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mediastinal pathology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103116/acute-leukemia-and-concurrent-mediastinal-germ-cell-tumor-case-report-and-literature-review
#1
Luke Maese, K David Li, Xinjie Xu, Zeinab Afify, Christian N Paxton, Angelica Putnam
There is a known association of primary nonseminomatous mediastinal germ cell tumors (NSMGCT) and hematologic malignancy in younger males not linked to treatment. When combined these two rare entities convey a very poor prognosis. Here we report a 16-year-old male with an anterior mediastinal mass diagnosed as a malignant germ cell tumor based on elevation of serologic markers. He was found to have acute leukemia with megakaryocytic differentiation several days later. We focus our report on the pathologic findings, including a review of the literature, and a novel molecular analysis of the germ cell tumor...
January 19, 2017: Fetal and Pediatric Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062264/structure-and-anatomy-of-the-human-pericardium
#2
REVIEW
E Rene Rodriguez, Carmela D Tan
The normal gross anatomy and light microscopy of the human pericardium is presented in detail that allows easy correlation with current cardiac imaging modalities. The anatomical structures of the parietal pericardium are shown from its mediastinal surface, including its ligaments to the sternum diaphragm and vertebral column. The attachments of the parietal pericardium to the great vessels showing the intrapericardial location of the root of the aorta and pulmonary artery are documented. Also the attachments of the parietal pericardium to the venae cavae and the pulmonary veins are illustrated in detail...
January 3, 2017: Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056871/lung-adenocarcinoma-expressing-receptor-for-advanced-glycation-end-products-with-primary-systemic-al-amyloidosis-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#3
Shouichi Okamoto, Shinsaku Togo, Ichiro Nagata, Kazue Shimizu, Yoshika Koinuma, Yukiko Namba, Jun Ito, Toshimasa Uekusa, Kazuhisa Takahashi
BACKGROUND: Receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE), a receptor for amyloids, is constitutively expressed in lungs and generally observed to be downregulated in lung cancer tissues. However, increasing levels of RAGE or serum amyloids is associated with poor outcome in lung cancer patients. We report a rare case of primary systemic amyloid light-chain (AL) amyloidosis in biopsy-proven multiple organs with early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) that displayed strong staining for RAGE in the tumour tissue...
January 5, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054283/mediastinal-seminoma-associated-with-multilocular-thymic-cyst
#4
Masato Inui, Jun-Ichi Nitadori, Shogo Tajima, Takahusa Yoshioka, Noriko Hiyama, Takeyuki Watadani, Aya Shinozaki-Ushiku, Kazuhiro Nagayama, Masaki Anraku, Masaaki Sato, Masashi Fukayama, Jun Nakajima
An asymptomatic 26-year-old man received an annual medical check-up, and chest X-ray showed a protrusion of the aortopulmonary window. Chest computed tomography (CT) revealed an anterior mediastinal tumor and cysts with thin wall and septum enhancement. The preoperative diagnosis was cystic thymoma or malignant lymphoma. We performed total resection of the tumor through a median sternotomy. The pathological findings revealed seminoma, positive for c-kit stain, and multilocular thymic cysts. Cysts were lined by normal squamous epithelium and no seminoma cells were located on their surface...
December 2017: Surgical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051017/endobronchial-ultrasound-guided-transbronchial-needle-aspiration-increases-the-yield-of-transbronchial-lung-biopsy-for-the-evaluation-of-peribronchial-lesions
#5
Cheng Chen, Chuan-Yong Mu, Mei-Qin Su, Jing-Yu Mao, Ye-Han Zhu, Jian-An Huang
BACKGROUND: Due to absence of visible endobronchial target, the diagnostic yield of flexible bronchoscopy for peribronchial lesions has been unsatisfactory. Convex probe endobronchial ultrasound (CP-EBUS) has allowed for performing real-time transbronchial needle aspiration (TBNA) of enlarged hilar and mediastinal lymph nodes and therefore could also be used as a means of diagnosing proximal peribronchial lesions. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the results related to 72 patients who underwent CP-EBUS for peribronchial lesions without endobronchial involvement and adjacent to three-grade bronchi based on chest computed tomography (CT) scan...
