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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981540/density-dependent-signaling-an-alternative-hypothesis-on-the-function-of-chemical-signaling-in-a-non-territorial-solitary-carnivore
#1
Clayton T Lamb, Garth Mowat, Sophie L Gilbert, Bruce N McLellan, Scott E Nielsen, Stan Boutin
Brown bears are known to use rubbing behavior as a means of chemical communication, but the function of this signaling is unclear. One hypothesis that has gained support is that male bears rub to communicate dominance to other males. We tested the communication of dominance hypothesis in a low-density brown bear population in southeast British Columbia. We contrasted rubbing rates for male and female bears during and after the breeding season using ten years of DNA-mark-recapture data for 643 individuals. Here we demonstrate that male brown bears rub 60% more during the breeding than the non-breeding season, while female rubbing had no seasonal trends...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977770/corynebacterium-pseudotuberculosis-and-copper-deficiency-in-a-male-rocky-mountain-bighorn-sheep-ovis-canadensis-canadensis-in-utah-usa
#2
E Jane Kelly, Annette Roug, Covy Jones, Josee Seamons, Jeffery O Hall
In 2015, an emaciated Rocky Mountain bighorn (Ovis canadensis) ram was submitted to the Utah Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory for necropsy. There were numerous thick-walled abscesses subcutaneously and internally, and Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis was isolated in pure culture. In addition, the ram was severely copper deficient, with a liver copper concentration of 1.6 mg/kg.
October 4, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28962029/developing-a-degree-day-model-to-predict-billbug-coleoptera-curculionidae-seasonal-activity-in-utah-and-idaho-turfgrass
#3
Madeleine M Dupuy, James A Powell, Ricardo A Ramirez
Billbugs are native pests of turfgrass throughout North America, primarily managed with preventive, calendar-based insecticide applications. An existing degree-day model (lower development threshold of 10°C, biofix 1 March) developed in the eastern United States for bluegrass billbug, Sphenophorus parvulus (Gyllenhal; Coleoptera: Curculionidae), may not accurately predict adult billbug activity in the western United States, where billbugs occur as a species complex. The objectives of this study were 1) to track billbug phenology and species composition in managed Utah and Idaho turfgrass and 2) to evaluate model parameters that best predict billbug activity, including those of the existing bluegrass billbug model...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961914/milkweed-matters-monarch-butterfly-lepidoptera-nymphalidae-survival-and-development-on-nine-midwestern-milkweed-species
#4
V M Pocius, D M Debinski, J M Pleasants, K G Bidne, R L Hellmich, L P Brower
The population of monarch butterflies east of the Rocky Mountains has experienced a significant decline over the past 20 yr. In order to increase monarch numbers in the breeding range, habitat restoration that includes planting milkweed plants is essential. Milkweeds in the genus Asclepias and Cynanchum are the only host plants for larval monarch butterflies in North America, but larval performance and survival across nine milkweeds native to the Midwest is not well documented. We examined development and survival of monarchs from first-instar larval stages to adulthood on nine milkweed species native to Iowa...
September 7, 2017: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961911/3-methylcyclohex-2-en-1-one-for-area-and-individual-tree-protection-against-spruce-beetle-coleoptera-curculionidae-scolytinae-attack-in-the-southern-rocky-mountains
#5
E Matthew Hansen, A Steven Munson, Darren C Blackford, Andrew D Graves, Tom W Coleman, L Scott Baggett
We tested 3-methylcyclohex-2-en-1-one (MCH) and an Acer kairomone blend (AKB) as repellent semiochemicals for area and single tree protection to prevent spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis Kirby) attacks at locations in Utah and New Mexico. In the area protection study, we compared host infestation rates of MCH applications at three densities (20, 40, and 80 g MCH ha-1) against a control treatment over 0.64 ha plots centered within ~1.25 ha treatment blocks. All treatments included two baited funnel traps within the plot to assure spruce beetle pressure...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930006/fatal-rocky-mountain-spotted-fever-along-the-united-states-mexico-border-2013-2016
#6
Naomi A Drexler, Hayley Yaglom, Mariana Casal, Maria Fierro, Paula Kriner, Brian Murphy, Anne Kjemtrup, Christopher D Paddock
Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) is an emerging public health concern near the US-Mexico border, where it has resulted in thousands of cases and hundreds of deaths in the past decade. We identified 4 patients who had acquired RMSF in northern Mexico and subsequently died at US healthcare facilities. Two patients sought care in Mexico before being admitted to US-based hospitals. All patients initially had several nonspecific signs and symptoms, including fever, headache, nausea, vomiting, or myalgia, but deteriorated rapidly without receipt of a tetracycline-class antimicrobial drug...
