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Pragmatics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432088/gps-and-paediatric-oncology-palliative-care-a-q-methodological-study
#1
Sue Neilson, Faith Gibson, Stephen Jeffares, Sheila M Greenfield
OBJECTIVE: This mixed-methods study set in the West Midlands region of the UK demonstrates the effectiveness of Q methodology in examining general practitioners' (GPs') perception of their role in children's oncology palliative care. METHODS: Using data obtained from the analysis of semistructured interviews with GPs who had cared for a child receiving palliative care at home and bereaved parents, 50 statements were identified as representative of the analysis findings...
April 21, 2017: BMJ Supportive & Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431815/efficacy-and-safety-of-high-dose-influenza-vaccine-in-elderly-adults-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#2
REVIEW
Krista Wilkinson, Yichun Wei, Andrea Szwajcer, Rasheda Rabbani, Ryan Zarychanski, Ahmed M Abou-Setta, Salaheddin M Mahmud
INTRODUCTION: Older adults are prioritized for influenza vaccination but also have lowered antibody responses to the vaccine. Higher-doses of influenza antigen may increase immune response and thus be more effective. Our objectives were to compare the efficacy and safety of the high-dose influenza vaccine to the standard-dose influenza vaccine in the elderly (age>65). METHODS: Data sources: Randomized trials (RCTs) from Medline (Ovid), EMBASE (Ovid), Cochrane Library (Wiley), ClinicalTrials...
April 18, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431212/dna-barcoding-and-traditional-taxonomy-an-integrated-approach-for-biodiversity-conservation
#3
Bhavisha P Sheth, Vrinda S Thaker
Biological diversity is depleting at an alarming rate. Additionally, a vast amount of biodiversity still remains undiscovered. Taxonomy has been serving the purpose of describing, naming, and classifying species for more than 250 years. DNA taxonomy and barcoding have accelerated the rate of this process, thereby providing a tool for conservation practice. DNA barcoding and traditional taxonomy have their own inherent merits and demerits. The synergistic use of both methods, in the form of integrative taxonomy, has the potential to contribute to biodiversity conservation in a pragmatic timeframe and overcome their individual drawbacks...
April 21, 2017: Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430829/effect-of-a-price-transparency-intervention-in-the-electronic-health-record-on-clinician-ordering-of-inpatient-laboratory-tests-the-price-randomized-clinical-trial
#4
Mina S Sedrak, Jennifer S Myers, Dylan S Small, Irving Nachamkin, Justin B Ziemba, Dana Murray, Gregory W Kurtzman, Jingsan Zhu, Wenli Wang, Deborah Mincarelli, Daniel Danoski, Brian P Wells, Jeffrey S Berns, Patrick J Brennan, C William Hanson, C Jessica Dine, Mitesh S Patel
Importance: Many health systems are considering increasing price transparency at the time of order entry. However, evidence of its impact on clinician ordering behavior is inconsistent and limited to single-site evaluations of shorter duration. Objective: To test the effect of displaying Medicare allowable fees for inpatient laboratory tests on clinician ordering behavior over 1 year. Design, Setting, and Participants: The Pragmatic Randomized Introduction of Cost data through the electronic health record (PRICE) trial was a randomized clinical trial comparing a 1-year intervention to a 1-year preintervention period, and adjusting for time trends and patient characteristics...
April 21, 2017: JAMA Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428165/a-framework-for-the-study-of-complex-mhealth-interventions-in-diverse-cultural-settings
#5
Marion A Maar, Karen Yeates, Nancy Perkins, Lisa Boesch, Diane Hua-Stewart, Peter Liu, Jessica Sleeth, Sheldon W Tobe
BACKGROUND: To facilitate decision-making capacity between options of care under real-life service conditions, clinical trials must be pragmatic to evaluate mobile health (mHealth) interventions under the variable conditions of health care settings with a wide range of participants. The mHealth interventions require changes in the behavior of patients and providers, creating considerable complexity and ambiguity related to causal chains. Process evaluations of the implementation are necessary to shed light on the range of unanticipated effects an intervention may have, what the active ingredients in everyday practice are, how they exert their effect, and how these may vary among recipients or between sites...
April 20, 2017: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427550/home-made-spacer-as-an-auxiliary-device-in-administration-of-beclomethasone-via-pressurized-metered-dose-inhaler-for-asthma-control-a-randomized-controlled-pragmatic-trial
#6
Deborah Schor, José Ângelo Rizzo, Decio Medeiros, Ana Carolina Dela Bianca, Almerinda Rego Silva, Carlos Nunes, Mário Morais-Almeida, Emanuel Sarinho
BACKGROUND: Holding chambers or spacers can enhance the efficacy of pressurized metered dose inhalers (pMDI) in delivering inhaled medications, as they reduce the need for hand-breath coordination and improve lower airways deposition. Nevertheless, their cost can be high for patients in low-income countries. OBJECTIVE: To compare asthma control achieved with beclomethasone-dipropionate administered through a hydrofluoroalkane-driven pMDI (BDp-pMDI) coupled to a home-made spacer (HmS) or to a valved commercial spacer (VCS) as auxiliary devices...
