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EBV Review

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800008/epstein-barr-virus-infection-can-be-a-secondary-event-in-b-cell-lymphomas-a-review-of-338-cases-and-a-novel-finding-of-zonal-eber-tumor-cells-showing-features-of-progression-from-underlying-ebv-negative-lymphoma
#1
Ira J Miller
Cases of B-cell lymphoma over an 8-year interval with diagnosis of EBER positivity were retrieved from archives and reviewed for classification and pattern of Epstein Barr Virus (EBV) expression. Of 46 cases that were EBV early RNA (EBER)+ by in situ hybridization staining, 7 had nonuniform staining among the neoplastic cells. Four of those cases showed a uniform admixture of EBER+ and EBER- tumor cells, compatible with the prevailing theory of episomal EBV loss with cell replication. Three cases of lymphomas showed a partial and zonal pattern and other features suggest that EBV infection occurred after the lymphoma was already established...
August 9, 2017: Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology: AIMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796808/pd-l1-and-gastric-cancer-prognosis-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#2
Lihu Gu, Manman Chen, Dongyu Guo, Hepan Zhu, Wenchao Zhang, Junhai Pan, Xin Zhong, Xinlong Li, Haoran Qian, Xianfa Wang
The expression of Programmed cell Death Ligand 1 (PD-L1) is observed in many malignant tumors and is associated with poor prognosis including Gastric Cancer (GC). The relationship between PD-L1 expression and prognosis, however, is controversial in GC. This paper purports to use a meta-analysis to investigate the relationship between PD-L1 expression and prognosis in GC. For this study, the following databases were searched for articles published from June 2003 until February 2017: PubMed, EBSCO, Web of Science and Cochrane Library...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792686/viral-surveillance-using-pcr-during-treatment-of-aml-and-all
#3
Stephanie B Dixon, Adam Lane, Maureen M O'Brien, Karen C Burns, Jennifer L Mangino, Erin H Breese, Michael J Absalon, John P Perentesis, Christine L Phillips
BACKGROUND: While viral surveillance of cytomegalovirus (CMV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), and adenovirus using PCR is routine in patients undergoing hematopoetic stem cell transplant and solid organ transplant, the utility in the nontransplant pediatric leukemia population is unknown. Our institution screens patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) for viral DNAemia by PCR as part of clinical care. PROCEDURE: This retrospective chart review included patients treated for newly diagnosed or relapsed AML or ALL between April 2010 and September 2014...
August 9, 2017: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792435/regulation-of-telomere-homeostasis-during-epstein-barr-virus-infection-and-immortalization
#4
REVIEW
Siamak A Kamranvar, Maria G Masucci
The acquisition of unlimited proliferative potential is dependent on the activation of mechanisms for telomere maintenance, which counteracts telomere shortening and the consequent triggering of the DNA damage response, cell cycle arrest, and apoptosis. The capacity of Epstein Barr virus (EBV) to infect B-lymphocytes in vitro and transform the infected cells into autonomously proliferating immortal cell lines underlies the association of this human gamma-herpesvirus with a broad variety of lymphoid and epithelial cell malignancies...
August 9, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782131/diffuse-large-b-cell-lymphoma-associated-with-chronic-inflammation-arising-within-atrial-myxoma-aggressive-histologic-features-but-indolent-clinical-behaviour
#5
Jinhai Yan, Luo Donglan, Fen Zhang, Jiao He, Su Yao, Luo Xinlan, Fangping Xu, Yu Chen, Lingyi Fu, Jie Xu, Yanhui Liu
AIMS: Primary cardiac lymphoma (PCL) is a rare neoplasm. PCL is fatal, unless it is diagnosed and treated early. Recently, a small number of cases of diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) arising within atrial myxoma have been reported in immunocompetent patients and showed aggressive histologic features but an indolent clinical behaviour. METHODS AND RESULTS: We presented four unusual cases of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive DLBCL arising within atrial myxoma with detailed clinical, histologic, immunophenotypic and genotypic features in immunocompetent patients, and reviewed the literature for 11 similar cases...
