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Pragmatics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352829/the-who-recommendation-of-home-fortification-of-foods-with-multiple-micronutrient-powders-in-children-under-2-years-of-age-and-its-effectiveness-on-anaemia-and-weight-a-pragmatic-cluster-randomized-controlled-trial
#1
Yassinmè Elysée Somassè, Michèle Dramaix, Boncana Traoré, Ildephonse Ngabonziza, Ousmane Touré, Mamadou Konaté, Mamadou Diallo, Philippe Donnen
OBJECTIVE: To assess under real community settings the effectiveness of the WHO strategy of home fortification of foods (HFF) with multiple-micronutrient powders on Hb change, anaemia and weight in children. DESIGN: A pragmatic cluster-randomized controlled trial. SETTING: Forty villages in the Nioro Circle in Mali and 722 children aged 6-23 months were randomized to the intervention or control group. The intervention consisted of a daily dose of multiple-micronutrient powder for 3 months; in the control group, no supplement was given...
January 21, 2018: Public Health Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352414/transthoracic-echocardiographic-evaluation-of-the-heart-and-great-vessels
#2
REVIEW
André Y Denault, Stéphane Langevin, Martin R Lessard, Jean Francois Courval, Georges Desjardins
PURPOSE: Transthoracic examination of the heart and great vessels is an essential skill that allows the anesthesiologist to evaluate cardiac function. In this article, we describe a pragmatic technique to obtain the essential views to evaluate normal or abnormal cardiac function and to appreciate great vessel anatomy and physiology. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The cardiac anatomy and function can be described using standard parasternal, apical, and subcostal views. These windows can also be used to assess the aorta, pulmonary artery, and vena cavae; however, other transthoracic and abdominal windows can be used to complete the evaluation of the great vessels...
January 19, 2018: Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia, Journal Canadien D'anesthésie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351792/successful-recruitment-to-trials-findings-from-the-scimitar-trial
#3
Emily Peckham, Catherine Arundel, Della Bailey, Tracy Callen, Christina Cusack, Suzanne Crosland, Penny Foster, Hannah Herlihy, James Hope, Suzy Ker, Tayla McCloud, Crystal-Bella Romain-Hooper, Alison Stribling, Peter Phiri, Ellen Tait, Simon Gilbody
BACKGROUND: Randomised controlled trials (RCT) can struggle to recruit to target on time. This is especially the case with hard to reach populations such as those with severe mental ill health. The SCIMITAR+ trial, a trial of a bespoke smoking cessation intervention for people with severe mental ill health achieved their recruitment ahead of time and target. This article reports strategies that helped us to achieve this with the aim of aiding others recruiting from similar populations...
January 19, 2018: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351767/leading-for-the-long-haul-a-mixed-method-evaluation-of-the-sustainment-leadership-scale-sls
#4
Mark G Ehrhart, Elisa M Torres, Amy E Green, Elise M Trott, Cathleen E Willging, Joanna C Moullin, Gregory A Aarons
BACKGROUND: Despite our progress in understanding the organizational context for implementation and specifically the role of leadership in implementation, its role in sustainment has received little attention. This paper took a mixed-method approach to examine leadership during the sustainment phase of the Exploration, Preparation, Implementation, Sustainment (EPIS) framework. Utilizing the Implementation Leadership Scale as a foundation, we sought to develop a short, practical measure of sustainment leadership that can be used for both applied and research purposes...