May 2017: Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427336/protocol-for-the-home-hazards-removal-program-harp-study-a-pragmatic-randomized-clinical-trial-and-implementation-study
#7
Susan Stark, Emily Somerville, Marian Keglovits, Jane Conte, Melody Li, Yi-Ling Hu, Yan Yan
BACKGROUND: Falls remain the leading cause of injury, long-term disability, premature institutionalization, and injury-related mortality in the older adult population. Home modifications, when delivered by occupational therapists, can reduce falls among high-risk community-dwelling older adults by 39%. However, home-modification implementation is not standard practice in the United States. The goal of the Home Hazard Removal Program (HARP) study is to implement an evidence-based home modification intervention for older adults designed to reduce the incidence of falls through an aging services network...
April 20, 2017: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426832/a-systematic-review-of-pragmatic-language-interventions-for-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#8
Lauren Parsons, Reinie Cordier, Natalie Munro, Annette Joosten, Renée Speyer
There is a need for evidence based interventions for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) to limit the life-long, psychosocial impact of pragmatic language impairments. This systematic review identified 22 studies reporting on 20 pragmatic language interventions for children with ASD aged 0-18 years. The characteristics of each study, components of the interventions, and the methodological quality of each study were reviewed. Meta-analysis was conducted to assess the effectiveness of 15 interventions...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425390/sterility-and-stability-of-diluted-carprofen-in-a-multidose-vial-in-the-laboratory-animal-setting
#9
Gregory D Simonek Gwendolyne G Alarcio And Laurie L Brignolo
Using compounded multidose vials (cMDV) is a common practice in the laboratory animal setting, where medications oftenare diluted to provide appropriate doses to rodents. However, bacterial contamination of MDV has been well establishedin both the human and veterinary medical literature. For this study, we created 14 cMDV by diluting carprofen into sterilewater (dilution, 1:10) and stored 6 cMDV each at 5 and 24 °C. The stoppers of the cMDV were not cleaned with alcohol, andall were punctured twice daily for 28 d...
April 19, 2017: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425302/probing-morphological-syntactic-and-pragmatic-knowledge-through-answers-to-wh-questions-in-children-with-sli
#10
Kelly Rombough, Rosalind Thornton
PURPOSE: This study investigated aspects of morphology, syntax and pragmatics in children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI). These areas of language were investigated by evaluating children's answers to wh-questions. METHOD: Elicited production methodology was used to evoke answers to three types of wh-questions. There were 54 participants: 18 children with SLI (mean age = 5;3); 18 language-matched children matched on mean length of utterance (mean age = 3;4) and 18 age-matched children (mean age = 5;3)...
February 14, 2017: International Journal of Speech-language Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423969/process-evaluation-of-the-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-pulse-program-randomized-controlled-trial-recruitment-engagement-and-overall-satisfaction
#11
Elroy J Aguiar, Philip J Morgan, Clare E Collins, Ronald C Plotnikoff, Myles D Young, Robin Callister
BACKGROUND: Men are underrepresented in weight loss and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) prevention studies. PURPOSE: To determine the effectiveness of recruitment, and acceptability of the T2DM Prevention Using LifeStyle Education (PULSE) Program-a gender-targeted, self-administered intervention for men. METHODS: Men (18-65 years, high risk for T2DM) were randomized to intervention ( n = 53) or wait-list control groups ( n = 48). The 6-month PULSE Program intervention focused on weight loss, diet, and exercise for T2DM prevention...
April 1, 2017: American Journal of Men's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422968/the-impact-of-a-point-of-care-testing-device-on-cvd-risk-assessment-completion-in-new-zealand-primary-care-practice-a-cluster-randomised-controlled-trial-and-qualitative-investigation
#12
Sue Wells, Natasha Rafter, Timothy Kenealy, Geoff Herd, Kyle Eggleton, Rose Lightfoot, Kim Arcus, Angela Wadham, Yannan Jiang, Chris Bullen
OBJECTIVES: To assess the effect of a point of care (POC) device for testing lipids and HbA1c in addition to testing by community laboratory facilities (usual practice) on the completion of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk assessments in general practice. METHODS: We conducted a pragmatic, cluster randomised controlled trial in 20 New Zealand general practices stratified by size and rurality and randomised to POC device plus usual practice or usual practice alone (controls)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422600/effect-of-a-school-based-supervised-tooth-brushing-program-in-mexico-city-a-cluster-randomized-intervention
#13
S Aída Borges-Yáñez, Roberto Carlos Castrejón-Pérez, María Esther Irigoyen Camacho
Large-scale school-based programs effectively provide health education and preventive strategies. SaludARTE is a school-based program, including supervised tooth brushing, implemented in 51 elementary schools in Mexico City. OBJECTIVES: To assess the three-month efficacy of supervised tooth brushing in reducing dental plaque, gingival inflammation, and bleeding on probing in schoolchildren participating in SaludARTE. STUDY DESIGN: This was a pragmatic cluster randomized intervention, with two parallel branches...
