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Autism & Language

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516224/psychiatric-behaviors-associated-with-cytoskeletal-defects-in-radial-neuronal-migration
#1
REVIEW
Toshifumi Fukuda, Shigeru Yanagi
Normal development of the cerebral cortex is an important process for higher brain functions, such as language, and cognitive and social functions. Psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia and autism, are thought to develop owing to various dysfunctions occurring during the development of the cerebral cortex. Radial neuronal migration in the embryonic cerebral cortex is a complex process, which is achieved by strict control of cytoskeletal dynamics, and impairments in this process are suggested to cause various psychiatric disorders...
May 17, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514238/the-influence-of-maternal-pragmatics-on-the-language-skills-of-children-with-autism
#2
Yael S Stern, Nell Maltman, Megan Y Roberts
OBJECTIVE: This study examined the relationship between mothers' pragmatics and child language in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and non-ASD language delay (LD) mother-child dyads. METHODS: Participants consisted of 20 dyads of mothers and their toddlers aged 24 to 48 months, with ASD (n = 10) or non-ASD LD (n = 10). Groups were matched on child chronological age, language, and cognition. Maternal pragmatic language was qualified based on the degree of pragmatic violations during a semistructured interview, and was examined in relation to both child language, as measured by the Preschool Language Scale-4 and maternal use of language facilitation strategies during play...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504353/cmip-haploinsufficiency-in-two-patients-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-co-occurring-gastrointestinal-issues
#3
Minjie Luo, Jinbo Fan, Tara L Wenger, Margaret H Harr, Melissa Racobaldo, Surabhi Mulchandani, Holly Dubbs, Elaine H Zackai, Nancy B Spinner, Laura K Conlin
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a genetically heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by impairments in social communication and restricted interests. Though some patients with ASD have an identifiable genetic cause, the cause of most ASD remains elusive. Many ASD susceptibility loci have been identified through clinical studies. We report two patients with syndromic ASD and persistent gastrointestinal issues who carry de novo deletions involving the CMIP gene detected by genome-wide SNP microarray and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis...
May 15, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503663/the-communication-play-protocol-capturing-variations-in-language-development
#4
Lauren B Adamson, Roger Bakeman
The Communication Play Protocol (CPP) is a semi-naturalistic, lab-based observational procedure that showcases parent-child interactions. This article reflects on how the CPP has matured since we described it over 25 years ago in the May 1999 issue of Perspectives. We emphasize how the CPP has provided us with a stable frame to observe both typically developing children and children with developmental challenges including autism spectrum disorder as they communicate with caregivers in a range of contexts. We also describe three versions of the CPP that have been designed to address different research questions and several methods including engagement state coding and rating items that have been used to extract data from video records of the CPP...
December 2016: Perspect ASHA Spec Interest Groups
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499914/advances-in-understanding-the-pathophysiology-of-autism-spectrum-disorders
#5
REVIEW
Konstantin Yenkoyan, Artem Grigoryan, Katarine Fereshetyan, Diana Yepremyan
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are common heterogeneous neurodevelopmental disorders with typical triad of symptoms: impaired social interaction, language and communication abnormalities, and stereotypical behavior. Despite extensive research, the etiology and pathogenesis of ASD remain largely unclear. The lack of solid knowledge on the mechanisms of these disorders decreases the opportunities for pathogenetic treatment of autism. Various theories where proposed in order to explain the pathophysiology underlying ASD...
May 9, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495514/neurobehavioral-risks-of-ssris-in-pregnancy-comparing-human-and-animal-data
#6
REVIEW
Asher Ornoy
During the last twenty years, in spite of extensive literature regarding the use of SSRIs in pregnancy, confusion still exists as to possible long-term risks of these drugs on the offspring. Possible negative effects relate to neurodevelopmental outcome and association with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Most neurodevelopmental follow up studies did not find significant cognitive impairment except from some apparently transient, gross motor delay and slight impairment of language abilities. The literature on the possible association of SSRIs with ASD is inconsistent, and if an association exists it is apparently throughout pregnancy...
May 8, 2017: Reproductive Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488902/designing-augmentative-and-alternative-communication-applications-the-results-of-focus-groups-with-speech-language-pathologists-and-parents-of-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#7
Jamie B Boster, John W McCarthy
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to gain insight from speech-language pathologists (SLPs) and parents of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) regarding appealing features of augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) applications. METHOD: Two separate 1-hour focus groups were conducted with 8 SLPs and 5 parents of children with ASD to identify appealing design features of AAC Apps, their benefits and potential concerns. Participants were shown novel interface designs for communication mode, play mode and incentive systems...
