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Autism & Language

Audra Sterling
Purpose: Some boys with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and boys with fragile X syndrome and a codiagnosis of ASD (FXS+ASD) have impairments in expressive grammatical abilities. The current study compared grammatical performance in these 2 groups of school-age boys. Method: Thirty-seven boys similar on mean length of utterance participated in the current study (FXS: n = 19, ASD: n = 18). Participants completed an ASD assessment, nonverbal IQ testing, and conversation language samples...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
Nataly Lim, Mark F O'Reilly, Jeff Sigafoos, Giulio E Lancioni
The practice of advising bilingual parents of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) to speak in a single language, often the majority language of the region, with their child with ASD seems to be common. Such advice, however, is not grounded on empirical evidence but appears to be based more on logical arguments and assumptions. In this commentary, fears surrounding dual language exposure and empirical evidence supporting bilingualism in children with ASD are discussed. Suggestions for future research and three key steps that clinicians can consider taking to better address the needs of diverse learners are provided...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Francisco R de la Peña, Marcos F Rosetti, Andrés Rodríguez-Delgado, Lino R Villavicencio, Juan D Palacio, Cecilia Montiel, Pablo A Mayer, Fernando J Félix, Marcela Larraguibel, Laura Viola, Silvia Ortiz, Sofía Fernández, Aurora Jaímes, Miriam Feria, Liz Sosa, Lino Palacios-Cruz, Rosa E Ulloa
Changes to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders fifth edition (DSM-5) incorporate the inclusion or modification of six disorders: Autism Spectrum Disorder, Social Anxiety Disorder, Intermittent Explosive Disorder, Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder, Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder and Binge Eating Disorder. The objectives of this study were to assess the construct validity and parent-child agreement of these six disorders in the Spanish language Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School Age Children Present and Lifetime Version (K-SADS-PL-5) in a clinical population of children and adolescents from Latin America...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
I Baixauli-Fortea, N Gascon-Herranz, M de Carlos-Isla, C Colomer-Diago
INTRODUCTION: The 'More than Words' programme aims to enable parents to take advantage of day-to-day situations as communication learning settings, through the use of instruction in responsive-type interaction strategies. AIM: To describe the effects of this programme on the communication skills of a child with autism spectrum disorder and on the language the parents use to address him. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A three-phase design (pre-intervention, intervention and post-intervention) was employed, in which the responsive interactions of the parents and the child's communicative acts were measured...
March 1, 2018: Revista de Neurologia
P Ortiz-Sanchez, F Mulas, L Abad-Mas, P Roca, R Gandia-Beneto
INTRODUCTION: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder associated with impairments in executive function, language, emotional function, and social function. Its anatomofunctional substrate is related to a disorganization of the brain's functional connections. The aim is to investigate the cerebral connections in subjects with ASD through the analysis of the interhemispheric coherence (IHC) of the quantified electroencephalogram and its changes after dolphin assisted therapy (DAT) versus therapeutical intervention without dolphins (TIWD)...
March 1, 2018: Revista de Neurologia
V L Ruggieri, C L Arberas
INTRODUCTION: Autism spectrum disorders are neurodevelopmental dysfunctions that are characterised by deficits in social integration and communication, associated with restricted interests and stereotypic behaviour. A high percentage are related to language disorders, sensory dysfunctions, attention deficit disorder, bipolarity, intellectual disability or epilepsy, among other comorbidities. It is estimated that around 30% of children with autism, with typical early development, may present regression in the first years of life, which was already reported by Kanner in one of his original cases...