January 19, 2018: Implementation Science: IS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350782/realism-and-pragmatism-in-a-mixed-methods-study
#5
Peter Allmark, Katarzyna Machaczek
AIM: A discussion of how adopting a Realist rather than Pragmatist methodology affects the conduct of mixed methods research. BACKGROUND: Mixed methods approaches are now extensively employed in nursing and other health care research. At the same time, realist methodology is increasingly used as philosophical underpinning of research in these areas. However, the standard philosophical underpinning of mixed methods research is Pragmatism, which is generally considered incompatible or at least at odds with Realism...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Advanced Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347952/the-german-quality-network-sepsis-study-protocol-for-the-evaluation-of-a-quality-collaborative-on-decreasing-sepsis-related-mortality-in-a-quasi-experimental-difference-in-differences-design
#6
Daniel Schwarzkopf, Hendrik Rüddel, Matthias Gründling, Christian Putensen, Konrad Reinhart
BACKGROUND: While sepsis-related mortality decreased substantially in other developed countries, mortality of severe sepsis remained as high as 44% in Germany. A recent German cluster randomized trial was not able to improve guideline adherence and decrease sepsis-related mortality within the participating hospitals, partly based on lacking support by hospital management and lacking resources for documentation of prospective data. Thus, more pragmatic approaches are needed to improve quality of sepsis care in Germany...
January 18, 2018: Implementation Science: IS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346412/a-comparative-analysis-of-preservation-techniques-for-the-optimal-molecular-detection-of-hookworm-dna-in-a-human-fecal-specimen
#7
Marina Papaiakovou, Nils Pilotte, Ben Baumer, Jessica Grant, Kristjana Asbjornsdottir, Fabian Schaer, Yan Hu, Raffi Aroian, Judd Walson, Steven A Williams
BACKGROUND: Proper collection and storage of fecal samples is necessary to guarantee the subsequent reliability of DNA-based soil-transmitted helminth diagnostic procedures. Previous research has examined various methods to preserve fecal samples for subsequent microscopic analysis or for subsequent determination of overall DNA yields obtained following DNA extraction. However, only limited research has focused on the preservation of soil-transmitted helminth DNA in stool samples stored at ambient temperature or maintained in a cold chain for extended periods of time...
January 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345242/joint-estimation-of-activity-and-attenuation-for-pet-using-pragmatic-mr-based-prior-application-to-clinical-tof-pet-mr-whole-body-data-for-fdg-and-non-fdg-tracers
#8
Sangtae Ahn, Lishui Cheng, Dattesh D Shanbhag, Hua Qian, Sandeep S Kaushik, Floris P Jansen, Florian Wiesinger
Accurate and robust attenuation correction remains challenging in hybrid PET/MR particularly for torsos because it is difficult to segment bones, lungs and internal air in MR images. Additionally, MR suffers from susceptibility artifacts when a metallic implant is present. Recently, joint estimation (JE) of activity and attenuation based on PET data, also known as maximum likelihood reconstruction of activity and attenuation (MLAA), has gained considerable interest because of (1) its promise to address the challenges in MR-based attenuation correction (MRAC), and (2) recent advances in time-of-flight (TOF) technology, which is known to be the key to the success of JE...
January 18, 2018: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344951/the-rise-of-a-novel-classification-system-for-endometrial-carcinoma-integration-of-molecular-subclasses
#9
REVIEW
Jessica McAlpine, Alicia Leon-Castillo, Tjalling Bosse
Endometrial cancer is a clinically heterogeneous disease and it is becoming increasingly clear that this heterogeneity may be a function of the diversity of the underlying molecular alterations. Recent large scale genomic studies have revealed that endometrial cancer can be divided into at least four distinct molecular subtypes, with well described underlying genomic aberrations. These subtypes can be reliably delineated and carry significant prognostic as well as predictive information; embracing and incorporating them into clinical practice is thus attractive...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342896/how-does-counselling-in-a-stationary-health-care-setting-affect-the-attendance-in-a-standardised-sports-club-programme-process-evaluation-of-a-quasi-experimental-study
#10
Sylvia Titze, Christian Lackinger, Lena Grossschaedl, Albert Strehn, Thomas E Dorner, Josef Niebauer, Wolfgang Schebesch-Ruf
Actions in partnership across sectors is one principle for the promotion of health behaviours. The objective of this study was to describe the participation in a sports club-based exercise programme-named JACKPOT-following an intervention in a health care setting. Focus was given to the recruitment into JACKPOT, the attendance level, and whether the different programme elements were implemented as intented. The practicability of the project was also retrospectively rated. Participants were 238 inactive people (50% women) between 30 and 65 years of age who attended a health resort...
