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Pragmatics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165684/can-biomarkers-advance-hiv-research-and-care-in-the-art-era
#1
Amy C Justice, Kristine M Erlandson, Paolo G Miotti, Alan Landay, Peter W Hunt, Russell P Tracy
Despite achieving HIV-1 RNA suppression below levels of detection and, for most, improved CD4 counts, those aging with HIV experience excess low-level inflammation, hypercoagulability, and immune dysfunction (chronic inflammation) compared to demographically and behaviorally similar uninfected individuals. A host of biomarkers that are linked to chronic inflammation are also associated with HIV-associated non-AIDS events including cardiovascular disease, many forms of cancer, liver disease, renal disease, neurocognitive decline, and osteoporosis...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165000/building-better-caregivers-a-pragmatic-12-month-trial-of-a-community-based-workshop-for-caregivers-of-cognitively-impaired-adults
#2
Kate Lorig, Philip L Ritter, Diana D Laurent, Veronica Yank
Building Better Caregivers (BBC), a community 6-week, peer-led intervention, targets family caregivers of those with cognitive impairments. BBC was implemented in four geographically scattered areas. Self-report data were collected at baseline, 6 months, and 1 year. Primary outcome were caregiver strain and depression. Secondary outcomes included caregiver burden, stress, fatigue, pain, sleep, self-rated health, exercise, self-efficacy, and caregiver and care partner health care utilization. Paired t tests examined 6 month and 1-year improvements...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Applied Gerontology: the Official Journal of the Southern Gerontological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164121/a-pragmatic-study-shows-failure-of-dental-composite-fillings-is-genetically-determined-a-contribution-to-the-discussion-on-dental-amalgams
#3
Alexandre R Vieira, Marília B Silva, Kesia K A Souza, Arnôldo V A Filho, Aronita Rosenblatt, Adriana Modesto
Composite resins for posterior tooth restorations have become a viable alternative to dental amalgam. Failures sometimes cannot be easily explained, and we hypothesize that a genetic component may influence longevity of restorations. We aimed to determine if there is any evidence for a difference in the performance of amalgams versus composite resin in extensive posterior restorations. We also aimed to determine if risk factors such as age, sex, smoking tobacco, alcohol drinking, diabetes status, and periodontal health status may have a role in the failures of extensive anterior composite restorations...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163280/production-is-only-half-the-story-first-words-in-two-east-african-languages
#4
Katherine J Alcock
Theories of early learning of nouns in children's vocabularies divide into those that emphasize input (language and non-linguistic aspects) and those that emphasize child conceptualisation. Most data though come from production alone, assuming that learning a word equals speaking it. Methodological issues can mean production and comprehension data within or across input languages are not comparable. Early vocabulary production and comprehension were examined in children hearing two Eastern Bantu languages whose grammatical features may encourage early verb knowledge...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163247/how-to-dax-preschool-children-s-prosocial-behavior-but-not-their-social-norm-enforcement-relates-to-their-peer-status
#5
Markus Paulus
The current study examined correlates of preschool children's (n = 82) peer status. In particular, we assessed children's prosocial behavior, social problem behavior, norm enforcement, language abilities, and temperament. Children's prosocial behavior, pragmatic language abilities, and gender correlated with peer status. A regression analysis revealed that prosocial behavior and gender were independent predictors. There was some evidence for a mediation effect: The link between pragmatic language and peer status was mediated by prosocial behavior...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161944/a-structured-process-description-of-a-pragmatic-implementation-project-improving-integrated-care-for-older-persons-in-residential-care-homes
#6
Antonius J Poot, Claudia S de Waard, Annet W Wind, Monique A A Caljouw, Jacobijn Gussekloo
Evaluation of the implementation of integrated care can differ from trial-based research due to complexity. Therefore, we examined whether a theory-based method for process description of implementation can contribute to improvement of evidence-based care. MOVIT, a Dutch project aimed at implementing integrated care for older vulnerable persons in residential care homes, was used as a case study. The project activities were defined according to implementation taxonomy and mapped in a matrix of theoretical levels and domains...
January 2017: Inquiry: a Journal of Medical Care Organization, Provision and Financing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161758/young-athletes-health-knowledge-system-qualitative-analysis-of-health-learning-processes-in-adolescent-sportspersons
#7
Laura I Rodríguez-Serrano, Toomas Timpka, Joakim Ekberg, Örjan Dahlström, Jenny Jacobsson
Recognized side effects on health associated with sports participation in youth include overtraining, doping, and exposure to harassment and violence. Many of these effects originate in contexts where young athletes are beginning to make decisions about their sports practices on their own. This study set out to explore knowledge and reasoning about health among adolescent athletes and to describe how health knowledge management structures are associated with different social systems. Qualitative data were collected from focus groups involving 65 young Swedish athletes aged 16 to 17 years...