March 1, 2018: Revista de Neurologia
Calum Hartley, Sophie Fisher
This study investigated whether children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and typically developing children matched on receptive language share resources fairly and reciprocally. Children completed age-appropriate versions of the Ultimatum and Dictator Games with real stickers and an interactive partner. Both groups offered similar numbers of stickers (preferring equality over self-interest), offered more stickers in the Ultimatum Game, and verbally referenced 'fairness' at similar rates. However, children with ASD were significantly more likely to accept unfair offers and were significantly less likely to reciprocate the puppet's offers...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Mauro Mozael Hirsch, Iohanna Deckmann, Mellanie Fontes-Dutra, Guilherme Bauer-Negrini, Gustavo Della-Flora Nunes, Walquiria Nunes, Bruna Rabelo, Rudimar Riesgo, Rogerio Margis, Victorio Bambini-Junior, Carmem Gottfried
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by difficulties in social interaction, communication and language, and restricted repertoire of activities and interests. The etiology of ASD remains unknown and no clinical markers for diagnosis were identified. Environmental factors, including prenatal exposure to valproic acid (VPA), may contribute to increased risk of developing ASD. MicroRNA (miRNA) are small noncoding RNA that regulate gene expression and are frequently linked to biological processes affected in neurodevelopmental disorders...
March 3, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Amy L Harbison, Tiffany G Woynaroski, Jon Tapp, Joshua W Wade, Anne S Warlaumont, Paul J Yoder
Children's vocal development occurs in the context of reciprocal exchanges with a communication partner who models "speechlike" productions. We propose a new measure of child vocal reciprocity, which we define as the degree to which an adult vocal response increases the probability of an immediately following child vocal response. Vocal reciprocity is likely to be associated with the speechlikeness of vocal communication in young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Two studies were conducted to test the utility of the new measure...
March 6, 2018: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
Mark R Dixon, Scott H Wiggins, Jordan Belisle
The current investigation sought to extend prior research evaluating the use of the PEAK Relational Training System as a comprehensive treatment model in improving language skills demonstrated by individuals with autism. Baseline PEAK-Direct Training and Verbal Behavior Milestone Assessment and Placement Program (VB-MAPP) assessments were conducted across 3 adult male participants, and scores on the PEAK-Direct Training assessment were used to select targets for intervention. Language instruction guided by the PEAK-Direct Training module was implemented for 45 to 69 days across participants...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Chyrise B Bradley, Erica N Browne, Aimee A Alexander, Jack Collins, Jamie L Dahm, Carolyn G DiGuiseppi, Susan E Levy, Eric J Moody, Laura A Schieve, Gayle C Windham, Lisa Young, Julie L Daniels
Participant attrition can limit inferences drawn from study results and inflate research costs. We examined factors associated with completion of the Study to Explore Early Development (2007-2011), a multiple-component, case-control study of risk factors for autism spectrum disorder in preschoolers, conducted in California, Colorado, Georgia, Maryland, North Carolina, and Pennsylvania. Participants (n = 3,769) were asked to complete phone interviews, questionnaires, an in-person evaluation, and biologic sampling...
March 1, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
Fatima Saleem, Syed W Rizvi
Transgender or gender dysphoria has been defined in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), as distress resulting from the incongruence between one's experienced gender and one's assigned gender, along with a persistent and strong desire to be of another gender, and accompanied by clinically significant distress. Adolescents referred for evaluation often want hormonal therapy and several among them also express a desire for gender reassignment surgery. Furthermore, evidence shows that adolescents and adults with gender dysphoria without a sex development disorder, before gender reassignments, are at increased risk for suicide...
December 24, 2017: Curēus
Keesha L Roach, Patricia E Hershberger, Julienne N Rutherford, Robert E Molokie, Zaijie Jim Wang, Diana J Wilkie
Pain is the quintessential symptom for individuals suffering from sickle cell disease (SCD). Although the degree of suffering and the cost of treatment are staggering, SCD continues to be grossly understudied, including a lack of data for pain-related genes and prevalence of polymorphisms in this population. This lack of data adds to the inadequacy of pain therapy in this population. Pain genetics investigators have recently examined allele frequencies of single-nucleotide polymorphisms from candidate genes in people who have SCD...