January 14, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342506/effects-of-a-dash-diet-intervention-on-serum-uric-acid-in-african-americans-with-hypertension
#11
Stephen P Juraschek, Karen White, Olive Tang, Hsin-Chieh Yeh, Lisa A Cooper, Edgar R Miller
OBJECTIVE: To examine whether partially replacing one's diet with DASH-related foods in the home environment lowered uric acid (SUA). METHODS: We conducted an ancillary study in a randomized trial of African Americans with controlled hypertension from an urban clinic. Participants were assigned to either a control or intervention (DASH-Plus) group. The control group received a DASH brochure and a debit account of $30/week to purchase foods. DASH-Plus participants received coach-directed dietary advice, assistance with purchasing DASH-related foods ($30/week), and home food delivery via a community supermarket...
January 17, 2018: Arthritis Care & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337998/cognitive-mechanisms-for-inferring-the-meaning-of-novel-signals-during-symbolisation
#12
Justin Sulik
As participants repeatedly interact using graphical signals (as in a game of Pictionary), the signals gradually shift from being iconic (or motivated) to being symbolic (or arbitrary). The aim here is to test experimentally whether this change in the form of the signal implies a concomitant shift in the inferential mechanisms needed to understand it. The results show that, during early, iconic stages, there is more reliance on creative inferential processes associated with insight problem solving, and that the recruitment of these cognitive mechanisms decreases over time...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336255/fast-screening-technology-for-drug-emergency-management-predicting-suspicious-snps-for-adr-with-information-theory-based-models
#13
Zhaohui Liang, Jun Liu, Jimmy Xiangji Huang, Xing Zeng
OBJECTIVE: The genetic polymorphism of Cytochrome P450 (CYP 450) is considered as one of the main causes for adverse drug reactions (ADRs). In order to explore the latent correlations between ADRs and potentially corresponding single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) in CYP450, three algorithms based on information theory are used as the main method to predict the possible relation. METHODS: The study uses a retrospective case-control study to explore the potential relation of ADRs to specific genomic locations and single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)...
January 14, 2018: Combinatorial Chemistry & High Throughput Screening
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334957/vertebral-column-decancellation-in-pott-s-deformity-use-of-surgimap-spine-for-preoperative-surgical-planning-retrospective-review-of-18-patients
#14
Wenhao Hu, Xuesong Zhang, Jiayi Yu, Fanqi Hu, Hao Zhang, Yan Wang
BACKGROUND: In the late stage of Spinal tuberculosis, the bony destruction and vertebral collapse often leads to significant kyphosis, presenting clinically as a painful gibbus deformity, with increased instability, vertebral body translations and increased risk of neurologic involvement. Vertebral column decancellation is thought to be suitable for most patients with severe rigid kyphosis. Surgimap Spine, could offer a pragmatic graphical method for the surgical planning of osteotomies...
January 15, 2018: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333915/gaze-avoidance-and-perseverative-language-in-fragile-x-syndrome-and-autism-spectrum-disorder-brief-report
#15
Laura Friedman, Audra Sterling, Andrea Barton-Hulsey
Gaze avoidance and perseverative language impact pragmatics in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and fragile X syndrome (FXS). We examined these features during conversation samples in boys with ASD (n = 10) and boys with FXS and ASD (FXS+ASD; n = 10). Both groups had similar high rates of gaze avoidance and topic and conversation device perseverations, yet these features were not correlated with one another. Boys with FXS+ASD produced a higher proportion of single utterance perseverations. Results from this study highlight the need for future research to identify potential mechanisms influencing the presence of language perseverations and gaze avoidance...
