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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920377/phenological-shifts-of-native-and-invasive-species-under-climate-change-insights-from-the-boechera-lythrum-model
#1
REVIEW
Robert I Colautti, Jon Ågren, Jill T Anderson
Warmer and drier climates have shifted phenologies of many species. However, the magnitude and direction of phenological shifts vary widely among taxa, and it is often unclear when shifts are adaptive or how they affect long-term viability. Here, we model evolution of flowering phenology based on our long-term research of two species exhibiting opposite shifts in floral phenology: Lythrum salicaria, which is invasive in North America, and the sparse Rocky Mountain native Boechera stricta Genetic constraints are similar in both species, but differences in the timing of environmental conditions that favour growth lead to opposite phenological shifts under climate change...
January 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909817/phylogenetic-structure-of-arbuscular-mycorrhizal-fungal-communities-along-an-elevation-gradient
#2
Cameron P Egan, Ragan M Callaway, Miranda M Hart, Jason Pither, John Klironomos
Despite the importance of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi within terrestrial ecosystems, we know little about how natural AM fungal communities are structured. To date, the majority of studies examining AM fungal community diversity have focused on single habitats with similar environmental conditions, with relatively few studies having assessed the diversity of AM fungi over large-scale environmental gradients. In this study, we characterized AM fungal communities in the soil along a high-elevation gradient in the North American Rocky Mountains...
December 1, 2016: Mycorrhiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907209/correction-climate-demography-and-zoogeography-predict-introgression-thresholds-in-salmonid-hybrid-zones-in-rocky-mountain-streams
#3
(no author information available yet)
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0163563.].
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902732/predictors-of-current-and-longer-term-patterns-of-abundance-of-american-pikas-ochotona-princeps-across-a-leading-edge-protected-area
#4
Lucas Moyer-Horner, Erik A Beever, Douglas H Johnson, Mark Biel, Jami Belt
American pikas (Ochotona princeps) have been heralded as indicators of montane-mammal response to contemporary climate change. Pikas no longer occupy the driest and lowest-elevation sites in numerous parts of their geographic range. Conversely, pikas have exhibited higher rates of occupancy and persistence in Rocky Mountain and Sierra Nevada montane 'mainlands'. Research and monitoring efforts on pikas across the western USA have collectively shown the nuance and complexity with which climate will often act on species in diverse topographic and climatic contexts...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901296/novel-forest-decline-triggered-by-multiple-interactions-among-climate-an-introduced-pathogen-and-bark-beetles
#5
Carmen M Wong, Lori D Daniels
Novel forest decline is increasing due to global environmental change, yet the causal factors and their interactions remain poorly understood. Using tree ring analyses, we show how climate and multiple biotic factors caused the decline of whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) in 16 stands in the southern Canadian Rockies. In our study area, 72% of whitebark pines were dead and 18% had partially dead crowns. Tree mortality peaked in the 1970s; however, the annual basal area increment of disturbed trees began to decline significantly in the late 1940s...
November 5, 2016: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898859/regional-and-seasonal-analyses-of-weights-in-growing-angus-cattle
#6
H L Bradford, B O Fragomeni, J K Bertrand, D A L Lourenco, I Misztal
This study evaluated the impact of region and season on growth in Angus seed stock. To assess geographic differences, the United States was partitioned into 9 regions based on similar climate and topography related to cow-calf production. Seasonal effects were associated with the month that animals were weighed. The American Angus Association provided growth data, and records were assigned to regions based on the owner's zip code. Most Angus cattle were in the Cornbelt, Lower Plains, Rocky Mountain, Upper Plains, and Upper South regions, with proportionally fewer Angus in Texas compared with the national cow herd...
October 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880753/notes-from-the-field-community-based-prevention-of-rocky-mountain-spotted-fever-sonora-mexico-2016
#7
Anne Straily, Naomi Drexler, Denica Cruz-Loustaunau, Christopher D Paddock, Gerardo Alvarez-Hernandez
Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF), a life-threatening tickborne zoonosis caused by Rickettsia rickettsii, is a reemerging disease in Mexico (1,2). R. rickettsii is an intracellular bacterium that infects vascular endothelium and can cause multisystem organ failure and death in the absence of timely administration of a tetracycline-class antibiotic, typically doxycycline. Epidemic RMSF, as described in parts of Arizona and Mexico, is associated with massive local infestations of the brown dog tick (Rhiphicephalus sanguineus sensu lato) on domestic dogs and in peridomestic settings that result in high rates of human exposure; for example, during 2003-2012, in Arizona the incidence of RMSF in the three most highly affected communities was 150 times the U...
