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Analgesics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453978/venlafaxine-prevents-morphine-antinociceptive-tolerance-the-role-of-neuroinflammation-and-the-l-arginine-nitric-oxide-pathway
#1
Mohammad Taghi Mansouri, Bahareh Naghizadeh, Behnam Ghorbanzadeh, Soheila Alboghobeish, Neda Amirgholami, Gholamreza Houshmand, Omar Cauli
Opioid-induced neuroinflammation and the nitric oxide (NO) signal-transduction pathway are involved in the development of opioid analgesic tolerance. The antidepressant venlafaxine (VLF) modulates NO in nervous tissues, and so we investigated its effect on induced tolerance to morphine, neuroinflammation, and oxidative stress in mice. Tolerance to the analgesic effects of morphine were induced by injecting mice with morphine (50 mg/kg) once a day for three consecutive days; the effect of co-administration of VLF (5 or 40 mg/kg) with morphine was similarly tested in a separate group...
February 14, 2018: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453833/ketamine-induces-apoptosis-in-lung-adenocarcinoma-cells-by-regulating-the-expression-of-cd69
#2
Xuhui Zhou, Peihong Zhang, Wei Luo, Lei Zhang, Rong Hu, Yu Sun, Hong Jiang
Ketamine, an anesthetic, analgesic, or sedative, is widely used for the treatment of cancer pain. Recently, ketamine has been also reported to be tumor repressor for inhibiting proliferation, invasion, and migration, and inducing apoptosis in many cancers. However, whether ketamine can induce the apoptosis of lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) and which downstream molecular mediates its function remain largely unknown. A LUAD cell line A549 was incubated with ketamine at 0, 1, 10, and 100 μmol/L for 24 h. Trypan blue staining was used to detect the cell viability...
February 17, 2018: Cancer Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453466/effects-of-intrathecal-dexmedetomidine-as-an-adjuvant-to-hyperbaric-bupivacaine-for-spinal-anaesthesia-in-adults-undergoing-elective-infra-umbilical-surgery
#3
Binod Gautam, Sujata Niroula, Mona Sharma, Sushila Moktan Lama
INTRODUCTION: Various adjuvants to local anaesthetic are used to improve quality and duration of spinal anaesthesia. Dexmedetomidine, a novel alpha-2 adrenergic agonist, has been proposed to augment local anaesthetic effects. This study aims to investigate effects of intrathecal Dexmedetomidine on duration of analgesia and duration of sensory block during spinal anaesthesia. METHODS: In this randomized double-blind study 38 patients were allocated into each of two groups...
October 2017: JNMA; Journal of the Nepal Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452834/pain-and-analgesic-drugs-in-chronic-venous-ulcers-with-topical-sevoflurane-use
#4
Adrian Imbernon-Moya, Francisco Javier Ortiz-de Frutos, Mónica Sanjuan-Alvarez, Isabel Portero-Sanchez, Raúl Merinero-Palomares, Victoria Alcazar
OBJECTIVE: Pain in chronic venous ulcers (CVUs) notably increases with the usual cleaning of the wound. Chronic pain is usually poorly controlled even with the multiple analgesic treatments available. Analgesics can have different serious adverse effects and medical interactions in old patients with several comorbidities. This study reports the efficacy and safety of topical sevoflurane for treatment of pain in CVUs. METHODS: We report a descriptive and retrospective study of 30 patients older than 65 years with painful CVUs refractory to conventional analgesic treatments...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452049/model-free-tests-of-equality-in-binary-data-under-an-incomplete-block-design
#5
Kung-Jong Lui, Lixia Zhu
Using Prescott's model-free approach, we develop an asymptotic procedure and an exact procedure for testing equality between treatments with binary responses under an incomplete block crossover design. We employ Monte Carlo simulation and note that these test procedures can not only perform well in small-sample cases but also outperform the corresponding test procedures accounting for only patients with discordant responses published elsewhere. We use the data taken as a part of the crossover trial comparing two different doses of an analgesic with placebo for the relief of primary dysmenorrhea to illustrate the use of test procedures discussed here...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Biopharmaceutical Statistics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451883/management-of-post-abortion-complications-in-botswana-the-need-for-a-standardized-approach
#6
Tadele Melese, Dereje Habte, Billy M Tsima, Keitshokile Dintle Mogobe, Mercy N Nassali
BACKGROUND: Post abortion complications are the third leading cause of maternal death after hemorrhage and hypertension in Botswana where abortion is not legalized. This study aimed at assessing the management of post abortion complications in Botswana. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted at four hospitals in Botswana in 2014. Socio-demographic, patient management and outcomes data were extracted from patients' medical records. Descriptive statistics and chi-square test were used to analyze and present the data...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451672/predictors-of-persistent-prescription-opioid-analgesic-use-among-people-without-cancer-in-australia
#7
Samanta Lalic, Natasa Gisev, J Simon Bell, Maarit Jaana Korhonen, Jenni Ilomäki
AIMS: To identify patterns of opioid analgesic use and determine predictors of persistent opioid use among people without cancer. METHODS: A population-based cohort study of Australians initiating prescription opioids from July 2013 to December 2015 was conducted using data from a random 10% sample of people who accessed medicines through Australia's Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme. A 12-month look-back period was used to define opioid initiation, exclude people with cancer, and determine comorbidities...