January 15, 2018: Developmental Neurorehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331979/now-you-see-me-a-pragmatic-cohort-study-comparing-first-and-final-radiological-diagnoses-in-the-emergency-department
#16
Björn Mattsson, David Ertman, Aristomenis Konstantinos Exadaktylos, Luca Martinolli, Wolf E Hautz
OBJECTIVES: To (1) compare timely but preliminary and definitive but delayed radiological reports in a large urban level 1 trauma centre, (2) assess the clinical significance of their differences and (3) identify clinical predictors of such differences. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: We performed a retrospective record review for all 2914 patients who presented to our university affiliated emergency department (ED) during a 6-week period. In those that underwent radiological imaging, we compared the patients' discharge letter from the ED to the definitive radiological report...
January 13, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331971/a-study-protocol-for-a-non-randomised-comparison-trial-evaluating-the-feasibility-and-effectiveness-of-a-mobile-cognitive-behavioural-programme-with-integrated-coaching-for-anxious-adults-in-primary-care
#17
Eva Szigethy, Francis Solano, Meredith Wallace, Dina L Perry, Lauren Morrell, Kathryn Scott, Megan Jones Bell, Megan Oser
INTRODUCTION: Generalised anxiety disorder (GAD) and subclinical GAD are highly prevalent in primary care. Unmanaged anxiety worsens quality of life in patients seen in primary care practices and leads to increased medical utilisation and costs. Programmes that teach patients cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) techniques have been shown to improve anxiety and to prevent the evolution of anxiety symptoms to disorders, but access and engagement have hampered integration of CBT into medical settings...
January 13, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331656/effect-of-a-wearable-patient-sensor-on-care-delivery-for-preventing-pressure-injuries-in-acutely-ill-adults-a-pragmatic-randomized-clinical-trial-ls-hapi-study
#18
David Pickham, Nic Berte, Mike Pihulic, Andre Valdez, Barbara Mayer, Manisha Desai
IMPORTANCE: Though theoretically sound, studies have failed to demonstrate the benefit of routine repositioning of at-risk patients for the prevention of hospital acquired pressure injuries. OBJECTIVE: To assess the clinical effectiveness of a wearable patient sensor to improve care delivery and patient outcomes by increasing the total time with turning compliance and preventing pressure injuries in acutely ill patients. DESIGN: Pragmatic, investigator initiated, open label, single site, randomized clinical trial...
December 30, 2017: International Journal of Nursing Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330835/international-guidelines-for-groin-hernia-management
#19
(no author information available yet)
INTRODUCTION: Worldwide, more than 20 million patients undergo groin hernia repair annually. The many different approaches, treatment indications and a significant array of techniques for groin hernia repair warrant guidelines to standardize care, minimize complications, and improve results. The main goal of these guidelines is to improve patient outcomes, specifically to decrease recurrence rates and reduce chronic pain, the most frequent problems following groin hernia repair. They have been endorsed by all five continental hernia societies, the International Endo Hernia Society and the European Association for Endoscopic Surgery...
January 12, 2018: Hernia: the Journal of Hernias and Abdominal Wall Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330101/telephone-based-weight-loss-support-for-patients-with-knee-osteoarthritis-a-pragmatic-randomized-controlled-trial
#20
Kate M O'Brien, John Wiggers, Amanda Williams, Elizabeth Campbell, Rebecca K Hodder, Luke Wolfenden, Sze Lin Yoong, Emma K Robson, Robin Haskins, Steven J Kamper, Chris Rissel, Christopher M Williams
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effectiveness of telephone-based weight loss support in reducing the intensity of knee pain in patients with knee osteoarthritis, who are overweight or obese, compared to usual care. DESIGN: We conducted a parallel randomized controlled trial (RCT), embedded within a cohort multiple RCT of patients on a waiting list for outpatient orthopaedic consultation at a tertiary referral hospital in NSW, Australia. Patients with knee osteoarthritis, classified as overweight or obese (body mass index between ≥27kg/m2 and <40kg/m2) were randomly allocated to receive referral to an existing non-disease specific government funded 6-month telephone-based weight management and healthy lifestyle service or usual care...
January 9, 2018: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
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