November 25, 2016: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878097/population-genetic-isolation-and-limited-connectivity-in-the-purple-finch-haemorhous-purpureus
#8
Colin Bran Alexander Macfarlane, Libby Natola, Mike W Brown, Theresa M Burg
Using a combination of mitochondrial and z-linked sequences, microsatellite data, and spatio-geographic modeling, we examined historical and contemporary factors influencing the population genetic structure of the purple finch (Haemorhous purpureus). Mitochondrial DNA data show the presence of two distinct groups corresponding to the two subspecies, H. p. purpureus and H. p. californicus. The two subspecies likely survived in separate refugia during the last glacial maximum, one on the Pacific Coast and one east of the Rocky Mountains, and now remain distinct lineages with little evidence of gene flow between them...
November 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862701/climate-induced-glacier-and-snow-loss-imperils-alpine-stream-insects
#9
J Joseph Giersch, Scott Hotaling, Ryan P Kovach, Leslie A Jones, Clint C Muhlfeld
Climate warming is causing rapid loss of glaciers and snowpack in mountainous regions worldwide. These changes are predicted to negatively impact the habitats of many range-restricted species, particularly endemic, mountaintop species dependent on the unique thermal and hydrologic conditions found only in glacier-fed and snowmelt-driven alpine streams. Though progress has been made, existing understanding of the status, distribution, and ecology of alpine aquatic species, particularly in North America, is lacking, thereby hindering conservation and management programs...
November 14, 2016: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861477/-complications-and-cause-of-death-in-mexican-children-with-rocky-mountain-spotted-fever
#10
Miguel Ángel Martínez-Medina, Adela Rascón-Alcantar
BACKGROUND: Rocky Mountain spotted fever is a life threatening disease caused by Rickettsia rickettsia, characterized by multisystem involvement. METHODS: We studied 19 dead children with Rocky Mountain spotted fever. All children who were suspected of having rickettsial infections were defined as having Rocky Mountain spotted fever by serology test and clinical features. Through the analysis of each case, we identified the clinical profile and complications associated to the death of a patient...
November 2016: Gaceta Médica de México
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860509/the-natural-history-of-the-south-hills-crossbill-in-relation-to-its-impending-extinction
#11
Craig W Benkman
Increasingly, the species that we discover will be uncommon, area restricted, and vulnerable to extinction. I describe the natural history of a newly discovered seed-eating finch from the Rocky Mountain region, the South Hills crossbill (Loxia curvirostra complex). It relies on seeds in the closed cones of the fire-adapted Rocky Mountain lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta latifolia) and is found only in the higher elevations of two small mountain ranges in southern Idaho. Here crossbills and pine are engaged in a coevolutionary arms race...
December 2016: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859087/burn-me-twice-shame-on-who-interactions-between-successive-forest-fires-across-a-temperate-mountain-region
#12
Brian J Harvey, Daniel C Donato, Monica G Turner
Increasing rates of natural disturbances under a warming climate raise important questions about how multiple disturbances interact. Escalating wildfire activity in recent decades has resulted in some forests re-burning in short succession, but how the severity of one wildfire affects that of a subsequent wildfire is not fully understood. We used a field-validated, satellite-derived, burn-severity atlas to assess interactions between successive wildfires across the US Northern Rocky Mountains a 300,000-km(2) region dominated by fire-prone forests...
September 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853569/whence-the-beardogs-reappraisal-of-the-middle-to-late-eocene-miacis-from-texas-usa-and-the-origin-of-amphicyonidae-mammalia-carnivora
#13
Susumu Tomiya, Zhijie Jack Tseng
The Middle to Late Eocene sediments of Texas have yielded a wealth of fossil material that offers a rare window on a diverse and highly endemic mammalian fauna from that time in the southern part of North America. These faunal data are particularly significant because the narrative of mammalian evolution in the Paleogene of North America has traditionally been dominated by taxa that are known from higher latitudes, primarily in the Rocky Mountain and northern Great Plains regions. Here we report on the affinities of two peculiar carnivoraforms from the Chambers Tuff of Trans-Pecos, Texas, that were first described 30 years ago as Miacis cognitus and M...
