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Ischemic stroke biomarkers in blood

Giovanni Veronesi
In Italy, the European SCORE Project risk score is the recommended tool for cardiovascular disease risk stratification in the primary prevention setting. Among non-diabetic subjects aged 40 to 64, the model estimates the 10-year probability of death due to cardiovascular disease based on individual's age, total cholesterol, blood pressure and smoking status. A growing body of evidence suggests that in middle-aged adults this stratification may suffer from two major drawbacks. First, mortality risk severely underestimates the global burden of disease incidence...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Sara B Seidelmann, Brian Claggett, Paco E Bravo, Ankur Gupta, Hoshang Farhad, Barbara E Klein, Ronald Klein, Marcelo F Di Carli, Scott D Solomon
BACKGROUND: -Narrower retinal arterioles and wider retinal venules have been associated with negative cardiovascular outcomes. We investigated whether retinal vessel calibers are associated with cardiovascular outcomes in long-term follow-up and provide incremental value over the 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association pooled cohort equations (PCE) in predicting Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease Events (ASCVE). METHODS: -10,470 men and women without prior ASCVE or heart failure (HF) in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study underwent retinal photography at visit 3 (1993-1995)...
September 28, 2016: Circulation
Floris Groenendaal, Linda S de Vries
In the past brain imaging of term infants with HIE was performed with cranial ultrasound (cUS) and computed tomography (CT). Both techniques have several disadvantages, sensitivity and specificity are limited compared to MRI, and CT makes use of radiation.At present MRI including diffusion weighted MRI during the first week of life, has become the method of choice for imaging infants with HIE. In addition to imaging, blood vessels and blood flow can be visualized using MR angiography, MR venography, and arterial spin labeling...
September 27, 2016: Pediatric Research
Jiangquan Liao, Yongmei Liu, Jie Wang
BACKGROUND: Blood-stasis syndrome (BSS) is one of the Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) syndrome differentiations that are commonly seen in stroke and ischemic heart diseases; however, the BSS differentiation criterion is not standardized. More objective biomarkers for BSS diagnosis are needed. METHODS: Acute ischemic stroke (AIS) or unstable angina (UA) patients with BSS and healthy controls were enrolled. The miRNA and mRNA expression profiles of UA patients and AIS patients were compared to those of healthy controls to identify the differentially expressed miRNA and mRNA of BSS...
2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Giovanni Veronesi
In Italy, the European SCORE Project risk score is the recommended tool for cardiovascular disease risk stratification in the primary prevention setting. Among non-diabetic subjects aged 40 to 64, the model estimates the 10-year probability of death due to cardiovascular disease based on individual's age, total cholesterol, blood pressure and smoking status. A growing body of evidence suggests that in middle-aged adults this stratification may suffer from two major drawbacks. First, mortality risk severely underestimates the global burden of disease incidence...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
O S Mattila, H Harve, S Pihlasviita, J Ritvonen, G Sibolt, M Pystynen, D Strbian, S Curtze, M Kuisma, T Tatlisumak, P J Lindsberg
OBJECTIVES: Blood-based biomarkers could enable early and cost-effective diagnostics for acute stroke patients in the prehospital setting to support early initiation of treatments. To facilitate development of ultra-acute biomarkers, we set out to implement large-scale prehospital blood sampling and determine feasibility and diagnostic timesavings of this approach. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Emergency medical services (EMS) personnel of the Helsinki metropolitan area were trained to collect prehospital blood samples from thrombolysis candidates using a cannula adapter technique...
September 18, 2016: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica
Xingyong Chen, Yinzhou Wang, Ming Fu, Huixin Lei, Qiong Cheng, Xu Zhang
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Currently, blood biomarkers associated with an increased hemorrhagic transformation (HT) risk remain uncertain. We aimed to determine the significance of immunoproteasome as predictors of early HT in acute ischemic stroke patients. METHODS: This study enrolled 316 patients with ischemic stroke. HT was assessed by computed tomography examination performed on day 5 ± 2 after stroke onset or immediately in case of clinical deterioration (CD)...
