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Autism & Communication

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681189/autism-inside-out-lessons-from-the-memoirs-of-three-minimally-verbal-youths
#1
Christie Welch, Helene Polatajko, Patty Rigby, Margaret Fitch
BACKGROUND: To date, research exploring experiences and perspectives of people who have severe autism and are minimally verbal, has been sparse. OBJECTIVES: To build new understanding based on insider perspectives of people who have severe autism and are minimally verbal. We took interest in how these perspectives support, challenge, or augment current depictions of autism in academic literature. METHOD: Adopting a descriptive qualitative approach, three memoirs written by youths who have severe autism and are minimally verbal were examined using inductive thematic analysis...
April 23, 2018: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678176/prenatal-and-early-life-diesel-exhaust-exposure-causes-autism-like-behavioral-changes-in-mice
#2
Yu-Chi Chang, Toby B Cole, Lucio G Costa
BACKGROUND: Escalating prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in recent decades has triggered increasing efforts in understanding roles played by environmental risk factors as a way to address this widespread public health concern. Several epidemiological studies show associations between developmental exposure to traffic-related air pollution and increased ASD risk. In rodent models, a limited number of studies have shown that developmental exposure to ambient ultrafine particulates or diesel exhaust (DE) can result in behavioral phenotypes consistent with mild ASD...
April 20, 2018: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676529/implicit-learning-seems-to-come-naturally-for-children-with-autism-but-not-for-children-with-specific-language-impairment-evidence-from-behavioral-and-erp-data
#3
Fenny S Zwart, Constance Th W M Vissers, Roy P C Kessels, Joseph H R Maes
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and specific language impairment (SLI) are two neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by deficits in verbal and nonverbal communication skills. These skills are thought to develop largely through implicit-or automatic-learning mechanisms. The aim of the current paper was to investigate the role of implicit learning abilities in the atypical development of communication skills in ASD and SLI. In the current study, we investigated Response Times (RTs) and Event Related Potentials (ERPs) during implicit learning on a Serial Reaction Time (SRT) task in a group of typically developing (TD) children (n = 17), a group of autistic children (n = 16), and a group of children with SLI (n = 13)...
April 20, 2018: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672866/the-development-of-autistic-social-traits-across-childhood-and-adolescence-in-males-and-females
#4
William Mandy, Liz Pellicano, Beate St Pourcain, David Skuse, Jon Heron
BACKGROUND: Autism is a dimensional condition, representing the extreme end of a continuum of social competence that extends throughout the general population. Currently, little is known about how autistic social traits (ASTs), measured across the full spectrum of severity, develop during childhood and adolescence, including whether there are developmental differences between boys and girls. Therefore, we sought to chart the trajectories of ASTs in the general population across childhood and adolescence, with a focus on gender differences...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671644/short-play-and-communication-evaluation-teachers-assessment-of-core-social-communication-and-play-skills-with-young-children-with-autism
#5
Stephanie Y Shire, Wendy Shih, Ya-Chih Chang, Connie Kasari
Children with autism spectrum disorder experience delays in the development of nonverbal social communication gestures to request and to share (joint attention) as well as play skills such that intervention is required. Although such tools exist in research settings, community stakeholders also require access to brief, simple, and reliable tools to assess students' skills and set appropriate intervention targets. This study includes a sequence of two trials to examine implementation outcomes including adoption, fidelity, and feasibility of The Short Play and Communication Evaluation by educational professionals who work with preschoolers and toddlers with autism spectrum disorder in low-resource community classrooms...
April 2018: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671643/differences-in-praxis-performance-and-receptive-language-during-fingerspelling-between-deaf-children-with-and-without-autism-spectrum-disorder
#6
Anjana N Bhat, Sudha M Srinivasan, Colleen Woxholdt, Aaron Shield
Children with autism spectrum disorder present with a variety of social communication deficits such as atypicalities in social gaze and verbal and non-verbal communication delays as well as perceptuo-motor deficits like motor incoordination and dyspraxia. In this study, we had the unique opportunity to study praxis performance in deaf children with and without autism spectrum disorder in a fingerspelling context using American Sign Language. A total of 11 deaf children with autism spectrum disorder and 11 typically developing deaf children aged between 5 and 14 years completed a fingerspelling task...
