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Vessela Stamenova, Brian Levine
Our objective was to review the literature and quantitatively summarise the effectiveness of Goal Management Training® (GMT) (alone or in combination with other training approaches) in improving executive functions in adult populations. Ovid, Scopus, Web of Science, and ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global were searched for articles citing "goal management training". Any group trials (n > 3) in adults that used multiple-session GMT programmes were included in the analyses. Outcome variables were extracted and classified into one of nine cognitive measures domains: executive functioning tasks, everyday executive functioning tasks, subjective executive tasks rated by the patient, subjective executive tasks rated by proxy, working memory, speed of processing, long-term memory, instrumental activities of daily living and general mental health status questionnaires...
March 14, 2018: Neuropsychological Rehabilitation
Danielle H Dube
"Drug Discovery" is a 13-week lecture and laboratory-based course that was developed to introduce non-science majors to foundational chemistry and biochemistry concepts as they relate to the unifying theme of drug discovery. The first part of this course strives to build students' understanding of molecules, their properties, the differences that enable them to be separated from one another, and their abilities to bind to biological receptors and elicit physiological effects. After building students' molecular worldview, the course then focuses on four classes of drugs: antimicrobials, drugs that affect the mind, steroid-based drugs, and anti-cancer drugs...
March 12, 2018: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education
Christian Maurer, Jonathan Baré, Jolanta Kusmierczyk-Michulec, Alice Crawford, Paul W Eslinger, Petra Seibert, Blake Orr, Anne Philipp, Ole Ross, Sylvia Generoso, Pascal Achim, Michael Schoeppner, Alain Malo, Anders Ringbom, Olivier Saunier, Denis Quèlo, Anne Mathieu, Yuichi Kijima, Ariel Stein, Tianfeng Chai, Fong Ngan, Susan J Leadbetter, Pieter De Meutter, Andy Delcloo, Rich Britton, Ashley Davies, Lee G Glascoe, Donald D Lucas, Matthew D Simpson, Phil Vogt, Martin Kalinowski, Theodore W Bowyer
After performing a first multi-model exercise in 2015 a comprehensive and technically more demanding atmospheric transport modelling challenge was organized in 2016. Release data were provided by the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization radiopharmaceutical facility in Sydney (Australia) for a one month period. Measured samples for the same time frame were gathered from six International Monitoring System stations in the Southern Hemisphere with distances to the source ranging between 680 (Melbourne) and about 17,000 km (Tristan da Cunha)...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Wei Li, Fan Ping, Lingling Xu, Meicen Zhou, Hongmei Li, Yaxiu Dong, Yuxiu Li
INTRODUCTION: We compared the effects of insulin lispro mix 25 (LM25) and insulin lispro mix 50 (LM50) on postprandial glucose excursion in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). METHODS: In this randomized, open-label, investigator-initiated trial, 81 T2DM patients treated with premixed human insulin 70/30 (PHI70/30) for more than 90 days were randomly divided into two groups and received a crossover protocol of either LM25 or LM50 twice daily for 16 weeks...
March 8, 2018: Diabetes Therapy: Research, Treatment and Education of Diabetes and related Disorders
Eric K Layland, Brian H Calhoun, Michael A Russell, Jennifer L Maggs
College drinking and its negative consequences remain a major public health concern. Yet, many prevention efforts targeting college drinkers are expensive, are difficult to implement, use indicated approaches targeting only high-risk drinkers, and/or are only marginally effective. An alternative strategy taken explicitly or implicitly by many colleges is campus-led alcohol-free programming which provides students with attractive leisure alternatives to drinking on weekend nights. This study aimed to extend work by Patrick et al...
March 8, 2018: Prevention Science: the Official Journal of the Society for Prevention Research
Vanali Vinodbhai Umrania, Pawar Chandrashekara Rao Deepika, Madhuri Kulkarni
Context: Host modulation with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs) has anti-inflammatory and pro-resolution actions through replacing and inhibiting metabolism of arachidonic acid (AA). Aim: This study was aimed at evaluating clinical parameters and salivary levels of interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) after scaling and root planing (SRP) in chronic periodontitis patients, with and without dietary supplementation of ω-3 PUFAs. Settings and Design: Forty otherwise healthy participants with severe chronic periodontitis were included...
