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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426819/virological-success-after-12-and-24-months-of-antiretroviral-therapy-in-sub-saharan-africa-comparing-results-of-trials-cohorts-and-cross-sectional-studies-using-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#1
Fabien Taieb, Yoann Madec, Amandine Cournil, Eric Delaporte
BACKGROUND: UNAIDS recently defined the 90-90-90 target as a way to end the HIV epidemic. However, the proportion of virological success following antiretroviral therapy (ART) may not be as high as the anticipated 90%, and may in fact be highly heterogeneous. We aimed to describe the proportion of virological success in sub-Saharan Africa and to identify factors associated with the proportion of virological success. METHODS: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis focusing on the proportion of patients in sub-Saharan Africa who demonstrate virological success at 12 and 24 months since ART initiation, as well as at 6 and 36 months, where possible...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426139/engineering-a-promiscuous-tautomerase-into-a-more-efficient-aldolase-for-self-condensations-of-linear-aliphatic-aldehydes
#2
Mehran Rahimi, Jan Ytzen van der Meer, Edzard Geertsema, Gerrit Jan Poelarends
4-Oxalocrotonate tautomerase (4-OT) from P. putida mt-2 takes part in a catabolic pathway for aromatic hydrocarbons, where it catalyzes the conversion of 2-hydroxyhexa-2,4-dienedioate into 2-oxohexa-3-enedioate. This tautomerase can also promiscuously catalyze carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions, including various types of aldol reactions, utilizing its N-terminal proline as a key catalytic residue. Here, we have used a systematic mutagenesis strategy to identify two 'hotspot' positions in 4-OT (Met-45 and Phe-50) at which single mutations give a marked improvement in aldolase activity for the self-condensation of propanal...
April 20, 2017: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425413/ursodeoxycholic-acid-therapy-in-patients-with-primary-biliary-cholangitis-with-limited-liver-transplantation-availability
#3
Yazmín Karel Melchor-Mendoza, Braulio Martínez-Benítez, Aline Mina-Hawat, Gustavo Rodríguez-Leal, Ximena Duque, Segundo Moran-Villota
INTRODUCTION: There is little information on survival rates of patients with primary biliary cholangtis (PBC) in developing countries. This is particularly true in Latin America, where the number of liver transplants performed remains extremely low for patients with advanced liver disease who fulfill criteria for liver transplantation. The goal of this study was to compare survival rate of patients with PBC in developing countries who were treated with ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) versus survival of patients who received other treatments (OT) without UDCA, prescribed before the UDCA era...
May 2017: Annals of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423736/laminarin-promotes-anti-cancer-immunity-by-the-maturation-of-dendritic-cells
#4
Kyeongeun Song, Li Xu, Wei Zhang, Yun Cai, Bian Jang, Junghwan Oh, Jun-O Jin
This research evaluates the effects of laminarin on the maturation of dendritic cells and on the in vivo activation of anti-cancer immunity. In vivo treatment of C56BL/6 mice with laminarin increased the expression levels of co-stimulatory molecules and the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in spleen dendritic cells. Laminarin enhanced ovalbumin antigen presentation in spleen dendritic cells and promoted the proliferation of OT-I and OT-II T cells. Laminarin also induced the maturation of dendritic cells in tumor-draining lymph nodes and protected interferon-γ and tumor necrosis factor-α and proliferation of OT-I and OT-II T cells in tumors...
March 14, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421488/chapter-4-role-of-antioxidants-and-antifreeze-proteins-in-cryopreservation-vitrification
#5
Seul Ki Kim, Hye Won Youm, Jung Ryeol Lee, Chang Suk Suh
In recent years, supplementation of antioxidants and antifreeze proteins during cryopreservation/vitrification has significantly improved the survival and function of oocytes and ovarian tissues (OT) in animal models. In this chapter, the experimental protocols for the use of antioxidants and antifreeze proteins in cryopreservation/vitrification are described.
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421486/chapter-2-utility-of-animal-models-for-human-ovarian-tissue-cryopreservation
#6
Seul Ki Kim, Jung Ryeol Lee, S Samuel Kim
Success in cryopreservation of ovarian tissue (OT) in animal models has led to develop efficient cryo-technologies for human ovarian tissue. In this chapter, cryopreservation protocols developed for animal experiments are described.
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421327/metal-dna-interactions-improve-signal-in-high-resolution-melting-of-dna-for-species-differentiation-of-plasmodium-parasite
#7
Priyamvada Jain, Babina Chakma, Naveen Singh, Sanjukta Patra, Pranab Goswami
The success of high-resolution melting (HRM) analysis for distinguishing similar DNAs with minor base mismatch differences is limited. Here, metal-mediated structural change in DNA has been exploited to amplify HRM signals leading to differentiation of target DNAs in an orthologous gene corresponding to four Plasmodium species. Conserved 26-mer ssDNAs from ldh gene of the four Plasmodium species were employed as targets. A capture probe (CP) that is fully complementary to the Plasmodium falciparum target (FT) and has two base mismatches each, with the targets of Plasmodium vivax (VT), Plasmodium malariae, (MT), and Plasmodium ovale (OT), was considered...
April 18, 2017: Molecular Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419412/eliminating-malignant-cells-from-cryopreserved-ovarian-tissue-is-possible-in-leukaemia-patients
#8
Michelle Soares, Pascale Saussoy, Mathilde Maskens, Hélène Reul, Christiani A Amorim, Jacques Donnez, Marie-Madeleine Dolmans
Reimplantation of cryopreserved ovarian tissue (OT) can successfully restore ovarian function in young cancer patients after gonadotoxic treatment. However, for patients with leukaemia, there is a risk of malignant cell transmission. Our objective was to evaluate minimal disseminated disease in OT from leukaemia patients and test a follicle isolation technique to obtain disease-free follicle suspensions. Cryopreserved OT from 12 leukaemia patients was thawed and analysed by histology and long-term xenografting in immunosuppressed mice...