2017: Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422354/auditory-verbal-experience-and-agency-in-waking-sleep-onset-rem-and-non-rem-sleep
#14
Jana Speth, Trevor A Harley, Clemens Speth
We present one of the first quantitative studies on auditory verbal experiences ("hearing voices") and auditory verbal agency (inner speech, and specifically "talking to (imaginary) voices or characters") in healthy participants across states of consciousness. Tools of quantitative linguistic analysis were used to measure participants' implicit knowledge of auditory verbal experiences (VE) and auditory verbal agencies (VA), displayed in mentation reports from four different states. Analysis was conducted on a total of 569 mentation reports from rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, non-REM sleep, sleep onset, and waking...
April 2017: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420934/preconception-management-of-thyroid-disorders
#15
Bharti Kalra, Yashdeep Gupta, Sanjay Kalra
Thyroid function is closely interlinked with pregnancy. Maternal and foetal outcomes can be improved if optimal thyroid function is achieved, and maintained prior to conception. This needs a systematic approach which includes rational screening, appropriate management, and pragmatic counseling. This review describes pre-conception management of thyroid disorders, and completes an earlier article on preconception management of other endocrine diseases.
April 2017: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420629/dexamethasone-versus-standard-treatment-for-postoperative-nausea-and-vomiting-in-gastrointestinal-surgery-randomised-controlled-trial-dreams-trial
#16
(no author information available yet)
Objectives To determine whether preoperative dexamethasone reduces postoperative vomiting in patients undergoing elective bowel surgery and whether it is associated with other measurable benefits during recovery from surgery, including quicker return to oral diet and reduced length of stay.Design Pragmatic two arm parallel group randomised trial with blinded postoperative care and outcome assessment.Setting 45 UK hospitals.Participants 1350 patients aged 18 or over undergoing elective open or laparoscopic bowel surgery for malignant or benign pathology...
April 18, 2017: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419890/pragmatic-trial-of-a-study-navigator-model-nau-vs-ambassador-model-n-to-increase-enrollment-to-health-research-among-community-members-who-use-illicit-drugs
#17
Linda B Cottler, Catherine W Striley, Amy L Elliott, Abigail E Zulich, Evan Kwiatkowski, David R Nelson
BACKGROUND: Although drug use is common in the population, drug users are sometimes excluded from research without justification. Two models of individualized study matching were compared for effectiveness in enrolling people who "endorsed current drug use" and those who "did not" into appropriate research. METHODS: Participants in the NIDA-funded Transformative Approach to Reduce Research Disparities Towards Drug Users study (Navigation Study) were recruited through a Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) community engagement model...
April 4, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419880/trepanation-practices-in-asclepieia-systematizing-a-neurosurgerical-innovation
#18
REVIEW
Gregory Tsoucalas, Antonis A Kousoulis, Theodoros Mariolis-Sapsakos, Markos Sgantzos
As ancient Greeks started looking for deities that could fulfil the pragmatic needs of common people, local heroes started being mythologized and worshipped through cults. The most widespread such example was Asclepius, possibly a skilled war surgeon who followed military expeditions to Colchis and Troy. He was worshipped at religious temples called Asclepieia where certain specific medical and surgical techniques were followed. The most advanced must have been skull trepanation, most likely done as an acute operation to release intracranial pressure...
April 15, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419518/public-preferences-on-written-informed-consent-for-low-risk-pragmatic-clinical-trials-in-spain
#19
Rafael Dal-Ré, Antonio J Carcas, Xavier Carné, David Wendler
AIMS: Pragmatic randomized clinical trials (pRCTs) collect data that have the potential to significantly improve medical care. However, these trials may be undermined by the requirement to obtain written informed consent, which can decrease accrual and increase selection bias. Recent data suggest that the majority of the U.S. public endorses written consent for low risk pRCTs. This study was designed to assess whether this view is specific to the US. METHODS: Cross-sectional, probability-based survey, with a 2x2 factorial design, assessing support for written informed consent versus verbal consent or general notification for two low-risk pRCTs in hypertension, one comparing 2 drugs with similar risk/benefit profiles and the other comparing the same drug being taken in the morning or at night...
April 16, 2017: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417643/feeling-bad-about-progress-does-not-lead-people-want-to-change-their-health-behaviour
#20
James P Reynolds, Thomas L Webb, Yael Benn, Betty P I Chang, Paschal Sheeran
OBJECTIVE: When do people decide to do something about problematic health behaviours? Theoretical models and pragmatic considerations suggest that people should take action when they feel bad about their progress - in other words, when they experience negative progress-related affect. However, the impact of progress-related affect on goal striving has rarely been investigated. DESIGN AND METHODS: Study 1 (N = 744) adopted a cross-sectional design and examined the extent to which measures of progress-related affect were correlated with intentions to take action...
April 18, 2017: Psychology & Health
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