August 7, 2017: Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758827/lymphoproliferative-disorders-in-patients-with-rheumatoid-arthritis-in-the-era-of-widespread-use-of-methotrexate-a-review-of-the-literature-and-current-perspective
#6
Masayoshi Harigai
Lymphoproliferative disorders (LPD) in patients receiving methotrexate (MTX) have gained strong attention. In this article, I reviewed the basic and clinical findings of this issue. Patients with RA possess a high risk of lymphoma, but epidemiological evidence showing an association between the use of MTX and lymphoma is still limited. Rapid regression of LPD after stopping MTX in patients with RA strongly suggests that there is a causative relationship. Genetic predisposition, accumulated inflammation, impaired generation of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes, effects of MTX on the regulation of EBV genes, and low hypermethylation of apoptosis-related genes are relevant to the development of LPD and rapid regression after cessation of MTX...
July 31, 2017: Modern Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757548/the-role-of-epigenetic-regulation-in-epstein-barr-virus-associated-gastric-cancer
#7
REVIEW
Jun Nishikawa, Hisashi Iizasa, Hironori Yoshiyama, Munetaka Nakamura, Mari Saito, Sho Sasaki, Kanami Shimokuri, Masashi Yanagihara, Kouhei Sakai, Yutaka Suehiro, Takahiro Yamasaki, Isao Sakaida
The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is detected in about 10% of gastric carcinoma cases throughout the world. In EBV-associated gastric carcinoma (EBVaGC), all tumor cells harbor the clonal EBV genome. The expression of latent EBV genes is strictly regulated through the methylation of EBV DNA. The methylation of viral DNA regulates the type of EBV latency, and methylation of the tumor suppressor genes is a key abnormality in EBVaGC. The methylation frequencies of several tumor suppressor genes and cell adhesion molecules are significantly higher in EBVaGC than in control cases...
July 25, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756985/concomitant-epstein-barr-virus-associated-smooth-muscle-tumor-and-granulomatous-inflammation-of-the-liver
#8
Nhu Thuy Can, James P Grenert, Poonam Vohra
Epstein-Barr Virus-associated smooth muscle tumor (EBV-SMT) is a rare mesenchymal tumor typically seen in immunocompromised patients. Here, we report a case of EBV-SMT and associated granulomatous inflammation in the liver of a 32-year-old man with history of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS). To our knowledge, an association of these two lesions has not been previously reported. We review the literature and discuss pathogenesis, differential diagnosis and immunohistochemical (IHC) stains helpful for the diagnosis of this rare entity...
July 13, 2017: Pathology, Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755684/epstein-barr-virus-and-multiple-sclerosis-updating-pender-s-hypothesis
#9
REVIEW
Martin Laurence, Julián Benito-León
Substantial epidemiological evidence supports the involvement of the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in multiple sclerosis (MS). Mechanisms through which EBV may increase MS risk are reviewed here. Most individuals contract EBV in early childhood yet only develop MS in early adulthood, by which time EBV has been latent for decades. When latent, EBV is confined to a minute subset of memory B cells: about 1000 cells in peripheral blood and 500,000 cells in the lymphoid system, mainly in the mouth. Reactivation of EBV in the central nervous system (CNS) has been proposed as a cause of MS...
August 2017: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755681/ebv-and-ms-major-cause-minor-contribution-or-red-herring
#10
REVIEW
Sean Burnard, Jeannette Lechner-Scott, Rodney J Scott
Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a chronic neurological disease with genetic and environmental risk factors. Epstein Barr-Virus (EBV) has been closely associated with MS but with a significant amount of conflicting evidence. Some of the evidence for EBV involvement in MS includes: almost 100% of MS patients showing past EBV infection, an association with Infectious Mononucleosis (acute EBV infection), higher titres of EBV antibodies associated with an increased risk of MS development, and an overall altered immune response to EBV found in peripheral blood and the CNS of MS patients...
