPL scored marginally lower in reading comprehension but did not differ from non-HPL girls in IQ, vocabulary, or in the severity of ADHD ratings...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Attention Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062515/joint-attention-and-brain-functional-connectivity-in-infants-and-toddlers
#12
Adam T Eggebrecht, Jed T Elison, Eric Feczko, Alexandre Todorov, Jason J Wolff, Sridhar Kandala, Chloe M Adams, Abraham Z Snyder, John D Lewis, Annette M Estes, Lonnie Zwaigenbaum, Kelly N Botteron, Robert C McKinstry, John N Constantino, Alan Evans, Heather C Hazlett, Stephen Dager, Sarah J Paterson, Robert T Schultz, Martin A Styner, Guido Gerig, Samir Das, Penelope Kostopoulos, Bradley L Schlaggar, Steven E Petersen, Joseph Piven, John R Pruett
Initiating joint attention (IJA), the behavioral instigation of coordinated focus of 2 people on an object, emerges over the first 2 years of life and supports social-communicative functioning related to the healthy development of aspects of language, empathy, and theory of mind. Deficits in IJA provide strong early indicators for autism spectrum disorder, and therapies targeting joint attention have shown tremendous promise. However, the brain systems underlying IJA in early childhood are poorly understood, due in part to significant methodological challenges in imaging localized brain function that supports social behaviors during the first 2 years of life...
January 6, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056153/effects-of-a-least-to-most-prompting-procedure-on-multisymbol-message-production-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-who-use-augmentative-and-alternative-communication
#13
Erinn H Finke, Jennifer M Davis, Morgan Benedict, Lauren Goga, Jennifer Kelly, Lauren Palumbo, Tanika Peart, Samantha Waters
Purpose: In this study, we investigated the efficacy of a least-to-most (LTM) prompting procedure (Ault & Griffen, 2013; MacDuff, Krantz, & McClannahan, 2001; Neitzel & Wolery, 2009) for increasing use of multisymbol messages in school-age children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) who use augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) during a storybook reading activity. Method: In the study, we used a single-subject, multiple-probe research design across participants (Kazdin, 1982) with 6 children (ages 8-12) with ASD and who used AAC systems for communication...
January 5, 2017: American Journal of Speech-language Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050484/sleep-disorder-gastrointestinal-problems-and-behaviour-problems-seen-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-children-and-yoga-as-therapy-a-descriptive-review
#14
REVIEW
Kumar Narasingharao, Balaram Pradhan, Janardhana Navaneetham
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder with deficiencies in many developmental milestones during the infantile childhood. Recent researches have shown that apart from behaviour problems, the ASD children also suffer from physiological conditions such as disturbed sleep and gastrointestinal problems that could be the contributing factors to their daytime behaviour problems. Lots of parents have expressed that, lack of sleep among the children have resulted in high levels of stress among the family members particularly among the immediate caretakers which are in most cases the mother of the child...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044064/asd-and-schizophrenia-show-distinct-developmental-profiles-in-common-genetic-overlap-with-population-based-social-communication-difficulties
#15
B St Pourcain, E B Robinson, V Anttila, B B Sullivan, J Maller, J Golding, D Skuse, S Ring, D M Evans, S Zammit, S E Fisher, B M Neale, R J L Anney, S Ripke, M V Hollegaard, T Werge, A Ronald, J Grove, D M Hougaard, A D Børglum, P B Mortensen, M J Daly, G Davey Smith
Difficulties in social communication are part of the phenotypic overlap between autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and schizophrenia. Both conditions follow, however, distinct developmental patterns. Symptoms of ASD typically occur during early childhood, whereas most symptoms characteristic of schizophrenia do not appear before early adulthood. We investigated whether overlap in common genetic influences between these clinical conditions and impairments in social communication depends on the developmental stage of the assessed trait...
January 3, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042538/rora-and-autism-in-the-isfahan-population-is-there-an-epigenetic-relationship
#16
Mansoor Salehi, Elahe Kamali, Mojgan Karahmadi, Seyyed Mohammad Mousavi
OBJECTIVE: Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by difficulty in verbal and non-verbal communication, impaired social interaction, and restricted and repetitive behavior. It has been recently introduced as a multigenic disorder with significant epigenetic effects on its pathology. Recently, epigenetic silencing of retinoic acid receptor- related orphan receptor alpha (RORα) gene (which has an essential role in neural tissue development) was shown to have occurred in autistic children due to methylation of its promoter region...
2017: Cell Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040991/a-systematic-review-of-research-into-aided-aac-to-increase-social-communication-functions-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#17
Kristy Logan, Teresa Iacono, David Trembath
Augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) interventions have been shown to be effective in supporting children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) to communicate, particularly to request preferred items and activities. The aim of this systematic review was to examine the effectiveness of AAC interventions in supporting children to produce a broader range of communicative functions and determine the extent to which these interventions have been evaluated beyond immediate effectiveness to address maintenance, generalization, and social validity...
December 31, 2016: Augmentative and Alternative Communication: AAC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28036004/sensing-technologies-for-autism-spectrum-disorder-screening-and-intervention
#18
John-John Cabibihan, Hifza Javed, Mohammed Aldosari, Thomas W Frazier, Haitham Elbashir
This paper reviews the state-of-the-art in sensing technologies that are relevant for Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) screening and therapy. This disorder is characterized by difficulties in social communication, social interactions, and repetitive behaviors. It is diagnosed during the first three years of life. Early and intensive interventions have been shown to improve the developmental trajectory of the affected children. The earlier the diagnosis, the sooner the intervention therapy can begin, thus, making early diagnosis an important research goal...
December 27, 2016: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034801/testing-the-correlation-between-experimentally-induced-hypothyroidism-during-pregnancy-and-autistic-like-symptoms-in-the-rat-offspring
#19
Francesca Melancia, Michela Servadio, Sara Schiavi, Patrizia Campolongo, Alexandre Giusti-Paiva, Viviana Trezza
Thyroid hormones are important for the development of the central nervous system. Since the fetal thyroid gland is not functioning until mid-gestation, transport of maternal thyroid hormones across the placenta is essential during the early phases of gestation. Maternal thyroid deficiency has been associated with a higher incidence of neurodevelopmental disorders in the newborns. The relationship between maternal hypothyroidism and the onset of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in the offspring, however, is still debated...
December 26, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034626/toll-like-receptor-4-signaling-is-associated-with-upregulated-nadph-oxidase-expression-in-peripheral-t-cells-of-children-with-autism
#20
Ahmed Nadeem, Sheikh F Ahmad, Saleh A Bakheet, Naif O Al-Harbi, Laila Y Al-Ayadhi, Sabry M Attia, Khairy M A Zoheir
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) affect millions of children worldwide, and are characterized by impairment in social interaction and communication, and specific repetitive behavioral patterns. Growing evidence highlights a role of toll-like receptors (TLRs) in the pathogenesis of ASD. Specifically, TLR-4 activation has been shown to be associated with increased pro-inflammatory cytokines as well as autistic symptoms in offspring. NADPH oxidase (NOX-2) derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) have also been shown to play pathogenic role under inflammatory conditions...
December 27, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
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