November 21, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161137/pragmatic-competence-of-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-impact-of-theory-of-mind-verbal-working-memory-adhd-symptoms-and-structural-language
#8
Inmaculada Baixauli-Fortea, Ana Miranda Casas, Carmen Berenguer-Forner, Carla Colomer-Diago, Belén Roselló-Miranda
The primary aim of this study is to increase the existing knowledge about the pragmatic skills of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Specifically, the study has two objectives. The first is to provide a profile of characteristics based on The Children's Communication Checklist (CCC-2) pragmatics scales (inappropriate initiation, stereotyped language, use of context, nonverbal communication, and general pragmatics) and narrative task indicators. To this end, children with ASD will be compared to children with typical development (TD), controlling the effects of sex and structural language (speech, syntax, semantics, coherence)...
November 21, 2017: Applied Neuropsychology. Child
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161113/disseminability-of-computerized-cognitive-training-performance-across-coaches
#9
Ashley S Fournier-Goodnight, Jason M Ashford, Kellie N Clark, Karen Martin-Elbahesh, Kristina K Hardy, Thomas E Merchant, Sima Jeha, Robert J Ogg, Hui Zhang, Lei Wang, Heather M Conklin
Cogmed is a computerized cognitive intervention utilizing coaches who receive standardized instruction in analyzing training indices and tailoring feedback to remotely monitor participant's performance. The goal of this study was to examine adherence, satisfaction, and efficacy of Cogmed across coaches. Survivors of pediatric brain tumors and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (N = 68) were randomized to intervention (Cogmed) or waitlist control. The intervention group was matched with one of two coaches. Cognitive assessments were completed before and after intervention, and participants and caregivers in the intervention group completed satisfaction surveys...
November 21, 2017: Applied Neuropsychology. Child
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158180/effect-of-left-lateral-tilt-down-position-on-cecal-intubation-time-a-2-center-pragmatic-randomized-controlled-trial
#10
Sheng-Bing Zhao, Xia Yang, Jun Fang, Shu-Ling Wang, Lun Gu, Tian Xia, Xiao-Ju Su, Dong Wang, Zhao-Shen Li, Yu Bai
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Colonoscopy insertion is technically challenging, time-consuming and painful, especially for the sigmoid. Several pilot studies indicated (left) tilt-down position could facilitate insertion procedure, but no formal trials have been published to demonstrate its efficacy. We performed the study to verify the benefits of left lateral tilt-down position (LTDP) on insertion process. METHODS: The two-center prospective trial (NCT02842489) randomized unsedated patients to LTDP or left lateral horizontal position (LHP) to aid insertion...
November 17, 2017: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157936/short-parietal-lobe-connections-of-the-human-and-monkey-brain
#11
Marco Catani, Naianna Robertsson, Ahmad Beyh, Vincent Huynh, Francisco de Santiago Requejo, Henrietta Howells, Rachel L C Barrett, Marco Aiello, Carlo Cavaliere, Tim B Dyrby, Kristine Krug, Maurice Ptito, Helen D'Arceuil, Stephanie J Forkel, Flavio Dell'Acqua
The parietal lobe has a unique place in the human brain. Anatomically, it is at the crossroad between the frontal, occipital, and temporal lobes, thus providing a middle ground for multimodal sensory integration. Functionally, it supports higher cognitive functions that are characteristic of the human species, such as mathematical cognition, semantic and pragmatic aspects of language, and abstract thinking. Despite its importance, a comprehensive comparison of human and simian intraparietal networks is missing...
November 2, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157273/effect-of-daikenchuto-tj-100-on-gastrointestinal-symptoms-following-laparoscopic-colectomy-in-patients-with-colon-cancer-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#12
Nobuaki Hoshino, Kenji Kawada, Koya Hida, Toshiaki Wada, Ryo Takahashi, Mami Yoshitomi, Yoshiharu Sakai
BACKGROUND: Postoperative paralytic ileus can be a difficult complication for both surgeons and patients. Causes and treatments have been discussed for more than two centuries, but have not yet been fully resolved. Daikenchuto (TJ-100, DKT) is a traditional Japanese herbal medicine. Recently, some beneficial mechanisms of DKT to relieve paralytic ileus have been reported. DKT can suppress inflammation, increase intestinal blood flow, and accelerate bowel movements. Therefore, we have designed a randomized controlled trial to investigate the effects of DKT on postoperative gastrointestinal symptoms following laparoscopic colectomy in patients with left-sided colon cancer at a single institution...
November 21, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155036/effectiveness-of-app-based-self-acupressure-for-women-with-menstrual-pain-compared-to-usual-care-a-randomized-pragmatic-trial
#13
Susanne Blödt, Daniel Pach, Sanna von Eisenhart-Rothe, Fabian Lotz, Stephanie Roll, Katja Icke, Claudia M Witt
BACKGROUND: Primary dysmenorrhea is common among women of reproductive age. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and oral contraceptives are effective treatments, although the failure rate is around 20-25%. Therefore additional evidence-based treatments are needed. In recent years, the use of smartphone applications (apps) has increased rapidly and may support individuals in self-management strategies. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate the effectiveness of app-based self-acupressure in women with menstrual pain...