2017: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050776/enlarged-mediastinal-air-cyst-in-a-patient-with-bronchial-diverticula-localized-in-the-left-main-bronchus-a-case-report-with-surgical-and-bronchoscopic-findings
#6
Hideo Ichimura, Yuichiro Ozawa, Masanari Shiigai, Seiji Shiotani, Kazunori Kikuchi, Yukio Sato
BACKGROUND: A mediastinal air cyst is a rare computed tomography (CT) finding. Once the lesion is identified, it is difficult to diagnose and treat. Meanwhile, bronchial diverticula have been reported as a CT finding observed in certain pulmonary pathologic conditions. We encountered the case of an enlarged mediastinal air cyst accompanied with bronchial diverticula and upper lobe-dominant fibrous changes of the lung. CASE PRESENTATION: A 69-year-old man with a chronic cough who had regularly visited a chest physician for upper lobe-dominant pulmonary fibrosis was referred to our hospital for the examination of an enlarged mediastinal air cyst...
December 2017: Surgical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050696/ct-guided-core-needle-biopsy-of-mediastinal-nodes-through-a-transpulmonary-approach-retrospective-analysis-of-the-procedures-conducted-over-six-years
#7
Zhongyuan Yin, Zhiwen Liang, Pengcheng Li, Qiong Wang
PURPOSE: To retrospectively evaluate the diagnostic performance and complications of a CT-guided core needle cutting biopsy of mediastinal nodes through a transpulmonary approach. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From January 2009 to December 2014, we used a coaxial positioning system and an 18G cutting-type biopsy device to perform CT-guided percutaneous transpulmonary needle biopsies of mediastinal nodes for 127 patients. The diagnostic performance, complication rate, influencing factors, distribution of mediastinal nodes and pathological diagnoses were investigated...
January 3, 2017: European Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044305/clinicopathological-analysis-of-mediastinal-masses-a-mixed-bag-of-non-neoplastic-and-neoplastic-etiologies
#8
Preeti Sharma, Vidya Jha, Naveen Kumar, Rohit Kumar, Ashish Mandal
OBJECTIVE: The mediastinum is the central portion of the thoracic cavity, housing numerous organs and harbouring a mixed bag of non-neoplastic and neoplastic lesions. Accurate diagnosis is essential owing to the widely variable therapeutic and prognostic implications. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Cases of mediastinal masses were retrospectively reviewed from January 2011 till January 2016. Clinico-radiological records of these cases were retrieved. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) was performed wherever feasible...
2017: Türk Patoloji Dergisi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044001/resection-of-giant-mediastinal-liposarcoma-via-%C3%A2-shape-incision
#9
Wei Huang, Ge Ning Jiang
Primary mediastinal liposarcomas are extremely rare conditions often resected through standard median sternotomy or lateral thoracotomy. However, the management of a very huge mediastinal tumor involving hemithorax through these two common surgical approaches is always challenging. Herein, we report a case of applying median sternotomy with a sternum transection plus a right fourth intercostal thoracotomy ('⊣ shape' incision) to resect a giant primary anterior mediastinal liposarcoma extending into the whole right thorax...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Surgical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043581/common-features-of-tuberculosis-and-sarcoidosis
#10
Esmaeil Mortaz, Mohammad Reza Masjedi, Atefeh Abedini, Soheila Matroodi, Arda Kiani, Dina Soroush, Ian M Adcock
Tuberculosis (TB) is a disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Despite the availability of novel therapeutic approaches, TB is considered as one of the leading causes of death due to infectious diseases worldwide. Alveolar macrophages are the first line of defense against M. tuberculosis; they ingest and sequester the bacilli within granulomatous structures. Control and resolution of the infection requires activated T lymphocytes as well as Th1 cytokines. There are two forms of TB: active TB and latent TB...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043483/outcome-of-patients-with-pn2-potentially-resectable-nonsmall-cell-lung-cancer-who-underwent-surgery-after-induction-chemotherapy
#11
Lorenzo Spaggiari, Monica Casiraghi, Juliana Guarize, Daniela Brambilla, Francesco Petrella, Patrick Maisonneuve, Filippo De Marinis
Patients with stage IIIA-ipsilateral mediastinal lymph node involvement (N2) non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) represent a heterogeneous group with different clinical presentation. The aim of this study was to analyze a series of patients with "potentially resectable" stage IIIA-pathologically proven N2 (pN2) NSCLC undergoing induction chemotherapy followed by surgery to evaluate their long-term outcomes and to identify prognostic factors. Out of 287 patients who underwent induction chemotherapy for NSCLC with ipsilateral mediastinal lymph node involvement pathologically proven, we retrospectively evaluated 141 (49%) patients with no clinical evidence of progression after induction chemotherapy and candidates for surgery...
