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Topical analgesics

M Richter, B Seipolt
Pain is a central topic on neonatal intensive care units (NICU). Acute as well as prolonged (continuous and chronic) pain frequently occurs. Due to a lack of validated physiological measurement instruments for pain (e. g. saliva cortisol, skin conductance and heart rate variability) pain in neonatology can only be assessed by external observation through the bedside team with pain scores using a regular, standardized procedure. During this very vulnerable period pain and medications (analgesics/sedatives) can negatively influence the brain development of premature babies and neonates...
March 21, 2018: Der Schmerz
Wojciech Leppert, Malgorzata Malec-Milewska, Renata Zajaczkowska, Jerzy Wordliczek
The comprehensive treatment of pain is multidimodal, with pharmacotherapy playing a key role. An effective therapy for pain depends on the intensity and type of pain, the patients' age, comorbidities, and appropriate choice of analgesic, its dose and route of administration. This review is aimed at presenting current knowledge on analgesics administered by transdermal and topical routes for physicians, nurses, pharmacists, and other health care professionals dealing with patients suffering from pain. Analgesics administered transdermally or topically act through different mechanisms...
March 17, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Douglas Lobb, Alix Clarke, Hollis Lai
Background: The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of administration order when a sedative drug (midazolam) and an opioid analgesic drug (fentanyl) is applied for moderate intravenous (IV) sedation in dentistry. Methods: A retrospective chart review was conducted in one dental clinic during its transition from a midazolam-first to a fentanyl-first protocol for dental procedures requiring moderate IV sedation. Physiological parameters, drug administration times, patient recovery times, drug dosages, and patient recall and satisfaction were investigated for differences...
February 2018: Journal of Dental Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
Devalina Goswami, Gaurav Jain, Mangesh Mohod, Dalim Kumar Baidya, Ongkila Bhutia, Ajoy Roychoudhury
Background: Third molar extraction is associated with considerable pain and discomfort, which is mostly managed with oral analgesic medication. We assessed the analgesic effect of benzydamine hydrochloride, a topical analgesic oral rinse, for controlling postoperative pain following third molar extraction. Methods: A randomized controlled trial was conducted in 40 patients divided into two groups, for extraction of fully erupted third molar. Groups A received benzydamine hydrochloride mouthwash and group B received normal saline gargle with oral ibuprofen and paracetamol...
February 2018: Journal of Dental Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
Sindy Villacres, Corrie E Chumpitazi
Pain is a chief complaint in children seeking medical care, yet it may also be experienced in evaluation and treatment during office visits. Inadequate relief of children's procedural pain and distress not only affects the experience of the children and their parents, but also adversely affects procedural outcomes. Despite increasing awareness and research, management of procedural pain and anxiety in children is often inadequate. In addition, parent and patient satisfaction is often tied to pain management...
March 1, 2018: Pediatric Annals
Randa A Abdallah, Sameh M Ragab, Maher Z Hassanin
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the safety and efficacy of two topical blood stopper modulators; Ankaferd blood stopper (ABS) and feracrylum 1% solution (FS) during adenoid surgery. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective randomized trial. METHODS: Two hundred and twenty five consecutive pediatric adenoid patients aged from 9 months to 2 years old were studied. Patients were randomly allocated into two haemostatic groups; (ABS, FS) and normal saline (control group)...
March 10, 2018: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
J V Pergolizzi, R Taylor, J-A LeQuang, R B Raffa
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: Menthol has been used as a non-opioid pain reliever since ancient times. A modern understanding of its molecular mechanism of action could form the basis for generating targets for discovery of novel non-opioid analgesic drugs. METHODS: The PubMed database was queried using search words related to menthol, pain and analgesia. The results were limited to relevant preclinical studies and clinical trials and reviews published in English during the past 5 years, which yielded 31 reports...
March 10, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
Michael Gottlieb, Brit Long, Alex Koyfman
BACKGROUND: Pharyngitis is a common disease in the emergency department (ED). Despite a relatively low incidence of complications, there are many dangerous conditions that can mimic this disease and are essential for the emergency physician to consider. OBJECTIVE: This article provides a review of the evaluation and management of group A β-hemolytic Streptococcal (GABHS) pharyngitis, as well as important medical conditions that can mimic this disease. DISCUSSION: GABHS pharyngitis often presents with fever, sore throat, tonsillar exudates, and anterior cervical lymphadenopathy...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Emergency Medicine
Kwan-Sub Kim, Nam-Kyung Yeo, Seong-Su Kim, Woong-Sub Park, Su-Hyun Kwak, Sang-Hyeon Cho, Gyu-Wan Sung, Hae-Sook Kim, Sang-Wook Yi, Hae Jun Cho
PURPOSE: Nasal packing is an option for bleeding control after endoscopic sinus surgery and septoplasty. Although new packing materials have been developed, patients still suffer from pain and require additional analgesics treatments. In this study, a prospective, randomized, and double-blind controlled trial was designed to evaluate the effect of fentanyl-soaked packing on pain after endoscopic sinus surgery and septoplasty. METHODS: One hundred fifty-two patients who underwent nasal surgeries due to chronic rhinosinusitis or nasal septal deviation were enrolled in this study...
