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Advanced Renal cell carcinoma

K Blouhos, K A Boulas, A Paraskeva, I Kariotis, N Barettas, A Hatzigeorgiadis
INTRODUCTION: Secondary pancreatic tumors are uncommon and account for 2-5% of pancreatic cancer. Tumors characterized most commonly with pancreatic involvement are lymphoma, renal cell and lung carcinomas. PRESENTATION OF CASE: A 76-year-old female patient with obstructive jaundice as the primary symptom and inguinal lymphadenopathy is presented. Imaging revealed a bulky solitary solid pancreatic head mass along with paraaortic and mesenteric lymphadenopathy. The absence of a previous history of malignancy and the presence of a dominant pancreatic mass along with distal lymphadenopathy confined differential diagnosis to advanced secondary pancreatic lymphoma, which is the most common secondary pancreatic tumor, and locally advanced/metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma...
March 7, 2018: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
Ana M Molina, Thomas E Hutson, Dmitry Nosov, Piotr Tomczak, Oleg Lipatov, Cora N Sternberg, Robert Motzer, Tim Eisen
BACKGROUND: Tivozanib is a selective inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor receptors 1, 2 and 3 tyrosine kinases. This open-label, crossover clinical study (AV-951-09-902) provided access to tivozanib for patients who progressed on sorafenib in TIVO-1, comparing tivozanib with sorafenib in patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC). METHODS: Patients enrolled in this single-arm, phase 2 crossover study were previously randomised to sorafenib on TIVO-1, progressed and then crossed over to tivozanib...
March 13, 2018: European Journal of Cancer
Yousef Zakharia, Arup Bhattacharya, Youcef M Rustum
Selenium (Se)-containing molecules exert antioxidant properties and modulate targets associated with tumor growth, metastasis, angiogenesis, and drug resistance. Prevention clinical trials with low-dose supplementation of different types of Se molecules have yielded conflicting results. Utilizing several xenograft models, we earlier reported that the enhanced antitumor activity of various chemotherapeutic agents by selenomethione and Se-methylselenocysteine in several human tumor xenografts is highly dose- and schedule-dependent...
February 13, 2018: Oncotarget
Hakushi Kim, Chie Inomoto, Takato Uchida, Hiroyuki Furuya, Tomoyoshi Komiyama, Hiroshi Kajiwara, Hiroyuki Kobayashi, Naoya Nakamura, Akira Miyajima
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the validity of potential prognostic parameters of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) recommended by the 2012 International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) Consensus Conference in the Japanese population. We reviewed 406 Japanese patients with localized or locally advanced ccRCC who underwent curative surgery during 2004-2014 at Tokai University Hospital (Isehara, Japan) and were followed up for >2 years after surgery. A single pathologist reviewed all the histological slides...
April 2018: International Journal of Oncology
Toni K Choueiri, James Larkin, Mototsugu Oya, Fiona Thistlethwaite, Marcella Martignoni, Paul Nathan, Thomas Powles, David McDermott, Paul B Robbins, David D Chism, Daniel Cho, Michael B Atkins, Michael S Gordon, Sumati Gupta, Hirotsugu Uemura, Yoshihiko Tomita, Anna Compagnoni, Camilla Fowst, Alessandra di Pietro, Brian I Rini
BACKGROUND: The combination of an immune checkpoint inhibitor and a VEGF pathway inhibitor to treat patients with advanced renal-cell carcinoma might increase the clinical benefit of these drugs compared with their use alone. Here, we report preliminary results for the combination of avelumab, an IgG1 monoclonal antibody against the programmed cell death protein ligand PD-L1, and axitinib, a VEGF receptor inhibitor approved for second-line treatment of advanced renal-cell carcinoma, in treatment-naive patients with advanced renal-cell carcinoma...
March 9, 2018: Lancet Oncology
Ariel E Marciscano, Ravi A Madan
Bacillus Calmette-Guérin in urothelial carcinoma, high-dose interleukin-2 in renal cell carcinoma, and sipuleucel-T in prostate cancer serve as enduring examples that the host immune response can be harnessed to promote effective anti-tumor immunity in genitourinary malignancies. Recently, cancer immunotherapy with immune checkpoint inhibitors has transformed the prognostic landscape leading to durable responses in a subset of urothelial carcinoma and renal cell carcinoma patients with traditionally poor prognosis...
