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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938670/statins-and-the-risk-of-cirrhosis-in-hepatitis-b-or-c-patients-a-systematic-review-and-dose-response-meta-analysis-of-observational-studies
#1
Yaqin Wang, Jianping Xiong, Meng Niu, Xiaowei Chen, Long Gao, Qirun Wu, Kechuang Zheng, Ke Xu
Hepatitis B and hepatitis C are leading causes of chronic liver disease, particularly cirrhosis. Recently, several studies have observed that statins have an inverse relationship with cirrhosis in hepatitis B or C patients. However, no published meta-analysis studied the protective effect of statins on cirrhosis. Thus, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of published observational studies to better understand the relationship between statins and the risk of cirrhosis. Relevant studies were identified by searching PubMed, EMBASE, and ISI Web of Science for articles published before April 2017...
August 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934214/models-to-predict-relapse-in-psychosis-a-systematic-review
#2
Sarah Sullivan, Kate Northstone, Caroline Gadd, Julian Walker, Ruta Margelyte, Alison Richards, Penny Whiting
BACKGROUND: There is little evidence on the accuracy of psychosis relapse prediction models. Our objective was to undertake a systematic review of relapse prediction models in psychosis. METHOD: We conducted a literature search including studies that developed and/or validated psychosis relapse prediction models, with or without external model validation. Models had to target people with psychosis and predict relapse. The key databases searched were; Embase, Medline, Medline In-Process Citations & Daily Update, PsychINFO, BIOSIS Citation Index, CINAHL, and Science Citation Index, from inception to September 2016...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934166/is-branched-chain-amino-acids-supplementation-an-efficient-nutritional-strategy-to-alleviate-skeletal-muscle-damage-a-systematic-review
#3
REVIEW
Alexandre Fouré, David Bendahan
Amino acids and more precisely, branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), are usually consumed as nutritional supplements by many athletes and people involved in regular and moderate physical activities regardless of their practice level. BCAAs have been initially shown to increase muscle mass and have also been implicated in the limitation of structural and metabolic alterations associated with exercise damage. This systematic review provides a comprehensive analysis of the literature regarding the beneficial effects of BCAAs supplementation within the context of exercise-induced muscle damage or muscle injury...
September 21, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933947/on-the-safety-of-machine-learning-cyber-physical-systems-decision-sciences-and-data-products
#4
Kush R Varshney, Homa Alemzadeh
Machine learning algorithms increasingly influence our decisions and interact with us in all parts of our daily lives. Therefore, just as we consider the safety of power plants, highways, and a variety of other engineered socio-technical systems, we must also take into account the safety of systems involving machine learning. Heretofore, the definition of safety has not been formalized in a machine learning context. In this article, we do so by defining machine learning safety in terms of risk, epistemic uncertainty, and the harm incurred by unwanted outcomes...
September 2017: Big Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933211/traumatic-brain-injury-current-treatment-strategies-and-future-endeavors
#5
Michael Galgano, Gentian Toshkezi, Xuecheng Qiu, Thomas Russell, Lawrence Chin, Li-Ru Zhao
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) presents in various forms ranging from mild alterations of consciousness to an unrelenting comatose state and death. In the most severe form of TBI, the entirety of the brain is affected by a diffuse type of injury and swelling. Treatment modalities vary extensively based on the severity of the injury and range from daily cognitive therapy sessions to radical surgery such as bilateral decompressive craniectomies. Guidelines have been set forth regarding the optimal management of TBI, but they must be taken in context of the situation and cannot be used in every individual circumstance...
July 2017: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932919/how-does-homelessness-affect-parenting-behaviour-a-systematic-critical-review-and-thematic-synthesis-of-qualitative-research
#6
REVIEW
Caroline Bradley, John McGowan, Daniel Michelson
The adverse social and physical conditions of homelessness pose significant developmental risks for children, which may be compounded or buffered by the quality of parenting behaviour they are exposed to. There is currently a limited understanding of how parents approach their care-giving role and responsibilities while adjusting to the experience of homelessness. Advancing knowledge in this area is essential for developing acceptable, appropriate and effective interventions to support highly marginalised and vulnerable homeless families...
September 20, 2017: Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932312/indicators-of-asthma-control-in-asthmatic-patients-are-they-related-to-depression
#7
Tarig H Merghani, Azza O Alawad
BACKGROUND: Many patients with chronic illnesses suffer from depression. A poorly controlled asthma that presents with repeated attacks of breathlessness is a recognised risk factor for bipolar disorders. On the other hand, depression can aggravate asthma symptoms. AIM: The aim of this study is to determine the indicators of the asthma control test (ACT) among the asthmatic patients who attend the outpatient clinic for follow-up and to investigate the relation between these indicators and clinical depression, using a standardised depression scale...