September 2017: Journal of Indian Society of Periodontology
Yoo Jung Park, Sun Wook Park, Han Suk Lee
Objectives: The goals of this study were to assess the effectiveness of WBV (whole body vibration) training through an analysis of effect sizes, identify advantages of WBV training, and suggest other effective treatment methods. Methods: Four databases, namely, EMBASE, PubMed, EBSCO, and Web of Science, were used to collect articles on vibration. Keywords such as "vibration" and "stroke" were used in the search for published articles. Consequently, eleven studies were selected in the second screening using meta-analyses...
2018: BioMed Research International
Hilary Aroke, Ashley Buchanan, Xuerong Wen, Peter Ragosta, Jennifer Koziol, Stephen Kogut
BACKGROUND: Overuse and misuse of prescription opioids is associated with increased morbidity and mortality and places a significant cost burden on health systems. OBJECTIVE: To estimate annual statewide spending for prescription opioids in Rhode Island. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of opioids dispensed from retail pharmacies using data from the Rhode Island Prescription Drug Monitoring Program (PDMP) was performed. The study sample consisted of 651,227 opioid prescriptions dispensed to 197,062 patients between January 1, 2015, and December 31, 2015...
March 2018: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
Liya Zhuge, Youhua Wang, Shuang Wu, Ru-Lin Zhao, Zhen Li, Yong Xie
Antibiotic resistance is a major cause of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) treatment failures. Because the resistance rate of H. pylori to furazolidone is low, we aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of furazolidone. We searched the PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and Embase databases and included randomized controlled trials (RCT) that either compared furazolidone to other antibiotics or changed the administered dose of furazolidone. A total of 18 articles were included in the meta-analysis. According to the intention-to-treat (ITT) analysis, the total eradication rates of furazolidone-containing therapy were superior to those of other antibiotic-containing therapies (relative risk [RR] 1...
February 26, 2018: Helicobacter
Jonas Schröder, Steven Truijen, Tamaya Van Criekinge, Wim Saeys
Purpose It is hypothesized that peripheral somatosensory stimulation (PSS) can promote postural recovery after stroke by increasing afferent input and postural contribution of the paretic leg. Therefore, this systematic review aims to investigate which PSS approaches are documented and investigated on effectiveness. Methods Five databases (PubMed, Web of Science, PEDro, Cochrane Library Trials, RehabData) have been searched on clinical studies in stroke rehabilitation, investigating PSS, which is defined as a non-motor and focal stimulation to the paretic leg aiming an increase in somatosensory input...
February 23, 2018: Topics in Stroke Rehabilitation
Luke E Grzeskowiak, Lisa G Smithers, Lisa H Amir, Rosalie M Grivell
BACKGROUND: Mothers of preterm infants often struggle to produce enough breast milk to meet the nutritional needs of their infant. Galactagogues such as domperidone are often prescribed to increase breast milk supply, but evidence supporting their role in clinical practice is uncertain. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of domperidone for increasing breast milk volume in mothers expressing breast milk for their preterm infants. SEARCH STRATEGY: Medline, Embase, and Web of Science were searched without language restrictions, from first publication until January 2017...
February 22, 2018: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Youkang Dong, Rong Zhao, Chunlin Wang, Taipin Guo
BACKGROUND: Osteoporosis is one kind of commonly and frequently occurring global disease accompanying with serious complications. As a branch of the subject of Acupuncture-Tuina, tuina is widely applied for osteoporosis alone or combined with other methods in China and other nations while its effective evidence is not clear. Hence, this systematic review protocol purpose is to evaluate the value of its efficacy and safety for osteoporosis. METHODS: This systematic review and meta-analysis will be performed by means of electronic databases including Cochrane Library, Medline, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, EBASE, Springer, WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP), China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Wanfang database, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (CBM), Chinese Scientific Journal Database (VIP) and others with valid search strategy probably...
February 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
E A Maden, C Altun, B Ozmen, F Basak
Aim: This in vivo study was designed to compare the antimicrobial effect of toothpastes containing fluoride, xylitol, or xylitol-probiotic on Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus in 13-15-year-old children. Materials and Methods: The study consisted of 60 pediatric patients who were randomly divided into three groups of 20 each. Group 1 recieved fluoride toothpaste (Colgate Max Fresh), group 2 used xylitol toothpaste (Xyliwhite), and group 3 used xylitol-probiotic toothpaste (PerioBiotic)...