July 2016: Seminars in Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025474/mediastinal-tuberculous-lymphadenitis-diagnosed-by-endosonographic-fine-needle-aspiration
#12
Joonhwan Kim, Youngwoo Jang, Kyung Oh Kim, Yoon Jae Kim, Dong Kyun Park, Dong Hae Chung, Eun Young Kim, Jun Won Chung
Isolated mediastinal tuberculous lymphadenitis is clinically rare. Its clinical presentation may mimic an esophageal submucosal tumor by extrinsic compression. A 26-year-old woman was referred to our hospital for an esophageal subepithelial tumor. A 15×10 mm sized subepithelial lesion was found 30 cm from the upper incisors on esophagogastroduodenoscopy. We diagnosed the lesion as a submucosal tumor, and performed endoscopic ultrasonography-guided fine needle aspiration for a pathologic diagnosis. The histologic examination revealed granulomatous inflammation consistent with tuberculosis...
December 25, 2016: Korean Journal of Gastroenterology, Taehan Sohwagi Hakhoe Chi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018814/spontaneous-rupture-of-a-mediastinal-bronchial-artery-aneurysm-induced-by-anticoagulant-agent
#13
Zhimin Wang, Chenghua Xu, Xiaoxiao Ding, Jinying Chen, Huaping Xin
Nontraumatic spontaneous rupture of a bronchial artery aneurysm is rarely seen. In this report, we described such a phenomenon in a patient induced by usage of anticoagulant agent. The patient had no antecedent history of trauma, hypertension, or apparent aortic pathology. The patient who had been taking low-molecular-weight heparin and warfarin to treat deep vein thrombosis complained of a sudden upper abdomen pain with shortness of breath and hypoxemia. The patient was diagnosed and treated for an acute hemomediastinum caused by a ruptured bronchial artery aneurysm...
December 2016: Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgeon Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27942412/surgical-management-of-oligometastatic-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#14
REVIEW
Nuria M Novoa, Gonzalo Varela, Marcelo F Jiménez
The oligometastatic stage IV non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) offers a new surgical opportunity. New reported data is showing that surgery can offer a reasonable benefit, in terms of long-term survival, to some patients. The advantages of surgical treatment rely on a more adequate patient selection and a better understanding of the biology of these tumors. Currently, mediastinal involvement of the primary tumor can be identified as the most important prognostic variable after curative-intent of synchronous or metachronous metastasis...
November 2016: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941212/coexistence-of-systemic-sclerosis-and-sarcoidosis
#15
Sabina Godziszewska, Małgorzata Widuchowska, Magdalena Kopeć-Mędrek, Eugeniusz Józef Kucharz
Coexistence of systemic sclerosis (SSc) and sarcoidosis (SA) is rarely reported; 21 cases only were reported in the English medical literature before 2011. It is suggested that low incidence of overlap syndrome of SSc with SA is resulted from different immune mechanisms involved in pathogenesis of the diseases. In SSc patients, a role of Th2 lymphocytes is suggested while in patients with SA such role is attributed to Th1 lymphocytes. The paper presents a 47-year-old woman suffering from SSc for over 6 years...