October 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929088/microbial-invasion-vs-tick-immune-regulation
#7
REVIEW
Daniel E Sonenshine, Kevin R Macaluso
Ticks transmit a greater variety of pathogenic agents that cause disease in humans and animals than any other haematophagous arthropod, including Lyme disease, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, human granulocytic anaplasmosis, babesiosis, tick-borne encephalitis, Crimean Congo haemorhagic fever, and many others (Gulia-Nuss et al., 2016). Although diverse explanations have been proposed to explain their remarkable vectorial capacity, among the most important are their blood feeding habit, their long term off-host survival, the diverse array of bioactive molecules that disrupt the host's natural hemostatic mechanisms, facilitate blood flow, pain inhibitors, and minimize inflammation to prevent immune rejection (Hajdušek et al...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904955/dental-hygiene-and-orthodontics-effect-of-ultrasonic-instrumentation-on-bonding-efficacy-of-different-lingual-orthodontic-brackets
#8
Andrea Scribante, Maria Francesca Sfondrini, Vittorio Collesano, Gaia Tovt, Luisa Bernardinelli, Paola Gandini
Dental hygienists are often faced with patients wearing lingual orthodontic therapy, as ultrasonic instrumentation (UI) is crucial for oral health. As the application of external forces can lead to premature bonding failure, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of UI on shear bond strength (SBS) and on adhesive remnant index (ARI) of different lingual orthodontic brackets. 200 bovine incisors were divided into 10 groups. Four different lingual (STB, Ormco; TTR, Rocky Mountain Orthodontics; Idea, Leone; 2D, Forestadent) and vestibular control (Victory, 3M) brackets were bonded...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884406/similarities-and-differences-in-barriers-and-opportunities-affecting-climate-change-adaptation-action-in-four-north-american-landscapes
#9
Whitney R Lonsdale, Heidi E Kretser, Cheryl-Lesley B Chetkiewicz, Molly S Cross
Climate change presents a complex set of challenges for natural resource managers across North America. Despite recognition that climate change poses serious threats to species, ecosystems, and human communities, implementation of adaptation measures is not yet happening on a broad scale. Among different regions, a range of climate change trajectories, varying political contexts, and diverse social and ecological systems generate a myriad of factors that can affect progress on climate change adaptation implementation...
September 7, 2017: Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863253/tick-talk-tick-borne-diseases-of-south-dakota
#10
Mark K Huntington, Jay Allison
In addition to being a nuisance, ticks can carry disease. This article presents a brief review of ticks and associated tick-borne disease relevant to South Dakota and surrounding regions. Tick-borne diseases of special relevance in South Dakota include tularemia, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, and Lyme disease. A number of others may also be encountered in the state as well. Prompt treatment of suspected cases is important to ensure a successful recovery, and tick-avoidance measures can reduce the risks of acquiring them...