September 14, 2016: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
Mathias Rask-Andersen, David Martinsson, Muhammad Ahsan, Stefan Enroth, Weronica E Ek, Ulf Gyllensten, Åsa Johansson
Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the leading causes of death worldwide and represent a substantial economic burden on public health care systems. Epigenetic markers have potential as diagnostic markers before clinical symptoms have emerged, and as prognostic markers to inform the choice of clinical intervention. In this study, we performed an epigenome-wide association study (EWAS) for CVDs, to identify disease-specific alterations in DNA methylation. CpG methylation in blood samples from the northern Sweden population health study (NSPHS) (n = 729) was assayed on the Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip...
September 15, 2016: Human Molecular Genetics
İsmail Atik, Nalan Kozacı, İnan Beydilli, Mustafa Avcı, Hamit Ellidağ, Mustafa Keşaplı
OBJECTIVE: In this study, we aimed to identify oxidative stress and the disruption in the oxidant-antioxidant balance in the acute phase of stroke and, therefore, to detect markers that will guide in the diagnosis and treatment of stroke. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighty-six patients who were admitted to Antalya Training and Research Hospital Emergency Department between June 2013 and December 2013 and who were diagnosed as having stroke were enrolled in this study...
August 30, 2016: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
Nina L Chiu, Brian Kaiser, Y Vien Nguyen, Susan Welbourne, Chandana Lall, Steven C Cramer
BACKGROUND: Animal studies describe changes in the spleen following a stroke, with an immediate reduction in volume associated with changes in the counts of specific blood white blood cell (WBCs). This brain-spleen cell cycling after stroke affects systemic inflammation and the brain inflammatory milieu and may be a target for emerging therapeutic studies. This study aimed to evaluate features of this brain-spleen model in human patients admitted for acute stroke. METHODS: Medical and imaging records were retrospectively reviewed for 82 consecutive patients admitted for acute stroke in whom an abdominal computed tomography scan was performed...
September 5, 2016: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
Saya Ozaki, Mie Kurata, Yoshiaki Kumon, Shirabe Matsumoto, Masahiko Tagawa, Hideaki Watanabe, Shiro Ohue, Jitsuo Higaki, Takanori Ohnishi
We investigated whether thrombin-cleaved osteopontin N-terminal is useful as a blood biomarker of acute atherothrombotic ischemic stroke. Acute ischemic stroke patients were prospectively evaluated with brain magnetic resonance imaging and cardiac evaluations for etiological diagnosis according to the Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment classification. They were divided into the atherothrombotic and non-atherothrombotic groups. Thrombin-cleaved osteopontin N-terminal, osteopontin, matrix metalloproteinase-9, S100B, C-reactive protein and D-dimer levels were measured from blood samples collected at admission...
August 25, 2016: Hypertension Research: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Hypertension
Ashkan Shoamanesh, Sarah R Preis, Alexa S Beiser, Carlos S Kase, Philip A Wolf, Ramachandran S Vasan, Emelia J Benjamin, Sudha Seshadri, Jose R Romero
OBJECTIVE: We related a panel of inflammatory biomarkers to risk of incident ischemic stroke (IIS) in a community-dwelling sample. METHODS: Stroke-free Framingham offspring attending examination cycle 7 (1998-2001) had 15 circulating inflammatory biomarkers measured. Cox proportional hazard models were used to calculate the hazard ratios (HRs) of IIS per SD increment of each biomarker. Model 1 included age and sex. Model 2 additionally adjusted for systolic blood pressure, hypertension treatment, current smoking, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and atrial fibrillation...
September 20, 2016: Neurology
Ting-Ying Liang, Ji-Yu Lou
BACKGROUND MiRNA is widely recognized as the most important regulator in various diseases. However, there has been little research regarding miRNA expression and its involvement in ischemic stroke. MATERIAL AND METHODS In this study, we investigated the pattern of miRNA-34a-5p expression along with its clinical application in human ischemic stroke and in an in vivo rat model. We recruited 102 cerebral ischemia patients and 97 health controls for this study. Clinical data were gathered and recorded with the help of questionnaires...