2016: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939010/addition-of-video-assisted-thoracoscopic-surgery-to-the-treatment-of-flail-chest
#16
Judith P M Schots, Yvonne L J Vissers, Karel W E Hulsewé, Berend Meesters, Paul A Hustinx, Annette Pijnenburg, Jan Siebenga, Erik R de Loos
BACKGROUND: Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) is increasingly used in chest trauma for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. In this report we describe our single-institutional experience with VATS in the surgical treatment of patients with flail chest after high-energy trauma. METHODS: From January 2013 to July 2014, 15 patients with flail chest after high-energy trauma were treated in our hospital. The Injury Severity Score (ISS) ranged from 16 to 44...
December 7, 2016: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920842/utility-of-electrocardiography-ecg-gated-computed-tomography-ct-for-preoperative-evaluations-of-thymic-epithelial-tumors
#17
Yoshiyuki Ozawa, Masaki Hara, Motoo Nakagawa, Yuta Shibamoto
BACKGROUND: Preoperative evaluation of invasion to the adjacent organs is important for the thymic epithelial tumors on CT. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the utility of electrocardiography (ECG)-gated CT for assessing thymic epithelial tumors with regard to the motion artifacts produced and the preoperative diagnostic accuracy of the technique. MATERIAL/METHODS: Forty thymic epithelial tumors (36 thymomas and 4 thymic carcinomas) were examined with ECG-gated contrast-enhanced CT using a dual source scanner...
2016: Polish Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895343/cervical-mediastinoscopy-in-the-diagnosis-of-lymphadenopathy-in-south-asia
#18
Sulaiman Bashir Hasan, Fazal Wahab Khan, Shiraz Hashmi, Ahsan Ehtesham, Rizwana Ahmed Magsi, Syed Shahabuddin
We planned to determine the clinical utility and safety of mediastinoscopy in the pathologic diagnosis of mediastinal lymphadenopathy and to determine disease patterns in a tertiary care setting in Karachi. The retrospective review comprised record of patients who underwent mediastinoscopy over 25 years between July, 1990 and August, 2015. Of the 122 patients, records were complete for 88(72%). Mean age was 42.5±12.9 years and 55(62.5%) were male. Overall, 60(68.2%) patients had benign inflammatory diseases; 25 (28...
October 2016: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893684/ct-findings-of-small-cell-lung-carcinoma-can-recognizable-features-be-found
#19
Dongjun Lee, Ji Young Rho, Seunghun Kang, Koun Joy Yoo, Hye Jeong Choi
The purpose of this study was to clarify the recognizable computed tomography (CT) features of small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC).Contrast enhanced CT scans were reviewed retrospectively for mass location, mediastinal extension, and other concomitant findings in 142 patients with pathologically proven SCLC. SCLC was classified into hilar mass only (type I), hilar mass with ipsilateral mediastinal extension (type II), hilar mass with bilateral mediastinal extension (type III), and peripheral mass (type IV). When mediastinal lymphadenopathy (m-LAP) was indistinguishable from a hilar mass, we defined it as a mediastinal conglomerate mass (m-CM)...
November 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890990/percutaneous-computed-tomography-guided-aspiration-and-biopsy-of-intrathoracic-lesions-results-of-265-procedures
#20
Zafar Neyaz, Hira Lal, Anuj Thakral, Alok Nath, Ram Naval Rao, Ritu Verma
CONTEXT: Percutaneous computed tomography (CT)-guided needle aspiration and biopsy technique have developed over time as a method for obtaining tissue specimen. Although this is a minimally invasive procedure, complications do occasionally occur. AIMS: The aim of the study was to evaluate the diagnostic yield and complications of 265 percutaneous CT-guided aspiration and biopsy procedures performed on various intrathoracic lesions. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Data of percutaneous CT-guided aspiration and biopsy procedures of intrathoracic lesions performed over a 4 year period were retrospectively analyzed...
November 2016: Lung India: Official Organ of Indian Chest Society
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