March 1, 2018: Annals of Otology, Rhinology, and Laryngology
T Nodai, S Hitomi, K Ono, C Masaki, N Harano, A Morii, M Sago-Ito, I Ujihara, T Hibino, K Terawaki, Y Omiya, R Hosokawa, K Inenaga
Oral ulcer is the most common oral disease and leads to pain during meals and speaking, reducing the quality of life of patients. Recent evidence using animal models suggests that oral ulcers induce cyclooxygenase-dependent spontaneous pain and cyclooxygenase-independent mechanical allodynia. Endothelin-1 is upregulated in oral mucosal inflammation, although it has not been shown to induce pain in oral ulcers. In the present study, we investigated the involvement of endothelin-1 signaling with oral ulcer-induced pain using our proprietary assay system in conscious rats...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Dental Research
Caitlin V Bucher, A J Day, Maria Carvalho
Since the number of prescriptions for opioid medications have continued to rise, there have been questions about the safety of using opioids in pain management. Traditionally, opioid analgesics were reserved for a few select conditions, such as terminal illness and surgery, but currently opioids have been readily prescribed for multiple conditions. The objective of this manuscript is to clarify the current state of opioid use and to discuss alternative transdermal analgesic therapies in pain management. Transdermal compounded medications are patient-specific and customizable to include different types of drugs, in various dosage strengths, that are to be delivered simultaneously in one application...
January 2018: Journal of Opioid Management
Ayşe Büyükcam, Ateş Kara, Tuğba Bedir, Belgin Gülhan, Halil Özdemir, Murat Sütçü, Mine Düzgöl, Aslı Arslan, Tuna Tekin, Solmaz Çelebi, Musa Gürel Kukul, Gülsüm İclal Bayhan, Muhammet Köşker, Adem Karbuz, Melda Çelik, Zümrüt Kocabay Sütçü, Özge Metin, Sebahat Karakaşlılar, Abdullah Dağlı, Soner Sertan Kara, Eda Albayrak, Saliha Kanık, Hasan Tezer, Aslınur Parlakay, Ergin Çiftci, Ayper Somer, İlker Devrim, Zafer Kurugöl, Ener Çağrı Dinleyici, Pınar Atla
OBJECTIVES: Acute otitis media (AOM) is predominantly a disease of childhood and one of the common reasons for prescribing antibiotics. Ear pain is the main symptom of AOM, with the result that parents frequently seek immediate medical assistance for their children. Antibiotic therapy for AOM does not provide symptomatic relief in the first 24 hours, and analgesics are commonly recommended for relieving the pain associated with AOM. The aims of the present study were to assess pediatricians' attitudes toward AOM and ear pain management in Turkey...
April 2018: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
Dominique Van der Saag, Peter White, Lachlan Ingram, Jaime Manning, Peter Windsor, Peter Thomson, Sabrina Lomax
The use of pain relief during castration and dehorning of calves on commercial beef operations can be limited by constraints associated with the delivery of analgesic agents. As topical anaesthetic (TA) and buccal meloxicam (MEL) are now available in Australia, offering practical analgesic treatments for concurrent castration and dehorning of beef calves, a study was conducted to determine their efficacy in providing pain relief when applied separately or in combination. Weaner calves were randomly allocated to; (1) no castration and dehorning/positive control (CONP); (2) castration and dehorning/negative control (CONN); (3) castration and dehorning with buccal meloxicam (BM); (4) castration and dehorning with topical anaesthetic (TA); and (5) castration and dehorning with buccal meloxicam and topical anaesthetic (BMTA)...
February 28, 2018: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
Caroline Whiston, Samina Ali, Bruce Wright, David Wonnacott, Antonia S Stang, Graham C Thompson, Chirag Bhat, Sydney Todorovich, Ashutosh Mishra, Dora Laczko, Michael Miller, Naveen Poonai
CLINICIAN'S CAPSULE What is known about the topic? Children's pain in the emergency department (ED) continues to be under-recognized and sub-optimally managed. What did this study ask? We sought to evaluate the frequency of caregiver/child acceptance of analgesia offered in the ED. What did this study find? Of the 743 children who presented to the ED with a painful condition, 408 (54.9%) were offered analgesia. If offered in the ED, analgesia was accepted by 91% (373/408) of the caregivers/children. Why does this study matter to clinicians? This study suggests that caregiver/child refusal of analgesia is a not a major barrier to optimal pain management and highlights the importance of ED personnel in encouraging adequate analgesia...
