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Heming Guo, Chen Fang, Yun Huang, Yufang Pei, Linqi Chen, Ji Hu
AIMS: Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP4) inhibitors are a novel class of antidiabetic medication in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Several studies have indicated that DPP4 inhibitors could be used for type 1diabetes (T1DM). Here, we performed a meta-analysis to assess the efficacy and safety of DPP4 inhibitor therapy in patients with T1DM. METHODS: We conducted searches on Medline, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, and EMBASE for relevant studies published before November 21, 2015...
September 28, 2016: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
Cally A Jennings, Lira Yun, Christina C Loitz, Eun-Young Lee, W Kerry Mummery
CONTEXT: Stair climbing is an accessible activity that can be incorporated into one's daily lifestyle to increase physical activity levels and provide health benefits. This review summarizes the effectiveness of stair interventions and explores key differences that may influence intervention effectiveness. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: Interventions to increase stair use published from January 1990 to July 2015 were identified in PubMed, Sport Discus, Web of Science, Environment Complete, CINAHL, Trial Register of Promoting Health Interventions, Embase, Scopus, and PsycINFO...
October 5, 2016: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
A Madhavan, L A LaGorio, M A Crary, W J Dahl, G D Carnaby
OBJECTIVES: This review clarifies current information regarding the prevalence of and risk factors associated with dysphagia (swallowing disorders) in the community dwelling elderly (CDE). A better understanding of prevalence and characteristics of dysphagia in the CDE will help to determine the scope of this problem. Understanding the scope of dysphagia is a critical first step towards early identification, management, and prevention of dysphagia related morbidities in the CDE. METHODS: Studies identified from multiple electronic databases (MEDLINE (Pubmed), PsychInfo, Google Scholar, EBSCO, PROQUEST, Web of Science and WorldCat dissertations and theses) evaluating prevalence and risk factors for dysphagia in the CDE were reviewed...
2016: Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging
Dennis C Liotta, George R Painter
The HIV/AIDS epidemic, which was first reported on in 1981, progressed in just 10 years to a disease afflicting 10 million people worldwide including 1 million in the US. In 1987, AZT was approved for treating HIV/AIDS. Unfortunately, its clinical usefullness was severly limited by associated toxicities and the emergence of resistance. Three other drugs that were approved in the early 1990s suffered from similar liabilities. In 1990, the Liotta group at Emory University developed a highly diastereoselective synthesis of racemic 3'-thia-2',3'-dideoxycytidine and 3'-thia-2',3'-5-fluorodideoxycytidine and demonstrated that these compounds exhibited excellent anti-HIV activity with no apparent cytotoxicity...
October 5, 2016: Accounts of Chemical Research
Lesa L Aylward, Sean M Hays, Angelika Zidek
Population biomonitoring data sets such as the Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS) and the United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) collect and analyze spot urine samples for analysis for biomarkers of exposure to non-persistent chemicals. Estimation of population intakes using such data sets in a risk-assessment context requires consideration of intra- and inter-individual variability to understand the relationship between variation in the biomarker concentrations and variation in the underlying daily and longer-term intakes...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
Marilyn A Nippold
Adolescents with developmental language disorders often do not receive the type of intervention that would improve their ability to speak, listen, read, and write effectively. Part of the problem is that many of these young people show no obvious symptoms of a language disorder, yet they struggle on a daily basis to succeed at school-related tasks that require a sophisticated level of language development. This article discusses some of the challenges these students face and makes suggestions for what could be done to address the issues...
November 2016: Seminars in Speech and Language
Dorian E Ramírez, Charles C Branas, Therese S Richmond, Kent Bream, Dawei Xie, Magda Velásquez-Tohom, Douglas J Wiebe
OBJECTIVE: To assess if violent deaths were associated with pay days in Guatemala. DESIGN: Interrupted time series analysis. SETTING: Guatemalan national autopsy databases. PARTICIPANTS: Daily violence-related autopsy data for 22 418 decedents from 2009 to 2012. Data were provided by the Guatemalan National Institute of Forensic Sciences. Multiple pay-day lags and other important days such as holidays were tested. OUTCOME MEASURES: Absolute and relative estimates of excess violent deaths on pay days and holidays...