August 15, 2017: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927247/relationship-between-sleeping-difficulties-and-airway-symptoms-severity-with-the-health-related-quality-of-life-in-patients-with-gerd
#8
Claudio Andaloro, Mario Sati, Calogero Grillo, Caterina M Grillo, Ignazio LA Mantia
BACKGROUND: Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a chronic disease highly associated with several pulmonary disease and sleep disorders leading to a negative impact on the quality of life. Aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between these disorders and the health-related quality of life. METHODS: Patients were recruited from the Department of Medical Sciences, Surgical and Advanced Technologies, GF Ingrassia, University of Catania, from October 2015 to May 2016...
December 2017: Minerva Gastroenterologica e Dietologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924563/functional-near-infrared-spectroscopy-in-movement-science-a-systematic-review-on-cortical-activity-in-postural-and-walking-tasks
#9
REVIEW
Fabian Herold, Patrick Wiegel, Felix Scholkmann, Angelina Thiers, Dennis Hamacher, Lutz Schega
Safe locomotion is a crucial aspect of human daily living that requires well-functioning motor control processes. The human neuromotor control of daily activities such as walking relies on the complex interaction of subcortical and cortical areas. Technical developments in neuroimaging systems allow the quantification of cortical activation during the execution of motor tasks. Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) seems to be a promising tool to monitor motor control processes in cortical areas in freely moving subjects...
October 2017: Neurophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923485/functional-data-analysis-of-single-trial-auditory-evoked-potentials-recorded-in-the-awake-rat
#10
Ondrej Pokora, Jan Kolaicek, Tzai-Wen Chiu, Wei Qiu
Evoked potentials (EPs) reflect neural processing and are widely used to study sensory perception. However, methods of analyzing EP have been limited mostly to the conventional ensemble averaging of EP response trials to a repeated stimulus, and less so to single-trials analysis. Here we applied a new approach - functional data analysis (FDA) - to study auditory EP in the rat model of tinnitus, in which overdoses of salicylate (SS) are known to alter sound perception characteristically, as the same way as in humans...
September 15, 2017: Bio Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922063/individual-calibration-of-accelerometers-in-children-and-their-health-related-implications
#11
Lynne M Boddy, Conor Cunningham, Stuart J Fairclough, Marie H Murphy, Gavin Breslin, Lawrence Foweather, Rebecca M Dagger, Lee E F Graves, Nicola D Hopkins, Gareth Stratton
This study compared children's physical activity (PA) levels, the prevalence of children meeting current guidelines of ≥60 minutes of daily moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA), and PA-health associations using individually calibrated (IC) and empirical accelerometer cutpoints. Data from 75 (n = 32 boys) 10-12 year old children were included in this study. Clustered cardiometabolic (CM) risk, directly measured cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), anthropometric and 7 day accelerometer data were included within analysis...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919303/acquisition-of-wild-type-hiv-1-infection-in-a-patient-on-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-with-high-intracellular-concentrations-of-tenofovir-diphosphate-a-case-report
#12
Elske Hoornenborg, Maria Prins, Roel C A Achterbergh, Lycke R Woittiez, Marion Cornelissen, Suzanne Jurriaans, Neeltje A Kootstra, Peter L Anderson, Peter Reiss, Henry J C de Vries, Jan M Prins, Godelieve J de Bree
BACKGROUND: Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate is highly effective against acquisition of HIV infection, and only two cases of infection with a multidrug-resistant virus have been reported under adequate long-term adherence, as evidenced by tenofovir diphosphate concentrations in dried blood spots. We report a case of wild-type HIV-1 infection despite consistent use of emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate. METHODS: The patient participated in the Amsterdam PrEP project, a demonstration project of daily and event-driven PrEP...
September 14, 2017: Lancet HIV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917657/oral-all-trans-retinoic-acid-plus-danazol-versus-danazol-as-second-line-treatment-in-adults-with-primary-immune-thrombocytopenia-a-multicentre-randomised-open-label-phase-2-trial
#13
Fei-Er Feng, Ru Feng, Min Wang, Jia-Min Zhang, Hao Jiang, Qian Jiang, Jin Lu, Hui Liu, Jun Peng, Ming Hou, Jian-Liang Shen, Jing-Wen Wang, Lan-Ping Xu, Kai-Yan Liu, Xiao-Jun Huang, Xiao-Hui Zhang
BACKGROUND: Primary immune thrombocytopenia is a severe bleeding disorder. About 50-85% of patients achieve initial remission from first-line therapies, but optimal second-line treatment remains a challenge. All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) has an immunomodulatory effect on haemopoiesis, making it a possible treatment option. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of ATRA plus danazol versus danazol in non-splenectomised patients with corticosteroid-resistant or relapsed primary immune thrombocytopenia...
