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Autism & Communication

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456277/differential-attention-to-faces-in-infant-siblings-of-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-associations-with-later-social-and-language-ability
#1
Jennifer B Wagner, Rhiannon J Luyster, Hana Moustapha, Helen Tager-Flusberg, Charles A Nelson
A growing body of literature has begun to explore social attention in infant siblings of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) with hopes of identifying early differences that are associated with later ASD or other aspects of development. The present study used eye-tracking to familiar (mother) and unfamiliar (stranger) faces in two groups of 6-month-old infants: infants with no family history of ASD (low-risk controls; LRC), and infants at high risk for ASD (HRA), by virtue of having an older sibling with ASD...
2018: International Journal of Behavioral Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453711/prevalence-of-dsm-5-autism-spectrum-disorder-among-school-based-children-aged-3-12-years-in-shanghai-china
#2
Zhijuan Jin, You Yang, Shijian Liu, Hong Huang, Xingming Jin
We estimated the prevalence of ASD in a population-based sample comprising children aged 3-12 years (N = 74,252) in Shanghai. This included a high-risk group sampled from special education schools and a low-risk group randomly sampled from general schools. First, we asked parents and then teachers to complete the Social Communication Questionnaire for participating children. Children who screened positive based on both parental and teachers' reports were comprehensively assessed. ASD was identified based on DSM-5 criteria...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453706/family-experiences-with-the-diagnosis-of-autism-spectrum-disorder-system-barriers-and-facilitators-of-efficient-diagnosis
#3
M Martinez, K C Thomas, C S Williams, R Christian, E Crais, R Pretzel, S R Hooper
This paper examines family experiences with the efficiency of ASD diagnosis. Children were age 8 or younger with ASD (n = 450). Outcomes were delay from first parent concern to diagnosis, shifting diagnoses, and being told child did not have ASD. Predictors were screening, travel distance, and problems finding providers. Logit models were used to examine associations. Screening was associated with reduced delay in diagnosis; problems finding providers were associated with greater delay. Screening, travel distance, and delay in diagnosis were associated with shifting diagnoses and being told child did not have ASD...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453447/embryonic-stem-cell-transplants-as-a-therapeutic-strategy-in-a-rodent-model-of-autism
#4
Jennifer J Donegan, Angela M Boley, Daniel J Lodge
Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by disruptions in three core behavioral domains: deficits in social interaction, impairments in communication, and repetitive and stereotyped patterns of behavior or thought. There are currently no drugs available for the treatment of the core symptoms of ASD and drugs that target comorbid symptoms often have serious adverse side effects, suggesting an urgent need for new therapeutic strategies. The neurobiology of autism is complex, but converging evidence suggests that ASD involves disruptions in the inhibitory GABAergic neurotransmitter system...
February 7, 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446091/an-evaluation-of-delay-to-reinforcement-and-mand-variability-during-functional-communication-training
#5
Colin S Muething, Terry S Falcomata, Raechal Ferguson, Samantha Swinnea, Cayenne Shpall
Children with autism spectrum disorder and other developmental disabilities often exhibit invariant responding (i.e., restricted behavioral repertoires), deficits in communication, and challenging behavior. Approaches demonstrated in the basic and applied literature to increase response variability include extinction, lag schedules of reinforcement, and percentile schedules of reinforcement. Results of basic studies have also indicated that delays to reinforcement often produce increases in response variability...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444459/cell-adhesion-and-matricellular-support-by-astrocytes-of-the-tripartite-synapse
#6
REVIEW
Anne E J Hillen, J Peter H Burbach, Elly M Hol
Astrocytes contribute to the formation, function, and plasticity of synapses. Their processes enwrap the neuronal components of the tripartite synapse, and due to this close interaction they are perfectly positioned to modulate neuronal communication. The interaction between astrocytes and synapses is facilitated by cell adhesion molecules and matricellular proteins, which have been implicated in the formation and functioning of tripartite synapses. The importance of such neuron-astrocyte integration at the synapse is underscored by the emerging role of astrocyte dysfunction in synaptic pathologies such as autism and schizophrenia...
February 11, 2018: Progress in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436887/machine-learning-in-autistic-spectrum-disorder-behavioral-research-a-review-and-ways-forward
#7
Fadi Thabtah
Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a mental disorder that retards acquisition of linguistic, communication, cognitive, and social skills and abilities. Despite being diagnosed with ASD, some individuals exhibit outstanding scholastic, non-academic, and artistic capabilities, in such cases posing a challenging task for scientists to provide answers. In the last few years, ASD has been investigated by social and computational intelligence scientists utilizing advanced technologies such as machine learning to improve diagnostic timing, precision, and quality...