2016: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
James E Siegler, Christy Marcaccio, Kelsey Nawalinski, Francis Quattrone, Danielle K Sandsmark, Eileen Maloney-Wilensky, Suzanne Frangos, Joshua M Levine, Sherman C Stein, Scott E Kasner, Monisha A Kumar
BACKGROUND: Elevated red blood cell distribution width (RDW) has been associated with thrombotic disorders including myocardial infarction, venous thromboembolism, and ischemic stroke, independent of other inflammatory and coagulation biomarkers. The purpose of this study was to determine whether elevated RDW is associated with cerebral infarction and poor outcome after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). METHODS: In this retrospective single-center cohort of aSAH patients (October 2009-September 2014), elevated RDW was defined as a mean RDW >14...
August 16, 2016: Neurocritical Care
Murali Vijayan, P Hemachandra Reddy
Stroke is the second leading cause of death in the world. Stroke occurs when blood flow stops, and that stoppage results in reduced oxygen supply to neurons in the brain. The occurrence of stroke increases with age, but anyone at any age can suffer from stroke. Recent research has implicated multiple cellular changes in stroke patients, including oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction, inflammatory responses, and changes in mRNA and proteins. Recent research has also revealed that stroke is associated with modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors...
October 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Shan Ye, Shao-Peng Lin, Keping Wu, Yongxiang Fan, Miqing Xu
BACKGROUND: Several prior studies have linked serum prealbumin (PA) as a predictor for perioperative infection. However, whether peripheral blood PA levels can be used as an indicator of stroke-associated infection (SAI) is still unclear. In this study, we attempt to find whether serum PA is a meaningful predictor in SAI after an ischemic stroke, so as to provide theoretical basis for clinical treatment. METHODS: Consecutive patients with acute ischemic stroke that were admitted to our hospital were enrolled and serum PA was collected...
August 1, 2016: International Journal of Neuroscience
Alexis N Simpkins, Christian Dias, Richard Leigh
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Animal models of acute cerebral ischemia have demonstrated that diffuse blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption can be reversible after early reperfusion. However, irreversible, focal BBB disruption in humans is associated with hemorrhagic transformation in patients receiving intravenous thrombolytic therapy. The goal of this study was to use a magnetic resonance imaging biomarker of BBB permeability to differentiate these 2 forms of BBB disruption. METHODS: Acute stroke patients imaged with magnetic resonance imaging before, 2 hours after, and 24 hours after treatment with intravenous tissue-type plasminogen activator were included...
September 2016: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
Yingying Wang, Yunpeng Cai
Recent studies have revealed the systematic altering of gene expression in human peripheral blood during the early stages of ischemic stroke, which suggests a new potential approach for the rapid diagnosis or prediction of stroke onset. Nevertheless, due to the difficulties of collecting human samples during proper disease stages, related studies are rather restricted. Many studies have instead been performed on manipulated animal models for investigating the regulation patterns of biomarkers during different stroke stages...
2016: Scientific Reports
Rodney M Ritzel, Sarah J Pan, Rajkumar Verma, John Wizeman, Joshua Crapser, Anita R Patel, Richard Lieberman, Royce Mohan, Louise D McCullough
PURPOSE: The transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model of stroke is one of the most commonly used models to study focal cerebral ischemia. This procedure also results in the simultaneous occlusion of the ophthalmic artery that supplies the retina. Retinal cell death is seen days after reperfusion and leads to functional deficits; however, the mechanism responsible for this injury has not been investigated. Given that the eye may have a unique ocular immune response to an ischemic challenge, this study examined the inflammatory response to retinal ischemia in the MCAO model...
2016: Molecular Vision
Xin Du, Changsheng Ma, Jiahui Wu, Songnan Li, Man Ning, Ribo Tang, Xueyuan Guo, Deyong Long, Ronghui Yu, Caihua Sang, Chenxi Jiang, Ting Zhang, Jianhong Pan, Xiaohui Liu, Jianzeng Dong, Gregory Y H Lip
BACKGROUND: Robust data on the contemporary management of atrial fibrillation (AF) patients in China are limited. Importantly current practice in AF management has changing dramatically in recent years. Data from a large registry study will enable us to evaluate the uptake and outcomes with different therapies in a large Chinese AF population. METHODS/DESIGN: The Chinese Atrial Fibrillation Registry study (CAFR) aims to enroll 20,000 consecutive atrial fibrillation (AF) patients from 32 tertiary and non-tertiary hospitals in Beijing, China, and follow up these patients every 6 months until 2020...
2016: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
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