March 1, 2018: Pain Management Nursing: Official Journal of the American Society of Pain Management Nurses
Rujuta B Wilson, Peter G Enticott, Nicole J Rinehart
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Motor impairments in neurodevelopmental disorders, specifically autism spectrum disorder (ASD), are prevalent and pervasive. Moreover, motor impairments may be the first sign of atypical development in ASD and likely contribute to abnormalities in social communication. However, measurement of motor function in ASD has lagged behind other behavioral phenotyping. Quantitative and neurodiagnostic measures of motor function can help identify specific motor impairments in ASD and the underlying neural mechanisms that might be implicated...
April 2018: Current Opinion in Neurology
Rose E Nevill, Luc Lecavalier, Elizabeth A Stratis
A number of studies of parent-mediated interventions in autism spectrum disorder have been published in the last 15 years. We reviewed 19 randomized clinical trials of parent-mediated interventions for children with autism spectrum disorder between the ages of 1 and 6 years and conducted a meta-analysis on their efficacy. Meta-analysis outcomes were autism spectrum disorder symptom severity, socialization, communication-language, and cognition. Quality of evidence was rated as moderate for autism spectrum disorder symptom severity, communication-language, and cognition, and very low for socialization...
February 2018: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
Pooja Patnaik Kuppili, Harshini Manohar, Vikas Menon
INTRODUCTION: Vaccines are one of the newer therapeutic modalities being researched in psychiatric illnesses with limited role of pharmacological interventions. Preclinical studies on vaccines have shown favorable results in conditions like Substance use Disorders and Alzheimer's Dementia. However, the utility of Mumps Measles Rubella vaccine has been overshadowed by controversy linked to causation of Autism. With this background, the current narrative review aimed to comprehensively and critically evaluate the current status of vaccines in Psychiatric illnesses...
February 15, 2018: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
Xia-An Bi, Yang Wang, Qing Shu, Qi Sun, Qian Xu
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is mainly reflected in the communication and language barriers, difficulties in social communication, and it is a kind of neurological developmental disorder. Most researches have used the machine learning method to classify patients and normal controls, among which support vector machines (SVM) are widely employed. But the classification accuracy of SVM is usually low, due to the usage of a single SVM as classifier. Thus, we used multiple SVMs to classify ASD patients and typical controls (TC)...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
Paul P Lerner, Laura Sharony, Chanoch Miodownik
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Vitamin D deficiency has been identified as a global problem. Approximately 14% of the world population has inadequate vitamin D levels. This vitamin has been usually associated with bone disorders such as rickets, osteomalacia, and osteoporosis. However, these disorders present only a small part of all the disturbances which can be induced by its deficiency. Low serum vitamin D is associated with development of cardiovascular diseases, hypertension, neurodegenerative diseases, diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome and even cancer...
February 2018: Clinical Nutrition ESPEN
Jennifer B Wagner, Rhiannon J Luyster, Hana Moustapha, Helen Tager-Flusberg, Charles A Nelson
A growing body of literature has begun to explore social attention in infant siblings of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) with hopes of identifying early differences that are associated with later ASD or other aspects of development. The present study used eye-tracking to familiar (mother) and unfamiliar (stranger) faces in two groups of 6-month-old infants: infants with no family history of ASD (low-risk controls; LRC), and infants at high risk for ASD (HRA), by virtue of having an older sibling with ASD...
2018: International Journal of Behavioral Development
Runa Bhaumik, Ashish Pradhan, Soptik Das, Dulal K Bhaumik
The advances in neuroimaging methods reveal that resting-state functional fMRI (rs-fMRI) connectivity measures can be potential diagnostic biomarkers for autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Recent data sharing projects help us replicating the robustness of these biomarkers in different acquisition conditions or preprocessing steps across larger numbers of individuals or sites. It is necessary to validate the previous results by using data from multiple sites by diminishing the site variations. We investigated partial least square regression (PLS), a domain adaptive method to adjust the effects of multicenter acquisition...
February 17, 2018: Neuroinformatics
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