April 2018: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671106/autism-spectrum-symptomatology-in-children-with-williams-syndrome-who-have-phrase-speech-or-fluent-language
#7
Bonita P Klein-Tasman, Faye van der Fluit, Carolyn B Mervis
To characterize autism spectrum-related symptomatology in children with Williams syndrome (WS) with phrase speech or fluent language, the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule Module 2 or 3 was administered. The cutoff for autism spectrum was met by 35% (14/40) who completed Module 2 and 30% (18/60) who completed Module 3. Similarities and differences in socio-communicative strengths and weaknesses as a function of language ability were identified. Symptom severity was negatively associated with IQ for participants with phrase speech but not for those with fluent language...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664768/determinants-of-parent-satisfaction-with-emergency-or-urgent-care-when-the-patient-has-autism
#8
Sarah F Kirsch, David L Meryash, Bárbara González-Arévalo
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to identify factors that predict parent satisfaction (PS) with their child with autism spectrum disorder (ASD)'s visit to a hospital emergency department (ED) or urgent care (UC) center. METHODS: Parents recruited through a national database whose child (3-21 years; N = 378) with ASD had been treated in an ED/UC center within the previous 3 years completed an anonymous on-line questionnaire. They answered questions about whether they were satisfied overall with the visit and the care provided, their demographics, patient characteristics, their expectations and preparation for the visit, and the ED/UC center experience itself, including their observations of staff interpersonal and communication skills (ICSs) and behaviors, and whether the patient was disruptive (D)...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662721/neural-mechanisms-of-qigong-sensory-training-massage-for-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-a-feasibility-study
#9
Kristin K Jerger, Laura Lundegard, Aaron Piepmeier, Keturah Faurot, Amanda Ruffino, Margaret A Jerger, Aysenil Belger
Objectives: Despite the enormous prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), its global impact has yet to be realized. Millions of families worldwide need effective treatments to help them get through everyday challenges like eating, sleeping, digestion, and social interaction. Qigong Sensory Training (QST) is a nonverbal, parent-delivered intervention recently shown to be effective at reducing these everyday challenges in children with ASD. This study tested the feasibility of a protocol for investigating QST's neural mechanism...
2018: Global Advances in Health and Medicine: Improving Healthcare Outcomes Worldwide
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661042/identification-and-drawing-of-early-concepts-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-children-without-disability
#10
John W McCarthy, Joann P Benigno, Jamie Broach, Jamie B Boster, Bridget M Wright
This comparative study is a replication and extension of previous work related to children's drawings of early concepts. In all, 15 children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and 19 children without disability took part in the study, and were video recorded as they drew 10 early emerging concepts such as "eat" and "more." In a second task, the participants were asked to label Picture Communication Symbols conventionally used in augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) systems. Descriptive, correlational, and inferential statistics were used to analyze the data...
April 16, 2018: Augmentative and Alternative Communication: AAC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655594/no-effect-of-prenatal-vitamin-d-deficiency-on-autism-relevant-behaviours-in-multiple-inbred-strains-of-mice
#11
M Langguth, M Fassin, S Alexander, K M Turner, T H J Burne
Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) is a group of neurodevelopmental disorders commonly characterised by verbal and non-verbal communication deficits, impaired social interaction and repetitive, stereotypic behaviours. The aetiology of ASD is most likely a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Epidemiological evidence suggests that prenatal vitamin D deficiency is associated with an increased incidence of ASD. The overall aim of this study was to investigate prenatal vitamin D deficiency on ASD-related behavioural phenotypes in multiple inbred strains of mice...
April 12, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651681/higher-autistic-traits-among-criminals-but-no-link-to-psychopathy-findings-from-a-high-security-prison-in-portugal
#12
Diana Loureiro, Ana Machado, Tânia Silva, Tânia Veigas, Carlos Ramalheira, Joaquim Cerejeira
The relationship between autism, criminality and psychopathy has gained increased attention in recent years, although research has focused on autism spectrum disorders, and not autistic traits. We measured autistic traits (with the Autism Spectrum Quotient) in a sample of 101 inmates from a high-security prison and compared them to a control group, using a logistic regression model that included age, education, psychopathology, psychopathy and attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder as covariates. Prisoners had more autistic traits (OR 1...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644487/therapeutic-use-of-carbohydrate-restricted-diets-in-an-autistic-child-a-case-report-of-clinical-and-18fdg-pet-findings
#13
Iwona Żarnowska, Beata Chrapko, Grażyna Gwizda, Anna Nocuń, Krystyna Mitosek-Szewczyk, Maciej Gasior
The ketogenic diet (KD) is a high-fat, adequate-protein, and low-carbohydrate diet that has been used successfully in the treatment of refractory epilepsies for almost 100 years. There has been accumulating evidence to show that the KD may provide a therapeutic benefit in autism spectrum disorders, albeit by a yet-unknown mechanism. We report a case of a 6-year-old patient with high-functioning autism and subclinical epileptic discharges who responded poorly to several behavioural and psychopharmacological treatments...