October 2016: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27828980/climate-demography-and-zoogeography-predict-introgression-thresholds-in-salmonid-hybrid-zones-in-rocky-mountain-streams
#14
Michael K Young, Daniel J Isaak, Kevin S McKelvey, Taylor M Wilcox, Daniel M Bingham, Kristine L Pilgrim, Kellie J Carim, Matthew R Campbell, Matthew P Corsi, Dona L Horan, David E Nagel, Michael K Schwartz
Among the many threats posed by invasions of nonnative species is introgressive hybridization, which can lead to the genomic extinction of native taxa. This phenomenon is regarded as common and perhaps inevitable among native cutthroat trout and introduced rainbow trout in western North America, despite that these taxa naturally co-occur in some locations. We conducted a synthetic analysis of 13,315 genotyped fish from 558 sites by building logistic regression models using data from geospatial stream databases and from 12 published studies of hybridization to assess whether environmental covariates could explain levels of introgression between westslope cutthroat trout and rainbow trout in the U...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815656/efficacy-of-tagetes-minuta-asteraceae-essential-oil-against-rhipicephalus-sanguineus-acari-ixodidae-on-infested-dogs-and-in-vitro
#15
Elis Maressa Gonçalves da Silva, Vinicius da Silva Rodrigues, Jaciara de Oliveira Jorge, Carolina Fonseca Osava, Matias Pablo Juan Szabó, Marcos Valério Garcia, Renato Andreotti
Ticks from Rhipicephalus sanguineus complex are widely distributed in the world and one species from this complex is the most common tick on dogs in Brazil, notably in urban areas. This tick is a vector of several diseases. Among others it transmits the agent of canine Ehrlichiosis, a major dog infectious disease and the agent of Rocky Mountain spotted fever. This tick can spread rapidly and develop intolerable infestations within no time. Currently tick control is done with acaricides and demand for such drugs has grown fast...
November 4, 2016: Experimental & Applied Acarology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27808070/geographic-eponyms-a-history-of-geography-in-medicine
#16
Maharra Hussain, Sanjay A Pai
Geographic eponyms have commonly been used in medical terminology, with diseases and medical entities being named after the place where the condition was discovered (e.g. Bombay Blood group) or invented (Jaipur Foot) or where the disease was first detected (Rocky Mountain Spotted fever) or where a consensus meeting has been held (Banff) or for other reasons (Argentina flag, Congo red stain). In 2015, the WHO decided to adopt a politically correct method to name infectious diseases in the future. We illustrate, in verse form, some of the places that have been used in medical terminology, over the centuries...
May 2016: National Medical Journal of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802293/implementation-of-novel-design-features-for-qpcr-based-edna-assessment
#17
Nik Veldhoen, Jared Hobbs, Georgios Ikonomou, Michael Hii, Mary Lesperance, Caren C Helbing
Environmental stewardship requires timely, accurate information related to the status of a given ecosystem and the species that occupy it. Recent advances in the application of the highly sensitive real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) towards identification of constituents within environmental DNA (eDNA) now allow targeted detection of the presence of species-specific biological material within a localized geographic region. However, as with all molecular techniques predicated on the specificity and sensitivity of the PCR assay, careful validation of each eDNA qPCR assay in development must be performed both under controlled laboratory conditions and when challenged with field-derived eDNA samples...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797954/comparative-phylogenomic-assessment-of-mitochondrial-introgression-among-several-species-of-chipmunks-tamias
#18
Brice A J Sarver, John R Demboski, Jeffrey M Good, Nicholas Forshee, Samuel S Hunter, Jack Sullivan
Many species are not completely reproductively isolated, resulting in hybridization and genetic introgression. Organellar genomes, such as those derived from mitochondria (mtDNA) and chloroplasts, introgress frequently in natural systems; however, the forces shaping patterns of introgression are not always clear. Here, we investigate extensive mtDNA introgression in western chipmunks, focusing on species in the Tamias quadrivittatus group from the central and southern Rocky Mountains. Specifically, we investigate the role of selection in driving patterns of introgression...
October 26, 2016: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27782797/fine-scale-assessment-of-genetic-diversity-of-trembling-aspen-in-northwestern-north-america
#19
Mathieu Latutrie, Yves Bergeron, Francine Tremblay
BACKGROUND: In North America, the last ice age is the most recent event with severe consequences on boreal species' ranges. Phylogeographic patterns of range expansion in trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides) suggested that Beringia is likely to be a refugium and the "ice-free corridor" in Alberta may represent a region where small populations persisted during the last glacial maximum (LGM). The purpose of this study was to ascertain whether the origins of trembling aspen in western North America are reflected in the patterns of neutral genetic diversity and population structure...
October 26, 2016: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780227/climate-risk-modelling-of-balsam-woolly-adelgid-damage-severity-in-subalpine-fir-stands-of-western-north-america
#20
Kathryn H Hrinkevich, Robert A Progar, David C Shaw
The balsam woolly adelgid (Adelges piceae (Ratzeburg) (Homoptera: Adelgidae)) (BWA) is a nonnative, invasive insect that threatens Abies species throughout North America. It is well established in the Pacific Northwest, but continues to move eastward through Idaho and into Montana and potentially threatens subalpine fir to the south in the central and southern Rocky Mountains. We developed a climatic risk model and map that predicts BWA impacts to subalpine fir using a two-step process. Using 30-year monthly climate normals from sites with quantitatively derived BWA damage severity index values, we built a regression model that significantly explained insect damage...
2016: PloS One
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