August 2017: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740569/dna-oncogenic-virus-induced-oxidative-stress-genomic-damage-and-aberrant-epigenetic-alterations
#11
REVIEW
Mankgopo Magdeline Kgatle, Catherine Wendy Spearman, Asgar Ali Kalla, Henry Norman Hairwadzi
Approximately 20% of human cancers is attributable to DNA oncogenic viruses such as human papillomavirus (HPV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Unrepaired DNA damage is the most common and overlapping feature of these DNA oncogenic viruses and a source of genomic instability and tumour development. Sustained DNA damage results from unceasing production of reactive oxygen species and activation of inflammasome cascades that trigger genomic changes and increased propensity of epigenetic alterations...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730175/role-of-epstein-barr-virus-in-the-development-of-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma
#12
Hui Zhang, Jing Wang, Dan Yu, Yan Liu, Kai Xue, Xue Zhao
Southern China experiences larger extent of total cancer pathologies, of which nasopharyngeal carcinoma has the highest incidence under otorhinolaryngeal malignant carcinomas. Risk factor of nasopharyngeal carcinoma varies from hereditary causes to virus infection, among which Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection is the mostly investigated. The study into mechanism of EBV in occurrence, development and prognosis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma has been studied for several decades. The pathophysiology in making of EBV into a cancerogen includes proteins as latent membrane protein 1 (LMPs) and nucleic acids as micro-RNAs...
2017: Open Medicine (Warsaw, Poland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725300/epstein-barr-virus-ebv-associated-epithelial-and-non-epithelial-lesions-of-the-oral-cavity
#13
REVIEW
Kentaro Kikuchi, Harumi Inoue, Yuji Miyazaki, Fumio Ide, Masaru Kojima, Kaoru Kusama
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is known to be associated with the development of malignant lymphoma and lymphoproliferative disorders (LPDs) in immunocompromised patients. EBV, a B-lymphotropic gamma-herpesvirus, causes infectious mononucleosis and oral hairy leukoplakia, as well as various pathological types of lymphoid malignancy. Furthermore, EBV is associated with epithelial malignancies such as nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), salivary gland tumor, gastric carcinoma and breast carcinoma. In terms of oral disease, there have been several reports of EBV-related oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) worldwide...
August 2017: Japanese Dental Science Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721913/clinical-utility-of-epstein-barr-virus-dna-testing-in-the-treatment-of-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma-patients
#14
REVIEW
Kelly Y Kim, Quynh-Thu Le, Sue S Yom, Raymond H W Ng, K C Allen Chan, Scott V Bratman, John J Welch, Rao L Divi, Raymond A Petryshyn, Barbara A Conley
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA analysis has been shown to be useful for early detection, prognostication, and monitoring of treatment response of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), and the recent literature provides growing evidence of the clinical utility of EBV DNA testing, particularly to inform treatment decisions for NPC patients. Despite the fact that NPC is a rare disease, the NRG Oncology cooperative group has successfully activated a phase 2/3 randomized clinical trial for NPC with international partners and in that process has discovered that the development of a harmonized EBV DNA test is absolutely critical for integration into clinical trials and for future deployment in clinical and central laboratories...
August 1, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687813/cancer-risk-factors-among-people-living-with-hiv-aids-in-china-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#15
Zi-Yi Jin, Xing Liu, Ying-Ying Ding, Zuo-Feng Zhang, Na He
Cancer is a leading cause of death among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate prevalence of cancer risk factors among Chinese PLWHA based on 102 articles. Random effects meta-analysis was used to calculate the summary prevalence estimate (sPrev) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for each cancer risk factor by demographic group. Overall, the sPrev for each risk factor among Chinese PLWHA was: 41.1% (95% CI: 35.3-46.9%) for current smoking; 30.3% (95% CI: 23...