October 3, 2016: Injury Prevention: Journal of the International Society for Child and Adolescent Injury Prevention
Shelby R Hayes, Ashley J Vargas
: Goldenberg JZ, Lytvyn L, Steurich J, Parkin P, Mahant S, Johnston BC. Probiotics for the prevention of pediatric antibiotic-associated diarrhea.Cochrane Database Syst Rev2015, Issue 12. Art. No.: CD004827. BACKGROUND: Antibiotics are frequently prescribed in children. They alter the microbial balance within the gastrointestinal tract, commonly resulting in antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD). Probiotics may prevent AAD via restoration of the gut microflora...
August 26, 2016: Explore: the Journal of Science and Healing
Charlotte Lanhers, Laura Boutevillain, Bruno Pereira, Emmanuel Coudeyre
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to evaluate the place of lumbar support in the management of nonspecific low back pain. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We conducted a systematic review with the following databases: Pubmed, Cochrane Library, Science Direct and Pedro. The search strategy used the keywords low back pain; lumbar orthosis; lumbar belt; back support; lumbar support; lumbar brace. To be included, studies needed to have one or more keywords selected. The search was limited to French and English articles...
September 2016: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
Jelena Barbaric, Rachel Abbott, Pawel Posadzki, Mate Car, Laura H Gunn, Alison M Layton, Azeem Majeed, Josip Car
BACKGROUND: Acne vulgaris is a very common skin problem that presents with blackheads, whiteheads, and inflamed spots. It frequently results in physical scarring and may cause psychological distress. The use of oral and topical treatments can be limited in some people due to ineffectiveness, inconvenience, poor tolerability or side-effects. Some studies have suggested promising results for light therapies. OBJECTIVES: To explore the effects of light treatment of different wavelengths for acne...
September 27, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Morten Magelssen, Elisabeth Gjerberg, Lillian Lillemoen, Reidun Førde, Reidar Pedersen
BACKGROUND: Through the Norwegian ethics project, ethics activities have been implemented in the health and care sector in more than 200 municipalities. OBJECTIVES: To study outcomes of the ethics activities and examine which factors promote and inhibit significance and sustainability of the activities. RESEARCH DESIGN: Two online questionnaires about the municipal ethics activities. PARTICIPANTS AND RESEARCH CONTEXT: A total of 137 municipal contact persons for the ethics project answered the first survey (55% response rate), whereas 217 ethics facilitators responded to the second survey (33% response rate)...
September 22, 2016: Nursing Ethics
Adriane B Cardim, Patrícia Em Marinho, Jasiel F Nascimento, Helen Kb Fuzari, Armèle Dornelas de Andrade
Whole-body vibration (WBV) is considered a type of physical activity based on the assumption that it results in an increase in muscle strength and performance and, therefore, may be a promising way to exercise patients with COPD. A comprehensive database search (PubMed/MEDLINE, LILACS, CINAHL, Web of Science, Scopus, and COCHRANE Library) for randomized trials, including original articles, that compared WBV groups versus control groups was conducted and studies were selected for comparison. The effect of WBV treatment was compared for minimum clinically important differences...
September 20, 2016: Respiratory Care
O Wirjadi, Y-J Kim, F Stech, L Bonfert, M Wagner
Image segmentation aims to determine structures of interest inside a digital picture in biomedical sciences. State-of-the art automatic methods however still fail to provide the segmentation quality achievable by humans who employ expert knowledge and use software to mark target structures on an image. Manual segmentation is time-consuming, tedious and suffers from interoperator variability, thus not serving the requirements of daily use well. Therefore, the approach presented here abandons the goal of full-fledged segmentation and settles for the localization of circular objects in photographs (10 training images and 20 testing images with several hundreds of nuclei each)...
September 20, 2016: Journal of Microscopy
Marko Kolšek, Zalika Klemenc Ketiš
BACKGROUND: Hazardous and harmful alcohol drinking is an important health, social and economic issue in Slovenia amongst all age groups. While drinking in Slovenia has been well researched amongst elementary and high school students, there is a lack of research on drinking amongst university students. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study among first- and fourth-year students of the University of Maribor, Slovenia, attending the mandatory preventive health check between October 2009 and May 2010...