September 2017: South Dakota Medicine: the Journal of the South Dakota State Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861545/transgender-noninclusive-healthcare-and-delaying-care-because-of-fear-connections-to-general-health-and-mental-health-among-transgender-adults
#11
Kristie L Seelman, Matthew J P Colón-Diaz, Rebecca H LeCroix, Marik Xavier-Brier, Leonardo Kattari
Purpose: There are many barriers to reliable healthcare for transgender people that often contribute to delaying or avoiding needed medical care. Yet, few studies have examined whether noninclusive healthcare and delaying needed medical care because of fear of discrimination are associated with poorer health among transgender adults. This study aims to address these gaps in the knowledge base. Methods: This study analyzed secondary data from a statewide survey of 417 transgender adults in the Rocky Mountain region of the United States...
2017: Transgender Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854268/apparent-climate-mediated-loss-and-fragmentation-of-core-habitat-of-the-american-pika-in-the-northern-sierra-nevada-california-usa
#12
Joseph A E Stewart, David H Wright, Katherine A Heckman
Contemporary climate change has been widely documented as the apparent cause of range contraction at the edge of many species distributions but documentation of climate change as a cause of extirpation and fragmentation of the interior of a species' core habitat has been lacking. Here, we report the extirpation of the American pika (Ochotona princeps), a temperature-sensitive small mammal, from a 165-km2 area located within its core habitat in California's Sierra Nevada mountains. While sites surrounding the area still maintain pikas, radiocarbon analyses of pika fecal pellets recovered within this area indicate that former patch occupancy ranges from before 1955, the beginning of the atmospheric spike in radiocarbon associated with above ground atomic bomb testing, to c...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28839949/comparison-of-fingolimod-and-dimethyl-fumarate-in-the-treatment-of-multiple-sclerosis-two-year-experience
#13
Brandi Vollmer, Kavita V Nair, Stefan H Sillau, John Corboy, Timothy Vollmer, Enrique Alvarez
BACKGROUND: Fingolimod (FTY) and dimethyl fumarate (DMF) are multiple sclerosis (MS) oral therapies that became available in 2010 and 2013, respectively. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this article is to compare discontinuation rates, efficacy, and adverse events (AEs) of FTY and DMF over two years. METHODS: Patients prescribed FTY or DMF at the Rocky Mountain MS Center at University of Colorado prior to October 2013 were identified. Clinician-reported data were retrospectively collected...
July 2017: Multiple Sclerosis Journal—Experimental, Translational and Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822927/comparative-ozone-responses-of-cutleaf-coneflowers-rudbeckia-laciniata-var-digitata-var-ampla-from-rocky-mountain-and-great-smoky-mountains-national-parks-usa
#14
Howard S Neufeld, Jennifer Johnson, Robert Kohut
Cutleaf coneflower (Rudbeckia laciniata L. var. digitata) is native to Great Smoky Mountains National Park (GRSM) and an ozone bioindicator species. Variety ampla, whose ozone sensitivity is less well known, is native to Rocky Mountain National Park (ROMO). In the early 2000s, researchers found putative ozone symptoms on var. ampla and rhizomes were sent to Appalachian State University to verify that the symptoms were the result of ozone exposure. In 2011, potted plants were exposed to ambient ozone from May to August...
January 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809152/whole-genome-sequences-of-odocoileus-hemionus-deer-adenovirus-isolates-from-deer-moose-and-elk-are-highly-conserved-and-support-a-new-species-in-the-genus-atadenovirus
#15
Myrna M Miller, Todd E Cornish, Terry E Creekmore, Karen Fox, Will Laegreid, Jennifer McKenna, Marce Vasquez, Leslie W Woods
We present the first complete genome sequence of Odocoileus hemionus deer adenovirus 1 (OdAdV-1). This virus can cause sporadic haemorrhagic disease in cervids, although epizootics with high mortality have occurred in California. OdAdV-1 has been placed in the genus Atadenovirus, based on partial hexon, pVIII and fibre genes. Ten field isolates recovered from naturally infected mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginiana) and moose (Alces alces) from Wyoming, black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus) from California, and Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) from Colorado and Washington state were sequenced...