February 13, 2018: Informatics for Health & Social Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436853/electrophysiological-response-during-auditory-gap-detection-biomarker-for-sensory-and-communication-alterations-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#8
Jennifer H Foss-Feig, Katherine K M Stavropoulos, James C McPartland, Mark T Wallace, Wendy L Stone, Alexandra P Key
Sensory symptoms, including auditory processing deficits, are common in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Processing of temporal aspects of auditory input is understudied; yet, deficits in this domain could contribute to language-related impairments. In children with ASD and well-matched controls, this study examined electrophysiological response to silent gaps in auditory stimuli. Results revealed attenuated amplitude of the P2 event-related potential (ERP) component in ASD. The P2 amplitude reduction was also associated with sensory, language, and diagnostic features...
2018: Developmental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434036/damaging-de-novo-mutations-diminish-motor-skills-in-children-on-the-autism-spectrum
#9
Andreas Buja, Natalia Volfovsky, Abba M Krieger, Catherine Lord, Alex E Lash, Michael Wigler, Ivan Iossifov
In individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), de novo mutations have previously been shown to be significantly correlated with lower IQ but not with the core characteristics of ASD: deficits in social communication and interaction and restricted interests and repetitive patterns of behavior. We extend these findings by demonstrating in the Simons Simplex Collection that damaging de novo mutations in ASD individuals are also significantly and convincingly correlated with measures of impaired motor skills...
February 6, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432246/evaluation-and-management-of-the-child-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#10
Nicole Baumer, Sarah J Spence
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Autism spectrum disorder is a neurodevelopmental disorder defined by deficits in social communication and the presence of restricted and repetitive behaviors and interests. This article provides the tools to diagnose and manage patients with autism spectrum disorder. RECENT FINDINGS: Autism spectrum disorder is a heterogeneous condition with varying presentations, multiple etiologies, and a number of comorbidities that impact the course and management of the disorder...
February 2018: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432106/a-feasibility-study-of-autism-behavioral-markers-in-spontaneous-facial-visual-and-hand-movement-response-data
#11
Manar D Samad, Norou Diawara, Jonna L Bobzien, John W Harrington, Megan A Witherow, Khan M Iftekharuddin
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disability with atypical traits in behavioral and physiological responses. These atypical traits in individuals with ASD may be too subtle and subjective to measure visually using tedious methods of scoring. Alternatively, the use of intrusive sensors in the measurement of psychophysical responses in individuals with ASD may likely cause inhibition and bias. This paper proposes a novel experimental protocol for non-intrusive sensing and analysis of facial expression, visual scanning, and eye-hand coordination to investigate behavioral markers for ASD...
February 2018: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427656/gut-microbiota-inflammation-and-probiotics-on-neural-development-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#12
REVIEW
Ceymi Doenyas
Recent evidence implicates immune alterations and gut microbiota dysbiosis in at least some subpopulations of individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Immune and gut alterations in ASD have mostly been studied separately, and the reviews and theoretical models up to now have mainly considered the immune system as one of the routes for gut-brain communication. We take a different perspective and consider possible common mechanisms of action for the gut microbiota and inflammation on the neural basis of ASD...
February 7, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427538/the-impact-on-the-family-of-the-co-existing-conditions-of-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#13
Alexandra M Petrou, Abigail Soul, Beena Koshy, Helen McConachie, Jeremy R Parr
We aimed to investigate whether the impact on families of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is associated with the number and/or type of emotional and behavioral co-existing conditions that parents/carers of children with ASD reported as occurring frequently. In addition, we examined whether there was a greater impact on families if their child was male, had lower levels of language, had more severe autism symptomatology, and whether impact was associated with the number and/or type of co-existing conditions...
February 10, 2018: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427532/a-pilot-study-of-high-dose-intravenous-immunoglobulin-5-for-autism-impact-on-autism-spectrum-and-markers-of-neuroinflammation
#14
Isaac R Melamed, Melinda Heffron, Alessandro Testori, Kellie Lipe
Research has shown that a subset of the autism spectrum disorder (ASD) population presents with immune dysregulation. To explore this topic further, we investigated the efficacy and tolerability of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) infusion in children with ASD. In this study, participants were recruited based on a diagnosis of autistic disorder, Asperger's disorder, or pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified. Participants also showed evidence of immune dysfunction based on abnormal levels of specific biomarkers, including CD40 ligand (CD154), lymphocyte stimulation, and T or B cell dysfunction...