March 8, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Oncology
Peter Makhov, Sei Naito, Miki Haifler, Alexander Kutikov, Yanis Boumber, Robert G Uzzo, Vladimir M Kolenko
Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the most common form of kidney cancer. While cure remains exceptionally infrequent in RCC patients with systemic or recurrent disease, current targeted molecular strategies, including multi-targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), notably changed the treatment paradigm of advanced renal cancer. Yet, complete and durable responses have been noted in only a few cases. Our studies reveal that sunitinib triggers two resistance-promoting signaling pathways in RCC cells, which emanate from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response: a PERK-driven ER stress response that induces expression of the pro-tumorigenic cytokines IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α, and a TRAF2-mediated NF-κB survival program that protects tumor cells against cell death...
March 7, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
Mark A Samaan, Polychronis Pavlidis, Sophie Papa, Nick Powell, Peter M Irving
Immune checkpoint inhibitor therapies are a novel group of monoclonal antibodies with proven effectiveness in a wide range of malignancies, including melanoma, renal cell carcinoma, non-small-cell lung cancer, urothelial carcinoma and Hodgkin lymphoma. Their use in a range of other indications, such as gastrointestinal and head and neck cancer, is currently under investigation. The number of agents included in this drug group is increasing, as is their use. Although they have the potential to improve the treatment of advanced malignancies, they are also associated with a substantial risk of immune-related adverse events...
March 7, 2018: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Masood Umer, Yasir Mohib, Muhammed Atif, Muhammad Nazim
Background: Renal cell carcinoma account for 3% of all cancers, with peak incidence between 60 and 70 years of age predominantly affecting male population. Renal carcinoma is the most common malignancy of kidney constitutes for 80-90% of renal neoplasm with an overall 45% five years survival rate. Majority are diagnosed incidentally during investigation for other disease process of abdomen. Classical triad of gross hematuria, pain and palpable mass in abdomen is rare accounting to only 6-10%...
March 2018: Annals of Medicine and Surgery
Jianguo Zhu, Haige Li, Liucheng Ding, Hongyong Cheng
RATIONALE: Epithelioid angiomyolipoma (EAML) is an extremely rare disease. It commonly occurs in middle-aged females and mainly involves the kidney. Histological and immunohistochemical examination play important roles in differentiating EAML from renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and poor-fat angiomyolipoma (AML). PATIENT CONCERNS: Here, We report the imaging phenotype, as well as the pathological findings of a case of EAML in a 39-year-old female. DIAGNOSES: Preoperative noncontrast computed tomography (CT) scan revealed a 6...
January 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Shaojin Zhang, Juanjuan He, Zhankui Jia, Zechen Yan, Jinjian Yang
BACKGROUND: Acetyl-CoA synthetase 2 (ACSS2) is highly expressed in various cancers, whereas ACSS2 expression and function in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) are unknown. METHODS: We investigated ACSS2 expression in 198 human RCC tissues using immunohistochemistry, and analyzed its clinicopathological correlation and prognostic relevance. Overexpression and knockdown of ACSS2 were used to investigate the proliferation, migration and invasion of human RCC 786-O, 769-P, and ACHN cell lines...
March 1, 2018: Urologic Oncology
Ryan Hutchinson, Charles Rew, Gong Chen, Solomon Woldu, Laura-Maria Krabbe, Matthew Meissner, Kunj Sheth, Nirmish Singla, Nabeel Shakir, Viraj A Master, Jose A Karam, Surena F Matin, Leonardo D Borregales, Christopher Wood, Timothy Masterson, R Houston Thompson, Stephen A Boorjian, Bradley C Leibovich, E Jason Abel, Aditya Bagrodia, Vitaly Margulis
OBJECTIVES: To characterize the presence of bland (non-tumor) thrombus in advanced renal cell carcinoma and assess the impact of this finding on cancer-specific survival. METHODS: A multi-institutional database of patients treated with nephrectomy with caval thrombectomy for locally-advanced renal tumors was assembled from five tertiary care medical centers. Using clinicopathologic variables including patient age, BMI, ECOG status, tumor stage, grade, nodal status and histology, nearest-neighbor and multiple propensity score matched cohorts of bland thrombus versus non-bland thrombus patients were assessed...