February 16, 2018: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451431/study-protocol-of-hypoalgesic-effects-of-low-frequency-and-burst-modulated-alternating-currents-on-healthy-individuals
#8
Érika Patrícia Rampazo da Silva, Viviane Ribeiro da Silva, Anabelly Sato Bernardes, Fabio Massao Matuzawa, Richard Eloin Liebano
The aim of the study will be to compare different types of analgesic electrical currents in relation to the pressure pain threshold and sensory comfort in healthy individuals. A total of 100 individuals will be randomly assigned to four groups: transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, interferential current, Aussie current or placebo. The electrical stimulation will be administered with a strong level for 30 min and to the placebo group, the electrodes will be positioned while the equipment will remain switched off...
February 16, 2018: Pain Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450877/effect-of-intravenous-preoperative-versus-postoperative-paracetamol-on-postoperative-nausea-and-vomiting-in-patients-undergoing-strabismus-surgery-a-prospective-randomized-study
#9
Mehmet Aksoy, İlker İnce, Ali Ahıskalıoğlu, Sadullah Keleş, Ömer Doymuş
OBJECTIVES: This prospective randomized study aimed to compare the efficacy of preoperative versus postoperative paracetamol on postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) in children undergoing strabismus surgery. METHODS: Ninety-six patients were randomly divided into three equal groups (n=32). In the preoperative paracetamol group, patients received intravenous (IV) infusion of paracetamol [15 mg kg-1 (1.5 ml kg-1)] 1 h before surgery over 20 min and that of saline (1...
January 2018: Aǧrı: Ağrı (Algoloji) Derneği'nin Yayın Organıdır, the Journal of the Turkish Society of Algology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450738/double-blind-randomized-controlled-clinical-trial-on-analgesic-efficacy-of-local-anesthetics-articaine-and-bupivacaine-after-impacted-third-molar-extraction
#10
Maria Victoria Olmedo-Gaya, Francisco Javier Manzano-Moreno, Jose Luis Muñoz-López, Manuel Francisco Vallecillo-Capilla, Candela Reyes-Botella
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this randomized controlled clinical trial (RCT) was to compare the effect of bupivacaine and articaine at habitual doses on pain intensity and the need for analgesics after lower third molar extraction. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The final study sample comprised 50 Caucasian volunteers (26 males and 24 females; age range, 18-30 years) undergoing scheduled surgical extraction of impacted lower third molar. A computer-generated random sequence was used to allocate participants to the articaine (4%) or bupivacaine (0...
February 15, 2018: Clinical Oral Investigations
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450258/the-cannabinoids-%C3%AE-8-thc-cbd-and-hu-308-act-via-distinct-receptors-to-reduce-corneal-pain-and-inflammation
#11
Dinesh Thapa, Elizabeth A Cairns, Anna-Maria Szczesniak, James T Toguri, Meggie D Caldwell, Melanie E M Kelly
Background and Purpose: Corneal injury can result in dysfunction of corneal nociceptive signaling and corneal sensitization. Activation of the endocannabinoid system has been reported to be analgesic and anti-inflammatory. The purpose of this research was to investigate the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of cannabinoids with reported actions at cannabinoid 1 (CB 1 R) and cannabinoid 2 (CB 2 R) receptors and/or noncannabinoid receptors in an experimental model of corneal hyperalgesia. Methods: Corneal hyperalgesia (increased pain response) was generated using chemical cauterization of the corneal epithelium in wild-type (WT) and CB 2 R knockout (CB 2 R -/- ) mice...
2018: Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449944/dexmedetomidine-use-during-epiduroscopy-reduces-fentanyl-use-and-postoperative-nausea-and-vomiting-a-single-center-retrospective-study
#12
Takashi Suzuki, Ryota Inokuchi, Kazuo Hanaoka, Machi Suka, Hiroyuki Yanagisawa
Objectives: Minimally invasive epiduroscopy has recently been reported as an effective treatment procedure for chronic and intractable low back pain. However, no study has determined safe anesthetics for monitored anesthesia care during epiduroscopy. We aimed to compare and evaluate conventional monitored anesthesia care drugs with dexmedetomidine. Methods: A retrospective study including all patients who underwent epiduroscopy at the JR Tokyo General Hospital from April 2011 to March 2016 was designed...
2018: SAGE Open Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449106/hair-analysis-in-toxicological-investigation-of-drug-facilitated-crimes-in-denmark-over-a-8-year-period
#13
Xin Wang, Sys Stybe Johansen, Marie Katrine Klose Nielsen, Kristian Linnet
Hair can serve as a specimen for identifying past drug exposure. Segmental hair analysis may differentiate a single exposure from chronic use. Consequently, segmental hair analysis is useful for disclosing a single drug ingestion, as well as for determining repeated exposures in drug-facilitated crimes (DFCs). This paper presents an overview of toxicological investigations that have used hair analysis in DFC cases from 2009 to 2016 in Denmark. Hair concentrations were determined for 24 DFC-related drugs and metabolites, including benzodiazepines and other hypnotics, antihistamines, opioid analgesics, antipsychotics, barbiturates, and illicit drugs from DFC cases...