December 2015: Zdravstveno Varstvo
Brian Hutton, Lisa D Burry, Salmaan Kanji, Sangeeta Mehta, Melanie Guenette, Claudio M Martin, Dean A Fergusson, Neill K Adhikari, Ingrid Egerod, David Williamson, Sharon Straus, David Moher, E Wesley Ely, Louise Rose
BACKGROUND: Sedatives and analgesics are administered to provide sedation and manage agitation and pain in most critically ill mechanically ventilated patients. Various sedation administration strategies including protocolized sedation and daily sedation interruption are used to mitigate drug pharmacokinetic limitations and minimize oversedation, thereby shortening the duration of mechanical ventilation. At present, it is unclear which strategy is most effective, as few have been directly compared...
2016: Systematic Reviews
Kazuomi Kario
The essential benefit of the management of hypertension is derived from the blood pressure (BP) lowering per se, indicating the importance of BP throughout 24 hours. Recent guidelines stressed the importance of home BP for the diagnosis and management of hypertension. It is well-known that cardiovascular events occur more frequently in the morning BP levels have been shown to increase during the period from night to early morning. Clinical research using ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM) or home BP monitoring has clarified that morning BP and BP surge are more closely related to the cardiovascular risk than office BP (Kario et al...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
E Paul Zehr
Many think that communicating science is a necessary and rewarding activity. Yet finding compelling, relevant, and timely points of linkage between challenging scientific concepts and the experiences and interests of the general public can be difficult. Since science continues to influence more and more aspects of daily life and knowledge, there is a parallel need for communication about science in our society. Here I discuss the "middle-ground hypothesis" using popular culture for science communication and applying the "FUNnel model," where popular culture is used as a lead-in and wrap-up when discussing science...
September 2016: ENeuro
Stéphanie Roberge, Kypros Nicolaides, Suzanne Demers, Jon Hyett, Nils Chaillet, Emmanuel Bujold
BACKGROUND: Preeclampsia (PE) and fetal growth restriction (FGR) are major causes of perinatal death and handicap in survivors. Randomized clinical trials (RCTs) have reported that the risk of PE, severe PE and FGR can be reduced by the prophylactic use of aspirin in high-risk women, but the appropriate dose of the drug to achieve this objective is not certain. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the impact of aspirin dosage on the prevention of PE, severe PE and FGR. STUDY DESIGN: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of RCTs comparing the effect of daily aspirin or placebo (or no treatment) during pregnancy...
September 15, 2016: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Honghu Liu, Ron D Hays, Marvin Marcus, Ian Coulter, Carl Maida, Francisco Ramos-Gomez, Jie Shen, Yan Wang, Vladimir Spolsky, Steve Lee, Li Cai, James Crall
BACKGROUND: Oral health is an important component of daily functioning and well-being. A comprehensive patient-reported oral health measure is needed to gauge the impact of oral health status on children and adolescents. This study aims to develop oral health item banks and associated short-form surveys for children and adolescents 2-17 year olds. METHODS: Using children and adolescents, ages 2-17 years, selected from diverse dental sites in Greater Los Angeles Area, we propose to develop state-of-the-science methods to create oral health item banks to effectively measure oral health outcomes for children and adolescents...
2016: BMC Oral Health
Lindsay McLaren, Nureen Sumar, Amanda M Barberio, Kathy Trieu, Diane L Lorenzetti, Valerie Tarasuk, Jacqui Webster, Norman Rc Campbell
BACKGROUND: Excess dietary sodium consumption is a risk factor for high blood pressure, stroke and cardiovascular disease. Currently, dietary sodium consumption in almost every country is too high. Excess sodium intake is associated with high blood pressure, which is common and costly and accounts for significant burden of disease. A large number of jurisdictions worldwide have implemented population-level dietary sodium reduction initiatives. No systematic review has examined the impact of these initiatives...
September 16, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
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