February 27, 2018: Urology
Elvira Schmidt, Johanna Lister, Monika Neumann, Witold Wiecek, Shuai Fu, Anne-Lise Vataire, Jelena Sostar, Shengnan Huang, Florence Marteau
BACKGROUND: Cabozantinib has recently been evaluated as a first-line treatment in advanced renal cell carcinoma (aRCC). OBJECTIVE: To indirectly assess efficacy of cabozantinib versus standard-of-care (SoC) comparators in the first-line treatment of aRCC. METHODS: We conducted a systematic literature review (SLR) to identify randomized controlled studies in the first-line setting for aRCC. The outcomes analyzed were overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS)...
February 28, 2018: Targeted Oncology
Ricardo H Alvarez, Rabih I Bechara, Michael J Naughton, Javier A Adachi, James M Reuben
Substantial improvements in the early detection and treatment of breast cancer have led to improvements in survival, but breast cancer remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in women. In 2012, the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor everolimus was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of advanced breast cancer in patients resistant to endocrine therapy. Although everolimus is generally well tolerated, mTOR inhibitor-associated pneumonitis is one of the most common adverse drug events leading to treatment discontinuation...
February 27, 2018: Oncologist
Nizar M Tannir, Sumanta K Pal, Michael B Atkins
The management of advanced clear-cell renal cell carcinoma has steadily improved over the past decade with the introduction of antiangiogenic and targeted therapies. Recently, three new therapies have been approved for use as second-line options that further advance the treatment armamentarium: nivolumab, a monoclonal antibody targeting the programmed cell death receptor; cabozantinib, a small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR), MET, and AXL; and lenvatinib, a small-molecule TKI of VEGF and fibroblast growth factor receptors that is used in combination with everolimus, an inhibitor of the mechanistic target of rapamycin...
February 27, 2018: Oncologist
(no author information available yet)
The phase III IMmotion151 trial found that the combination of atezolizumab and bevacizumab boosts progression-free survival compared with sunitinib in patients with advanced or metastatic renal cell carcinoma. The increase was 2.8 months in all patients and 3.5 months in patients with PD-L1-positive tumors.
February 26, 2018: Cancer Discovery
Emily Kim, Stefan Zschiedrich
von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease is an autosomal dominant syndrome caused by mutations in the VHL tumor-suppressor gene, leading to the dysregulation of many hypoxia-induced genes. Affected individuals are at increased risk of developing recurrent and bilateral kidney cysts and dysplastic lesions which may progress to clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). Following the eponymous VHL gene inactivation, ccRCCs evolve through additional genetic alterations, resulting in both intratumor and intertumor heterogeneity...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Magdalena M Gilg, Hans-Peter Gröchenig, Andrea Schlemmer, Andreas Eherer, Christoph Högenauer, Cord Langner
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The gastrointestinal tract (GIT) is rarely affected by secondary tumors. Patients often present at advanced stage, and prognosis is dismal. This study aimed to analyze clinical, endoscopic and pathological features of secondary tumors that had been diagnosed endoscopically. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective database analysis of 217 patients with secondary tumors of the GIT. Endoscopic findings and histological diagnoses were systematically re-evaluated...
February 21, 2018: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
(no author information available yet)
Axitinib plus pembrolizumab has a 73% response rate in previously untreated advanced renal cell carcinoma.
February 23, 2018: Cancer Discovery
Cesar E Ochoa, Richard W Joseph
Targeted agents form the backbone of most therapeutic strategies in advanced renal cell carcinoma (aRCC) but ultimately resistance develops and toxicity often leads to discontinuation of treatment, limiting the clinical benefits of these treatments. Nivolumab, a fully human IgG4 anti-PD-1 antibody, selectively blocks the interaction between PD-1 and its ligands PD-L1 and PD-L2 and provides a novel therapy option for patients with aRCC. In 2015, the pivotal phase III study CheckMate 025 led to the Food and Drug Administration approval of nivolumab in patients with aRCC who had received prior anti-angiogenic therapy, and in 2017, the phase III study CheckMate 214 showed that combined immunotherapy with nivolumab plus ipilimumab resulted in greater objective response rate and prolonged progression-free survival when compared with sunitinib in intermediate- and poor-risk patients with previously untreated aRCC...
2018: Journal of Kidney Cancer and VHL
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