May 10, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation. Assistive Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488078/can-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorders-learn-new-vocabulary-from-linguistic-context
#8
Rebecca Lucas, Louisa Thomas, Courtenay Frazier Norbury
This study investigated whether children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) can learn vocabulary from linguistic context. Thirty-five children with ASD (18 with age-appropriate structural language; 17 with language impairment [ALI]) and 29 typically developing peers were taught 20 Science words. Half were presented in linguistic context from which meaning could be inferred, whilst half were accompanied by an explicit definition. Children with ASD were able to learn from context. Condition did not influence phonological learning, but receptive semantic knowledge was greatest in the context condition, and expressive semantic knowledge greatest in the definitional condition...
May 9, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487267/embodied-conversational-agents-in-clinical-psychology-a-scoping-review
#9
Simon Provoost, Ho Ming Lau, Jeroen Ruwaard, Heleen Riper
BACKGROUND: Embodied conversational agents (ECAs) are computer-generated characters that simulate key properties of human face-to-face conversation, such as verbal and nonverbal behavior. In Internet-based eHealth interventions, ECAs may be used for the delivery of automated human support factors. OBJECTIVE: We aim to provide an overview of the technological and clinical possibilities, as well as the evidence base for ECA applications in clinical psychology, to inform health professionals about the activity in this field of research...
May 9, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482683/problem-solving-styles-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-the-development-of-higher-cognitive-functions
#10
Paul A Constable, Melanie Ring, Sebastian B Gaigg, Dermot M Bowler
The Vygotsky Blocks Test assesses problem-solving styles within a theoretical framework for the development of higher mental processes devised by Vygotsky. Because both the theory and the associated test situate cognitive development within the child's social and linguistic context, they address conceptual issues around the developmental relation between language and thought that are pertinent to development in autism. Our aim was to document the performance of adults with autism spectrum disorder on the Vygotsky Blocks Test, and our results showed that they made more errors than the typically developing participants and that these errors correlated with performance IQ...
May 1, 2017: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480480/autism-in-southeast-europe-a-survey-of-caregivers-of-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorders
#11
Amy M Daniels, Ariel Como, Sabri Hergüner, Krasimira Kostadinova, Jasmina Stosic, Andy Shih
The aim of this study was to understand the diagnostic, service and lived experiences of families affected by ASD in Southeast Europe. A total of 758 caregivers from Albania, Bulgaria, Croatia and Turkey were surveyed from 2013 to 2015 about characteristics of the child with ASD; service encounters; and caregiver perceptions. The average age at first concern was 24.4 months (SD 11.8) and at diagnosis, 40.0 months (SD 19.0). Psychiatrists were the most common diagnostician; most children received some ASD-related service, most frequently speech and language therapy...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470886/theory-of-mind-in-sli-revisited-links-with-syntax-comparisons-with-asd
#12
Stephanie Durrleman, Morgane Burnel, Anne Reboul
BACKGROUND: According to the linguistic determinism approach, knowledge of sentential complements such as: John says that the earth is flat plays a crucial role in theory of mind (ToM) development by providing a means to represent explicitly people's mental attitudes and beliefs. This approach predicts that mastery of complements determines successful belief reasoning across explicit ToM tasks, even low-verbal ones, and across populations. AIMS: (1) To investigate the link between a low-verbal ToM-task and complements in Specific Language Impairment (SLI), (2) To determine whether this population shows similar ToM performance to that of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) or those with Typical Development (TD) once these groups are matched on competency for complements, (3) To explore whether complements conveying a falsehood without jeopardizing the veracity of the entire sentence, such as complements of verbs of communication, are more crucial for belief attribution than complements which do not have this property, namely complements of verbs of perception, (?John sees that the earth is flat)...
May 4, 2017: International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464350/development-and-validation-of-an-item-response-theory-based-social-responsiveness-scale-short-form
#13
Alexandra Sturm, Megan Kuhfeld, Connie Kasari, James T McCracken
BACKGROUND: Research and practice in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) rely on quantitative measures, such as the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS), for characterization and diagnosis. Like many ASD diagnostic measures, SRS scores are influenced by factors unrelated to ASD core features. This study further interrogates the psychometric properties of the SRS using item response theory (IRT), and demonstrates a strategy to create a psychometrically sound short form by applying IRT results...