February 5, 2018: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448265/short-term-postoperative-pain-and-swelling-associated-with-mini-and-standard-size-implants-in-the-same-patients
#14
Ines Kovačić, Sanja Peršić, Josip Kranjčić, Visar Disha, Ksenija Rener-Sitar, Asja Čelebić
PURPOSE: To assess short-term postoperative pain and swelling after insertion of mini dental implants (MDI) and standard-size implants (SSI) in the same patients at different times. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A convenience sample of 42 patients (22 females, 20 males; 58 to 73 years old) participated. Half of the participants received MDIs first, and the other half received SSIs first. Self-perceived pain and swelling at 1, 3, 5, 7, and 10 days postoperative were assessed using a 0-10 visual analog scale...
February 15, 2018: International Journal of Prosthodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447409/surgical-duration-and-potential-bias-can-affect-analgesic-outcomes-following-dexamethasone-use-in-peripheral-nerve-blocks
#15
Alexander D Cohen, Mark C Kendall
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 13, 2018: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447372/small-fiber-polyneuropathy-is-prevalent-in-patients-experiencing-complex-chronic-pelvic-pain
#16
Annie Chen, Elise De, Charles Argoff
Objective: To demonstrate the prevalence of small fiber polyneuropathy (SFPN) in patients with refractory chronic pelvic pain (CPP). Design: Retrospective study of prospective database. Subjects: Participants were complex CPP patients recruited from subspecity referral clinics defined as those who were refractory to initial treatment and/or exhibited comorbid pain syndromes at initial presentation. Methods: Comprehensive treatment history for CPP was obtained, and participants referred as above; 3-mm punch biopsies were obtained of the lower extremity and sent to diagnostic reference labs to evaluate for SFPN...
February 13, 2018: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447356/barriers-to-the-availability-and-accessibility-of-controlled-medicines-for-chronic-pain-in-africa
#17
Elmang Nchako, Scottie Bussell, Carlos Nesbeth, Chisom Odoh
Africans endure a high burden of pain and suffering from HIV/AIDS and cancer, yet receive a meager amount of the world's pain medication. This tragedy occurs needlessly, given that inexpensive, effective and easily administered interventions are available. WHO has a 'three-step analgesic ladder' framework for managing cancer pain. This widely adopted clinical practice guideline is an integral part of palliative care programs and has also been applied to non-cancer pain. However, untreated pain is a major public health problem due to the discordance between scientific evidence and public policy...
February 13, 2018: International Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447138/inflammation-in-the-pathophysiology-of-neuropathic-pain
#18
Claudia Sommer, Mathias Leinders, Nurcan Üçeyler
Peripheral nerve injuries and diseases often lead to pain persisting beyond the resolution of damage, indicating an active disease-promoting process, which may result in chronic pain. This is regarded as a maladaptive mechanism resulting from neuroinflammation that originally serves to promote regeneration and healing. Knowledge on these physiological and pathophysiological processes has accumulated over the last few decades and has started to yield potential therapeutic targets. Key players are macrophages, T-lymphocytes, cytokines, and chemokines...
March 2018: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445628/medicinal-properties-of-adiantum-capillus-veneris-linn-in-traditional-medicine-and-modern-phytotherapy-a-review-article
#19
REVIEW
Sahar Dehdari, Homa Hajimehdipoor
Background: Adiantum capillus-veneris Linn (Maidenhair fern) is an herb belonging to the family Pteridaceae. It is named as " Pare-siavashan " in medical and pharmaceutical textbooks of Iranian Traditional Medicine. The fronds of Maidenhair fern were mainly administrated by ancient physicians as single medicine or in combination with other plants in multi-herbal formulations for curing different diseases. Because of different chemical compositions, the herb fronds were also assessed for its numerous pharmacological effects...
February 2018: Iranian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445354/effects-of-acupuncture-on-the-recovery-outcomes-of-stroke-survivors-with-shoulder-pain-a-systematic-review
#20
Janita Pak Chun Chau, Suzanne Hoi Shan Lo, Xingfeng Yu, Kai Chow Choi, Alexander Yuk Lun Lau, Justin Che Yuen Wu, Vivian Wing Yan Lee, William Hoi Ngai Cheung, Jessica Yuet Ling Ching, David R Thompson
Background: Poststroke shoulder pain limits stroke survivors' physical functioning, impairs their ability to perform daily activities, and compromises their quality of life. The use of acupuncture to manage shoulder pain after a stroke is believed to free the blockage of energy flow and produce analgesic effects, but the evidence is unclear. We therefore conducted a systematic review to summarize the current evidence on the effects of acupuncture on the recovery outcomes of stroke survivors with shoulder pain...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
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