February 26, 2018: CJEM
D Van der Saag, S Lomax, P A Windsor, C Taylor, P Thomson, E Hall, P J White
Although the pain caused by castration of calves is a significant animal welfare issue for the beef industry, analgesia is not always used for this procedure, largely because of practical limitations associated with injectable forms of pain relief. Novel analgesic formulations have now been developed for livestock to allow topical and buccal administration, offering practical options to improve cattle welfare if shown to be effective. To assess the effects of topical anaesthetic (TA) and buccal meloxicam (BM) on average daily gain (ADG), behaviour and inflammation following surgical castration of beef calves, a total of 50 unweaned bull calves were randomly allocated to: (1) sham castration (SHAM, n=10); (2) surgical castration (C, n=10); (3) surgical castration with pre-operative buccal meloxicam (CBM, n=10); (4) surgical castration with post-operative topical anaesthetic (CTA, n=10); and (5) surgical castration with pre-operative buccal meloxicam and post-operative topical anaesthetic (CBMTA, n=10)...
February 26, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
O A Makharin, V M Zhenilo, O Yu Patyuchenko
Quality anesthesia during surgery and in the postoperative period remains a topical problem of modern anesthesiology. The study of genetic characteristics of a patient is a goal that may be allow us to develop a personalized approach to solve this problem. The purpose of the review is a synthesis of literature data about the influence of genetic factors on pain perception and its treatment. The review included information obtained from SCOPUS, MedLine, EMBASE. The search keywords were: pain, pharmacogenetics, polymorphism, analgesics...
September 2017: Anesteziologiia i Reanimatologiia
D Di Stasio, A Romano, R S Paparella, C Gentile, R Serpico, G Minervini, V Candotto, L Laino
Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) is one of the most common causes of mouth sores in children so the management of this condition is a matter of great importance. YouTube™ is increasingly being used by patients to obtain health-related information. The aim of this work is to examine the quality of information offered by YouTube™ about mouth sores in children (MSC). Searching the term ‘mouth sores in children’, (MSC) displayed 12.300 results. Of the top 60 videos analyzed, 31 were excluded following exclusion criteria...
January 2018: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
Adrian Imbernon-Moya, Francisco Javier Ortiz-de Frutos, Mónica Sanjuan-Alvarez, Isabel Portero-Sanchez, Raúl Merinero-Palomares, Victoria Alcazar
OBJECTIVE: Pain in chronic venous ulcers (CVUs) notably increases with the usual cleaning of the wound. Chronic pain is usually poorly controlled even with the multiple analgesic treatments available. Analgesics can have different serious adverse effects and medical interactions in old patients with several comorbidities. This study reports the efficacy and safety of topical sevoflurane for treatment of pain in CVUs. METHODS: We report a descriptive and retrospective study of 30 patients older than 65 years with painful CVUs refractory to conventional analgesic treatments...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Vascular Surgery
Dinesh Thapa, Elizabeth A Cairns, Anna-Maria Szczesniak, James T Toguri, Meggie D Caldwell, Melanie E M Kelly
Background and Purpose: Corneal injury can result in dysfunction of corneal nociceptive signaling and corneal sensitization. Activation of the endocannabinoid system has been reported to be analgesic and anti-inflammatory. The purpose of this research was to investigate the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of cannabinoids with reported actions at cannabinoid 1 (CB1 R) and cannabinoid 2 (CB2 R) receptors and/or noncannabinoid receptors in an experimental model of corneal hyperalgesia. Methods: Corneal hyperalgesia (increased pain response) was generated using chemical cauterization of the corneal epithelium in wild-type (WT) and CB2 R knockout (CB2 R-/- ) mice...
2018: Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research
Diana Crisan, Karin Scharffetter-Kochanek, Sabine Kastler, Maria Crisan, Avram Manea, Katja Wagner, Lars Alexander Schneider
BACKGROUND: Children undergoing dermatosurgical procedures require, unlike adults, particular attention; the administration of various analgesics, anesthetics or sedatives requires a thorough knowledge of drug pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Furthermore, there are concerns that drugs used for sedation/general anesthesia may result in anesthetic/analgesic complications in children undergoing surgery, with a risk of impaired mental development. OBJECTIVES: Based on our clinical experience and a literature review, we illustrate the most commonly used analgesic, anesthetic and sedative drugs in pediatric dermatosurgery, and identify risk factors and complications following dermatosurgical procedures...
February 12, 2018: Journal der Deutschen Dermatologischen Gesellschaft, Journal of the German Society of Dermatology: JDDG
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