February 2018: Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice
Shannon Robalino, Sarange B Nyakang'o, Fiona R Beyer, Chris Fox, Louise M Allan
BACKGROUND: The annual prevalence of falls in people with dementia ranges from 47 to 90%. Falls are a common reason for hospital admission in people with dementia, and there is limited research evidence regarding the care pathways experienced by this population. In addition to immediate management of an injury, prevention of further falls is likely to be an important part of any successful intervention. This review aims to assess the effectiveness of interventions for improving the physical and psychological wellbeing of people with dementia who have sustained a fall-related injury...
February 20, 2018: Systematic Reviews
Hadeel R Bakhsh, Jaleel Mohammed, Shahrukh K Hashmi
The aim of this review is to show the importance of occupational therapy/hand therapy for chronic graft-versus-host-disease (GVHD) patients and to outline the current state of the literature. GVHD of the hand can cause functional loss, reduced activities of daily life, poor social interaction, and loss of income because of limitations in work. Hand therapy, which is a specialty practised by both occupational therapists and physical therapists, has been proven to be an effective approach for hand-related musculoskeletal disorders; however, the literature search suggests that it is an underutilized specialty around the world...
February 14, 2018: International Journal of Rehabilitation Research. Revue Internationale de Recherches de Réadaptation
Lillemor Lindwall, Maj-Britt Råholm, Vibeke Lohne, Synnøve Caspari, Anne Kari Tolo Heggestad, Berit Saeteren, Åshild Slettebø, Bente Høy, Dagfinn Nåden
The implementation of theoretical knowledge in clinical practice and the implementation of good clinical practice into theory have been of interest in caring science for the last 30 years. The aim of this article was to elaborate and discuss a methodology named clinical application research. The method is grounded in a hermeneutical design inspired by Gadamer's philosophy. The methodology, clinical application research, has been used in a research project A life in dignity and experiences from the researchers forms the bases for the elaboration and discussion...
February 20, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences
Rhiza Regalado Lam Chew Tun, Nancy Porhownik, Shayne Taback, Curtis Oleschuk
BACKGROUND: The effect of a high dose oral cholecalciferol repletion strategy in Vitamin D insufficient adults with CF is still unknown. Therefore, we assessed the effectiveness of our current approach, giving oral vitamin D3 supplementation at a dose of 10,000 IU from Monday to Friday for a total of 50,000 IU D3 weekly in vitamin D insufficient adult with CF. METHODS: We performed a retrospective chart review of all 59 adult CF patients between the ages of 17 and 64 years routinely followed at the CF Adult Program of Winnipeg Health Sciences Centre...
February 2018: Clinical Nutrition ESPEN
Haichao Lan, Fei Liang, Xingxing Jiang, Cong Zhang, Haohai Yu, Zheshuai Lin, Huaijin Zhang, Jiyang Wang, Yicheng Wu
Mid-infrared (mid-IR) coherent light is crucial for several applications in science as well as daily life, and its development especially in powerful augmentation is constrained by the availability of nonlinear optical (NLO) materials. The development of useful mid-IR NLO materials is limited by the requirements of a wide mid-IR transparent window, high laser damaged threshold (LDT), and strong NLO effect. It is common knowledge that oxides are not suitable mid-IR NLO materials, as their IR absorption cutoff wavelengths are usually less than 6 μm; however, their LDTs and NLO effects can be large...
February 19, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Juan A Lopez-Rodriguez, Gabriel Rubio Valladolid
BACKGROUND: Information technology in health sciences could be a screening tool of great potential and has been shown to be effective in identifying single-drug users at risk. Although there are many published tests for single-drug screening, there is a gap for concomitant drug use screening in general population. The ASSIST (Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test) website was launched on February 2015 in Madrid, Spain, as a tool to identify those at risk. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to describe the use of a tool and to analyze profiles of drug users, their consumption patterns, and associated factors...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Medical Internet Research
Pan-Pan Tian, Jun Li, Jian Gao, Ying Li
INTRODUCTION: Coronary artery disease (CAD) not amenable to revascularisation indicates that the coronary arteries have severe diffuse lesions or calcifications, or that CAD is complicated with severe multiple-organ disease. Currently, Western medicines available for the treatment of CAD not amenable to revascularisation are limited. Shexiang Baoxin Pill (SBP), a type of Chinese patent medicine, has been widely used to treat CAD in China for many years. Previous studies have shown that long-term administration of SBP (1-2 pills three times daily, for at least 6 months) for treatment of CAD is effective and safe, with a significant, long-term effect...
February 14, 2018: BMJ Open
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