September 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802078/geographical-features-are-the-predominant-driver-of-molecular-diversification-in-widely-distributed-north-american-whipsnakes
#16
Kyle A O'Connell, Jeffrey W Streicher, Eric N Smith, Matthew K Fujita
Allopatric divergence following the formation of geographical features has been implicated as a major driver of evolutionary diversification. Widespread species complexes provide opportunities to examine allopatric divergence across varying degrees of isolation in both time and space. In North America, several geographical features may play such a role in diversification, including the Mississippi River, Pecos River, Rocky Mountains, Cochise Filter Barrier, Gulf of California, and Isthmus of Tehuantepec. We used thousands of nuclear single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and mitochondrial DNA from several species of whipsnakes (genera Masticophis and Coluber) distributed across North and Central America to investigate the role that these geographical features have played on lineage divergence...
August 12, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783058/evolution-of-diagnostic-tests-for-chronic-wasting-disease-a-naturally-occurring-prion-disease-of-cervids
#17
REVIEW
Nicholas J Haley, Jürgen A Richt
Since chronic wasting disease (CWD) was first identified nearly 50 years ago in a captive mule deer herd in the Rocky Mountains of the United States, it has slowly spread across North America through the natural and anthropogenic movement of cervids and their carcasses. As the endemic areas have expanded, so has the need for rapid, sensitive, and cost effective diagnostic tests-especially those which take advantage of samples collected antemortem. Over the past two decades, strategies have evolved from the recognition of microscopic spongiform pathology and associated immunohistochemical staining of the misfolded prion protein to enzyme-linked immunoassays capable of detecting the abnormal prion conformer in postmortem samples...
August 5, 2017: Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777802/evidence-of-compounded-disturbance-effects-on-vegetation-recovery-following-high-severity-wildfire-and-spruce-beetle-outbreak
#18
Amanda R Carlson, Jason S Sibold, Timothy J Assal, Jose F Negrón
Spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis) outbreaks are rapidly spreading throughout subalpine forests of the Rocky Mountains, raising concerns that altered fuel structures may increase the ecological severity of wildfires. Although many recent studies have found no conclusive link between beetle outbreaks and increased fire size or canopy mortality, few studies have addressed whether these combined disturbances produce compounded effects on short-term vegetation recovery. We tested for an effect of spruce beetle outbreak severity on vegetation recovery in the West Fork Complex fire in southwestern Colorado, USA, where much of the burn area had been affected by severe spruce beetle outbreaks in the decade prior to the fire...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769677/a-review-of-the-flea-genus-phalacropsylla-rothschild-1915-siphonaptera-ctenophthalmidae-neopsyllinae-phalacropsyllini-with-new-host-and-distributional-records
#19
Roxana Acosta, Michael W Hastriter
A redescription of the genus Phalacropsylla Rothschild is provided. Six species are recognized: Phalacropsylla allos Wagner, P. hamata Tipton and Mendez, P. morlani Eads and Campos, P. nivalis Barrera and Traub, P. oregonensis Lewis and Maser, and P. paradisea Rothschild. Phalacropsylla hamata is designated herein as a junior synonym of P. paradisea. The distribution of P. paradisea is more extensive than previously thought, extending from Arizona through southern Colorado, into New Mexico, Texas, and northern Mexico (State of Nuevo León)...
2017: ZooKeys
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764251/rickettsial-fever-presenting-with-gangrene-a-case-series
#20
Arun Prasannan, Premalatha Ramaswamy, Vinitha K Anirudhan
Rickettsial diseases comprise a wide spectrum of diseases which are reported from different parts of India quiet long ago. Many cases of rickettsial diseases go undiagnos due to lack of diagnostic techniques and the reported incidence and prevalence may be an underestimation of the actual burden of the disease. A higher index of suspicion, clinical awareness and proper use of available diagnostic tools would increase the frequency of diagnosis. Gangrene is an uncommon complication in cases of rickettsial fever...
June 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
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