November 15, 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154168/evaluating-an-e-mental-health-program-deprexis-as-adjunctive-treatment-tool-in-psychotherapy-for-depression-results-of-a-pragmatic-randomized-controlled-trial
#14
Thomas Berger, Tobias Krieger, Kerstin Sude, Björn Meyer, Andreas Maercker
BACKGROUND: Depressive disorders place a significant disease burden on individuals as well as on societies. Several web-based interventions for depression have shown to be effective in reducing depressive symptoms. However, it is not known whether web-based interventions, when used as adjunctive treatment tools to regular psychotherapy, have an additional effect compared to regular psychotherapy for depression. METHODS: Adults (N = 98) with a unipolar affective disorder were recruited in routine outpatient psychotherapy practices in Germany from therapists over the course of their initial sessions and randomized within therapists to one of two active treatment conditions: regular psychotherapy or psychotherapy plus a web-based depression program ("deprexis")...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153379/bariatric-patients-reported-motivations-for-surgery-and-their-relationship-to-weight-status-and-health
#15
Jessica C Peacock, Levi Perry, Kyle Morien
BACKGROUND: Literature on patient motivation for bariatric surgery remains limited. A few studies have examined relation to outcomes and found no established connection between motivation and weight loss. SETTING: A retrospective convenience sample of 345 participants was recruited from an obesity support website to complete an online survey. METHODS: Content analysis was used to describe motivations for surgery, and analysis of variance and covariance were completed to compare groups of participants created from the qualitative analysis on pre- and postsurgical factors like body mass index, number of co-morbidities, and percentage of excess weight loss...
October 12, 2017: Surgery for Obesity and related Diseases: Official Journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153273/women-s-experiences-of-having-depression-during-pregnancy-and-receiving-acupuncture-treatment-a-qualitative-study
#16
Simone M Ormsby, Hannah G Dahlen, Caroline A Smith
BACKGROUND: Research indicates some women experiencing depression during pregnancy are dissatisfied with conventional depression treatments due to incomplete effectiveness, dislike of side effects, unsatisfactory experiences with providers and concerns regarding in-utero and breastfeeding safety. Consequently, many explore alternative options including acupuncture. To further understand women's views, preferences and motivations in this regard, as well as their experiences of receiving acupuncture as part of a three-armed pragmatic randomised controlled trial evaluating acupuncture for antenatal depression in Sydney, Australia, in-depth interviews were conducted with a group of acupuncture recipients...
November 15, 2017: Women and Birth: Journal of the Australian College of Midwives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152633/conformational-collapse-of-spherical-poly-n-isopropylacrylamide-brushes-under-the-constraint-of-bound-micelles
#17
Peng-Wei Zhu, Luguang Chen
In this paper, we investigate the micelle (charge)-constrained collapse of a spherical poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) brush. The system is an example of the transition of a short-length neutral polymer from a stretched state to a folded state under the constraint of long-range electrostatic repulsion. The collapsed state is described as an anisotropic globule comprising a cascade of rod-like or hairpin bundles. A critical aggregation number of bound micelles is obtained to distinguish the charge-induced deformation of the globule, which provides a guideline to characterize globule dimensions under different strengths of electrostatic interaction...
November 20, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150419/adapting-clinical-guidelines-in-india-a-pragmatic-approach
#18
Abha Mehndiratta, Sangeeta Sharma, Nikhil Prakash Gupta, Mari Jeeva Sankar, Francoise Cluzeau
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 17, 2017: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149793/improving-quality-of-work-life-for-care-providers-by-fostering-the-emotional-well-being-of-persons-with-dementia-a-cluster-randomized-trial-of-a-nursing-intervention-in-german-long-term-care-settings
#19
Charlotte Berendonk, Roman Kaspar, Marion Bär, Matthias Hoben
We tested the feasibility of a nursing intervention (DEMIAN) in routine care and its effects on care providers' job satisfaction, motivation, and work strain. This cluster-randomized trial was conducted in 20 German long-term care facilities. We randomly assigned 20 facilities to an intervention group (84 care providers, 42 residents with dementia) or a control group (96 care providers, 42 residents with dementia). Intervention group providers received two training days on the intervention; 68 providers attended both training days...
January 1, 2017: Dementia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149163/-recommandation-for-patient-engagement-promotion-in-care-and-cure-for-chronic-conditions
#20
Guendalina Graffigna, Serena Barello, Giuseppe Riva, Gianluca Castelnuovo, Massimo Corbo, Liliana Coppola, Giovanni Daverio, Alice Fauci, Primiano Iannone, Walter Ricciardi, Albino Claudio Bosio
The concept of patient engagement is receiving a growing attention in the healthcare field. The last decades have seen a deep revision of care models in the aim of a greater acknowledge of the patient role, seen as an expert actor, in the healthcare process. On the other side, healthcare systems are facing a growing request for participation expressed by citizens and patients. People claim for being more involved in all the crucial turning point of their healthcare journey and of being better aware of their right and duties...
November 2017: Recenti Progressi in Medicina
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