April 11, 2018: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642715/effects-of-dynamic-text-in-an-aac-app-on-sight-word-reading-for-individuals-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#14
Jessica Caron, Janice Light, Christine Holyfield, David McNaughton
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of Transition to Literacy (T2L) software features (i.e., dynamic text and speech output upon selection of a graphic symbol) within a grid display in an augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) app, on the sight word reading skills of individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and complex communication needs. The study implemented a single-subject multiple probe research design across one set of three participants. The same design was utilized with an additional set of two participants...
April 12, 2018: Augmentative and Alternative Communication: AAC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627697/are-the-components-of-social-reciprocity-transdiagnostic-across-pediatric-neurodevelopmental-disorders-evidence-for-common-and-disorder-specific-social-impairments
#15
Alexandra Sturm, Michelle Rozenman, Susanna Chang, James J McGough, James T McCracken, John C Piacentini
Deficits in social communication are a core feature of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), yet significant social problems have been observed in youth with many neurodevelopmental disorders. In this preliminary investigation, we aimed to explore whether domains of social reciprocity (i.e., social communication, social cognition, social awareness, social motivation, and restricted and repetitive behaviors) represent transdiagnostic traits. These domains were compared across youth ages 7-17 with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD; N = 32), tic disorders (TD; N = 20), severe mood dysregulation (N = 33) and autism spectrum disorder (N = 35)...
March 29, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626339/using-pattern-classification-to-identify-brain-imaging-markers-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#16
Derek Sayre Andrews, Andre Marquand, Christine Ecker, Grainne McAlonan
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental condition characterized by deficits in social interaction and communication, as well as repetitive and restrictive behaviours. The etiological and phenotypic complexity of ASD has so far hindered the development of clinically useful biomarkers for the condition. Neuroimaging studies have been valuable in establishing a biological basis for ASD. Increasingly, neuroimaging has been combined with 'machine learning'-based pattern classification methods to make individual diagnostic predictions...
April 7, 2018: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621899/introduction-to-the-special-issue-interventions-to-reduce-challenging-behavior-among-individuals-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#17
Tonya N Davis, Mandy Rispoli
The prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is on the rise. In addition to the social communication skill deficits and restrictive repetitive behaviors and interests, many individuals with ASD engage in challenging behavior. Challenging behavior is associated with a multitude of negative outcomes. Challenging behavior may cause harm to the individual with ASD as well as limit opportunities for educational, vocational, and social participation and development. In addition, caregivers experience high stress and low quality of mental health...
May 2018: Behavior Modification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618997/executive-functions-and-prosodic-abilities-in-children-with-high-functioning-autism
#18
Marisa G Filipe, Sónia Frota, Selene G Vicente
Little is known about the relationship between prosodic abilities and executive function skills. As deficits in executive functions (EFs) and prosodic impairments are characteristics of autism, we examined how EFs are related to prosodic performance in children with high-functioning autism (HFA). Fifteen children with HFA ( M = 7.4 years; SD = 1.12), matched to 15 typically developing peers on age, gender, and non-verbal intelligence participated in the study. The Profiling Elements of Prosody in Speech-Communication (PEPS-C) was used to assess prosodic performance...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618972/an-inflammation-centric-view-of-neurological-disease-beyond-the-neuron
#19
REVIEW
Stephen D Skaper, Laura Facci, Morena Zusso, Pietro Giusti
Inflammation is a complex biological response fundamental to how the body deals with injury and infection to eliminate the initial cause of cell injury and effect repair. Unlike a normally beneficial acute inflammatory response, chronic inflammation can lead to tissue damage and ultimately its destruction, and often results from an inappropriate immune response. Inflammation in the nervous system ("neuroinflammation"), especially when prolonged, can be particularly injurious. While inflammation per se may not cause disease, it contributes importantly to disease pathogenesis across both the peripheral (neuropathic pain, fibromyalgia) and central [e...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614380/serotonin-as-a-link-between-the-gut-brain-microbiome-axis-in-autism-spectrum-disorders
#20
REVIEW
Narek Israelyan, Kara Gross Margolis
Autism-spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by persistent deficits in social communication and repetitive patterns of behavior. ASD is, however, often associated with medical comorbidities and gastrointestinal (GI) dysfunction is among the most common. Studies have demonstrated a correlation between GI dysfunction and the degree of social impairment in ASD. The etiology of GI abnormalities in ASD is unclear, though the association between GI dysfunction and ASD-associated behaviors suggest that overlapping developmental defects in the brain and the intestine and/or a defect in communication between the enteric and central nervous systems (ENS and CNS, respectively), known as the gut-brain axis, could be responsible for the observed phenotypes...
March 31, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
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