September 13, 2017: Lancet Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915841/is-there-room-for-resilience-a-scoping-review-and-critique-of-substance-use-literature-and-its-utilization-of-the-concept-of-resilience
#14
REVIEW
Katherine Rudzinski, Peggy McDonough, Rosemary Gartner, Carol Strike
Research in the area of illicit substance use remains preoccupied with describing and analyzing the risks of people who use drugs (PWUD), however more recently there has been a drive to use a strengths-based or resilience approach as an alternative to investigating drug use. This leads us to ask: what can be known about PWUD from the point of view of resilience? The objective of this scoping review is to analyze how the concept of resilience is defined, operationalized, and applied in substance use research...
September 15, 2017: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912807/a-meta-analysis-and-systematic-review-of-the-efficacy-of-twice-daily-ppis-versus-once-daily-for-treatment-of-gastroesophageal-reflux-disease
#15
REVIEW
Hongying Zhang, Zhiping Yang, Zhen Ni, Yongquan Shi
BACKGROUND: To investigate whether PPIs BID is superior to QD for treatment of GERD in a short time. METHODS: We searched PubMed, Cochrane Library, Scopus, EMBASE, Ovid, EBSCO, and Web of Science databases (from 1998 to May 2016) to select RCTs, which compared the efficacy of PPIs BID versus QD for GERD. The primary outcomes were symptom relief or esophageal mucosal healing at weeks 4 and 8. The M-H method with fixed-effect or random-effect model was used to calculate RR and 95% CIs...
2017: Gastroenterology Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905362/transcutaneous-electrical-nerve-stimulation-tens-for-neuropathic-pain-in-adults
#16
REVIEW
William Gibson, Benedict M Wand, Neil E O'Connell
BACKGROUND: Neuropathic pain, which is due to nerve disease or damage, represents a significant burden on people and society. It can be particularly unpleasant and achieving adequate symptom control can be difficult. Non-pharmacological methods of treatment are often employed by people with neuropathic pain and may include transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS). This review supersedes one Cochrane Review 'Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) for chronic pain' (Nnoaham 2014) and one withdrawn protocol 'Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) for neuropathic pain in adults' (Claydon 2014)...
September 14, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903772/transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-tdcs-for-improving-capacity-in-activities-and-arm-function-after-stroke-a-network-meta-analysis-of-randomised-controlled-trials
#17
REVIEW
Bernhard Elsner, Gert Kwakkel, Joachim Kugler, Jan Mehrholz
BACKGROUND: Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) is an emerging approach for improving capacity in activities of daily living (ADL) and upper limb function after stroke. However, it remains unclear what type of tDCS stimulation is most effective. Our aim was to give an overview of the evidence network regarding the efficacy and safety of tDCS and to estimate the effectiveness of the different stimulation types. METHODS: We performed a systematic review of randomised trials using network meta-analysis (NMA), searching the following databases until 5 July 2016: Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, AMED, Web of Science, and four other databases...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903434/total-fluid-consumption-and-risk-of-bladder-cancer-a-meta-analysis-with-updated-data
#18
Qinyu Liu, Banghua Liao, Ye Tian, Yuntian Chen, Deyi Luo, Yifei Lin, Hong Li, Kun-Jie Wang
With meta-analysis we tented to reveal the potential relationship between daily fluid consumption and bladder cancer risk, and to find out a recommendation on daily fluid intake. Databases of the Web of Science, PubMed and EMBASE were searched then 21 case-control and 5 cohort studies were included. Stratified analyses on gender, region, time of subjects recruiting and fluid quantity were performed as well as dose-response meta-analysis. Comparing the highest exposure category with the lowest in each study, no association appeared when all data pooled together (p=0...
August 15, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899576/neuroscience-and-everyday-life-facing-the-translation-problem
#19
Jolien C Francken, Marc Slors
To enable the impact of neuroscientific insights on our daily lives, careful translation of research findings is required. However, neuroscientific terminology and common-sense concepts are often hard to square. For example, when neuroscientists study lying to allow the use of brain scans for lie-detection purposes, the concept of lying in the scientific case differs considerably from the concept in court. Furthermore, lying and other cognitive concepts are used unsystematically and have an indirect and divergent mapping onto brain activity...
September 10, 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899519/the-association-between-daytime-napping-and-risk-of-diabetes-a%C3%A2-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-observational-studies
#20
Vivian Yawei Guo, Bing Cao, Carlos King Ho Wong, Esther Yee Tak Yu
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between daytime napping and prevalent/incident diabetes mellitus (DM) based on systematic review and meta-analytic data. METHODS: The electronic databases of Embase, Medline, Pubmed and Web of Science were searched. Relevant studies were extracted by two reviewers independently. The associations between daytime napping (irrespective of duration), long nap (≥1 h/day) and short nap (<1 h/day), and risk of DM were assessed according to study types...
September 2017: Sleep Medicine
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