May 2, 2017: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464253/statistical-word-learning-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-specific-language-impairment
#14
Eileen Haebig, Jenny R Saffran, Susan Ellis Weismer
BACKGROUND: Word learning is an important component of language development that influences child outcomes across multiple domains. Despite the importance of word knowledge, word-learning mechanisms are poorly understood in children with specific language impairment (SLI) and children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study examined underlying mechanisms of word learning, specifically, statistical learning and fast-mapping, in school-aged children with typical and atypical development...
May 2, 2017: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458643/grammatical-language-impairment-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-exploring-language-phenotypes-beyond-standardized-testing
#15
Kacie Wittke, Ann M Mastergeorge, Sally Ozonoff, Sally J Rogers, Letitia R Naigles
Linguistic and cognitive abilities manifest huge heterogeneity in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Some children present with commensurate language and cognitive abilities, while others show more variable patterns of development. Using spontaneous language samples, we investigate the presence and extent of grammatical language impairment in a heterogeneous sample of children with ASD. Findings from our sample suggest that children with ASD can be categorized into three meaningful subgroups: those with normal language, those with marked difficulty in grammatical production but relatively intact vocabulary, and those with more globally low language abilities...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448161/peaches-for-lunch-creating-and-using-visual-variables
#16
Elizabeth Cartwright, Adam Clegg
In this article, I describe the process of systematically including non-verbal data in medical anthropology research. I demonstrate the process of visualizing and coding videotaped moments of life and show how we can analyze what is being done along with what is being said. I ground my discussion in toddler language socialization and then expand my observations to the realm of language pathologies. Aphasia from strokes, speech difficulties in neurologically based illnesses like Lou Gehrig's disease, and the variety of communication challenges that face those on the autism spectrum can all be studied in interesting ways by including precise descriptions of non-verbal actions...
April 27, 2017: Medical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447306/the-effects-of-early-language-on-age-at-diagnosis-and-functioning-at-school-age-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#17
Anthony Goodwin, Nicole L Matthews, Christopher J Smith
Research suggests that toddlers with no language delay (NLD) should have better outcomes than those with language delay (LD). However, the predictive utility of language milestones relative to co-varying factors such as age at diagnosis, IQ, and ASD symptomatology is unclear. This study compared school-aged children with ASD and NLD (n = 59) to a well-matched group with ASD and LD (n = 59). The LD group was diagnosed at younger ages and their historical ASD symptoms were more severe than the NLD group...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447305/a-discrepancy-in-comprehension-and-production-in-early-language-development-in-asd-is-it-clinically-relevant
#18
Meghan M Davidson, Susan Ellis Weismer
This study examined the extent to which a discrepant comprehension-production profile (i.e., relatively more delayed comprehension than production) is characteristic of the early language phenotype in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and tracked the developmental progression of the profile. Our findings indicated that a discrepant comprehension-production profile distinguished toddlers (30 months) with ASD from late talkers without ASD (91% sensitivity, 100% specificity) in groups that were comparable on expressive language, age, and socioeconomic status...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442424/thioredoxin-is-not-a-marker-for-treatment-resistance-depression-but-associated-with-cognitive-function-an-rtms-study
#19
Efruz Pirdogan Aydın, Abdullah Genc, Mihriban Dalkıran, Ece Türkyilmaz Uyar, Ömer Akil Özer, Kayıhan Oğuz Karamustafalıoğlu
Elevated oxidative stress is known to play an important role in development of depression and cognitive dysfunction. To date, thioredoxin (TRX), an antioxidant protein, has been investigated as a marker for psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and autism but its relationship with depression is yet to be unknown. The aim of this study is to detect the TRX levels in patients with treatment-resistant depression (TRD), analyse the effect of rTMS (repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation) application on TRX levels and display the relationship of TRX with cognitive areas...
April 22, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433251/erratum-to-exploring-links-between-language-and-cognition-in-autism-spectrum-disorders-complement-sentences-false-belief-and-executive-functioning-j-commun-disord-54-2015-15-31
#20
Stephaniea Durrleman, Julie Franck
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 19, 2017: Journal of Communication Disorders
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