July 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679966/current-treatment-approaches-for-nk-t-cell-lymphoma
#16
Motoko Yamaguchi, Kana Miyazaki
Extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type (ENKL), is a form of lymphoma characterized by preferential extranodal involvement, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) association, and geographic diversity in incidence. ENKL tumor cells express P-glycoprotein, which is related to multidrug resistance (MDR). This MDR phenomenon is thought to be the major reason why ENKL is resistant to anthracycline-containing chemotherapies and has led researchers to explore novel therapeutic strategies. Since the early 2000s, next-generation therapies, including upfront radiotherapy, chemotherapy, or concurrent chemoradiotherapy using non-MDR-related drugs, have markedly changed the management of ENKL...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hematopathology: JCEH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675108/radiation-induced-epstein-barr-virus-reactivation-in-gastric-cancer-cells-with-latent-ebv-infection
#17
Athira Nandakumar, Futoshi Uwatoko, Megumi Yamamoto, Kazuo Tomita, Hideyuki J Majima, Suminori Akiba, Chihaya Koriyama
Epstein-Barr virus, a ubiquitous human herpes virus with oncogenic activity, can be found in 6%-16% of gastric carcinomas worldwide. In Epstein-Barr virus-associated gastric carcinoma, only a few latent genes of the virus are expressed. Ionizing irradiation was shown to induce lytic Epstein-Barr virus infection in lymphoblastoid cell lines with latent Epstein-Barr virus infection. In this study, we examined the effect of ionizing radiation on the Epstein-Barr virus reactivation in a gastric epithelial cancer cell line (SNU-719, an Epstein-Barr virus-associated gastric carcinoma cell line)...
July 2017: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669004/an-update-epstein-barr-virus-and-immune-evasion-via-microrna-regulation
#18
REVIEW
Lielian Zuo, Wenxin Yue, Shujuan Du, Shuyu Xin, Jing Zhang, Lingzhi Liu, Guiyuan Li, Jianhong Lu
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is an oncogenic virus that ubiquitously establishes life-long persistence in humans. To ensure its survival and maintain its B cell transformation function, EBV has developed powerful strategies to evade host immune responses. Emerging evidence has shown that microRNAs (miRNAs) are powerful regulators of the maintenance of cellular homeostasis. In this review, we summarize current progress on how EBV utilizes miRNAs for immune evasion. EBV encodes miRNAs targeting both viral and host genes involved in the immune response...
June 2017: Virologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654766/methotrexate-related-lymphoproliferative-disorder-in-patients-with-osteonecrosis-of-the-jaw-a-3-case-report-and-literature-review
#19
Ken Furudate, Anna Satake, Norihiko Narita, Wataru Kobayashi
Patients with immunodeficiency or immunosuppression are at risk of developing a lymphoproliferative disorder (LPD). Methotrexate (MTX) is an iatrogenic cause of LPD, which in up to 50% cases occurs in extranodal sites. The occurrence of MTX-related LPD with osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ) has rarely been reported. Moreover, there are no clear diagnostic criteria and treatment strategies for management of these lesions. In the present cases, discontinuing MTX and debridement of the necrotic bone were effective...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653462/no-effect-of-treatment-with-intravenous-ganciclovir-on-epstein-barr-virus-viremia-demonstrated-after-pediatric-liver-transplantation
#20
Anniken B Østensen, Truls Sanengen, Ellen Holter, Pål-Dag Line, Runar Almaas
EBV after pediatric LT is a risk factor for PTLD. We wanted to evaluate the effect of intravenous ganciclovir on EBV viremia and to identify risk factors for chronic EBV viremia. All pediatric patients who underwent LT in Norway from 2002 until 2015 were reviewed. Twenty-two of 38 patients with viremia were treated with intravenous ganciclovir for a median of 22 (21-38) days. Treated and untreated patients were not different with respect to EBV seroconversion prior to transplantation or age at transplantation, but treated patients had significantly earlier viremia after transplantation (P=...
June 26, 2017: Pediatric Transplantation
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