February 10, 2018: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424959/influence-of-family-demographic-factors-on-social-communication-questionnaire-scores
#15
Steven A Rosenberg, Eric J Moody, Li-Ching Lee, Carolyn DiGuiseppi, Gayle C Windham, Lisa D Wiggins, Laura A Schieve, Caroline M Ledbetter, Susan E Levy, Lisa Blaskey, Lisa Young, Pilar Bernal, Cordelia R Rosenberg, M Daniele Fallin
This study examined the effect of demographic factors on Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ) scores in children aged 30-68 months. Diagnoses of ASD were made after a gold standard evaluation that included the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS), and the Autism Diagnostic Interview Revised (ADI-R). The relationship of demographic variables to SCQ scores was compared in two source populations: (a) children recruited from clinical and educational sources serving children who have ASD or other developmental disorders (CE) and (b) children recruited from birth certificates to represent the general population (BC)...
February 9, 2018: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423133/facial-expression-recognition-as-a-candidate-marker-for-autism-spectrum-disorder-how-frequent-and-severe-are-deficits
#16
E Loth, L Garrido, J Ahmad, E Watson, A Duff, B Duchaine
Background: Impairments in social communication are a core feature of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Because the ability to infer other people's emotions from their facial expressions is critical for many aspects of social communication, deficits in expression recognition are a plausible candidate marker for ASD. However, previous studies on facial expression recognition produced mixed results, which may be due to differences in the sensitivity of the many tests used and/or the heterogeneity among individuals with ASD...
2018: Molecular Autism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417436/paraprofessional-delivered-video-prompting-to-teach-academics-to-students-with-severe-disabilities-in-inclusive-settings
#17
Victoria F Knight, Emily M Kuntz, Melissa Brown
Video prompting is effective for teaching a variety of skills (e.g., daily living, communication) to students with autism and intellectual disability; yet, little research exists on the efficacy of these strategies on academic skills, in inclusive settings, and with typical intervention agents. Authors collaborated with paraprofessionals to select socially important academic skills (i.e., literacy, social studies, science, and math) aligned with students' IEPs and content taught in their inclusive classes. Results from the multiple probe across participants and skills design indicated a functional relation between the paraprofessional-delivered video prompting and correct responding to academic tasks for all three elementary students with autism and intellectual disability...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417432/sensory-subtypes-in-preschool-aged-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#18
Scott D Tomchek, Lauren M Little, John Myers, Winnie Dunn
Given the heterogeneity of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), research has investigated how sensory features elucidate subtypes that enhance our understanding of etiology and tailored treatment approaches. Previous studies, however, have not integrated core developmental behaviors with sensory features in investigations of subtypes in ASD. Therefore, we used latent profile analysis to examine subtypes in a preschool aged sample considering sensory processing patterns in combination with social-communication skill, motor performance, and adaptive behavior...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29413425/attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-and-autism-spectrum-disorder-symptoms-in-school-age-children-born-very-preterm
#19
Tinka Bröring, Kim J Oostrom, Elisabeth M van Dijk-Lokkart, Harrie N Lafeber, Anniek Brugman, Jaap Oosterlaan
BACKGROUND: Very preterm (VP) children face a broad range of neurodevelopmental sequelae, including behavioral problems. AIM: To investigate prevalence, pervasiveness and co-occurrence of symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in school-age children born very preterm. METHODS: Using questionnaire and diagnostic interview data, parent and teacher reported symptoms of ADHD and ASD of 57 VP-children (mean age = 9...
February 2, 2018: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412514/effects-of-parent-implemented-early-start-denver-model-intervention-on-chinese-toddlers-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-a-non-randomized-controlled-trial
#20
Bingrui Zhou, Qiong Xu, Huiping Li, Ying Zhang, Yi Wang, Sally J Rogers, Xiu Xu
To evaluate the effects of a 26-week, high-intensity, parent-implemented Early Start Denver Model (P-ESDM) intervention on developmental outcomes, severity of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and parental stress of ASD toddlers in China. Subjects in P-ESDM group (n = 23) were recruited from 1.5- to 2.5-year-old toddlers who were screened positive in Xuhui and Minhang Districts and were diagnosed with ASD. A community (comparison) group of age-matched toddlers with ASD (n = 20) was recruited from other areas...
February 7, 2018: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
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