April 17, 2017: British Journal of Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416609/cd36-regulates-malaria-induced-immune-responses-primarily-at-early-blood-stage-infection-contributing-to-parasitemia-control-and-resistance-to-mortality
#9
Ramesh P Thylur, Xianzhu Wu, Nagaraj M Gowda, Kishore Punnath, Shivayogeeshwara E Neelgund, Maria Febbraio, D Channe Gowda
In malaria, CD36 plays several roles including mediating parasite sequestration to host organs, phagocytic clearance of parasites and regulation of immunity. While the functions of CD36 in parasite sequestration and phagocytosis have been clearly defined, less is known about its role in malaria immunity. Here, to understand the function of CD36 in malaria immunity, we studied parasite growth, innate and adaptive immune responses, and host survival in WT and Cd36-/- mice infected with a nonlethal strain of Plasmodium yoelii...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415044/long-non-coding-rna-snhg1-regulates-zinc-finger-e-box-binding-homeobox-1-expression-by-interacting-with-tap63-and-promotes-cell-metastasis-and-invasion-in-lung-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#10
Hong-Yan Zhang, Wei Yang, Fu-Shuang Zheng, Yi-Bei Wang, Ji-Bin Lu
The long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been recently shown to participate in the progression of a variety of cancers. However, the biological role of lncRNAs and the underlying mechanisms in Lung squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) or lung adenocarcinoma (AD) remain unclear. Herein, we investigated expression of 5 lncRNAS (SNHG1, NCBP2-AS2, LINC01206, SOX2-OT and LINC01419) in SCC and AD tissues. SNHG1 was one of over-expressed lncRNAs in SCC tissues. Knockdown of SNHG1 significantly inhibited the proliferation, metastasis, invasive ability and induced apoptosis of SCC cells...
April 14, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412812/an-ionstar-experimental-strategy-for-ms1-ion-current-based-quantification-using-ultra-high-field-orbitrap-reproducible-in-depth-and-accurate-protein-measurement-in-larger-cohorts
#11
Xiaomeng Shen, Shichen Shen, Jun Li, Qiang Hu, Lei Nie, Chengjian Tu, Xue Wang, Benjamin Orsburn, Jianmin Wang, Jun Qu
In-depth and reproducible protein measurement in many biological samples is often critical for pharmaceutical/biomedical proteomics but remains challenging. MS1-based quantification using quadrupole/ultra-high-field Orbitrap(Q/UHF-Orbitrap) holds great promise, but the critically important experimental approaches enabling reliable large-cohort analysis have long been overlooked. Here we described an IonStar experimental strategy achieving excellent quantitative quality of MS1 quantification. Key features include: i)an optimized, surfactant-aided sample preparation approach provides highly efficient(>75%recovery) and reproducible(<15%CV) peptide recovery across large cell/tissue cohorts; ii)a long column with modest gradient length (e...
April 16, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412582/sex-differences-in-neural-activation-following-different-routes-of-oxytocin-administration-in-awake-adult-rats
#12
Kelly M Dumais, Praveen P Kulkarni, Craig F Ferris, Alexa H Veenema
The neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) regulates social behavior in sex-specific ways across species. OT has promising effects on alleviating social deficits in sex-biased neuropsychiatric disorders. However little is known about potential sexually dimorphic effects of OT on brain function. Using the rat as a model organism, we determined whether OT administered centrally or peripherally induces sex differences in brain activation. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to examine blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal intensity changes in the brains of awake rats during the 20min following intracerebroventricular (ICV; 1μg/5μl) or intraperitoneal (IP; 0...
April 7, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411631/escherichia-coli-adhesive-coating-as-a-chiral-stationary-phase-for-open-tubular-capillary-electrochromatography-enantioseparation
#13
Qifeng Fu, Kailian Zhang, Die Gao, Lujun Wang, Fengqing Yang, Yao Liu, Zhining Xia
Bacteria, the microorganism with intrinsic chirality, have numerous fascinating chiral phenomena such as various chirality-triggered biological processes and behaviors. Herein, bacteria were firstly explored as novel chiral stationary phases in open-tubular capillary electrochromatography (OT-CEC) for enantioseparation of fluoroquinolone enantiomers and simultaneous separation of six fluoroquinolone antibiotics. The model strain, i.e. non-pathogenic Escherichia coli (E. coli) DH5α, was adhered onto the inner surface of positively charged polyethyleneimine (PEI) modified capillaries based on the bacterial adhesion characteristics and strong electrostatic interaction...
May 29, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410149/rerouting-the-traffic-from-a-virus-perspective
#14
Linda Cruz, Nicholas J Buchkovich
Viruses are important human and animal pathogens causing disease that affect global health and the economy. One outcome of many virus infections is the regulation of cellular trafficking machinery. Viral proteins recruit and interact with cellular trafficking proteins to divert the normal trafficking of key proteins or to induce the formation of novel membrane structures in the host cell. These alterations often increase replication efficiency by mislocalizing immune regulators or restriction factors ot by creating platforms for replication and assembly of new virus particles...
June 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409696/collaborative-occupational-therapy-teachers-impressions-of-the-partnering-for-change-p4c-model
#15
A L Wilson, S R Harris
AIMS: Occupational therapists (OTs) often face barriers when trying to collaborate with teachers in school-based settings. Partnering for change (P4C), a collaborative practice model designed to support children with developmental coordination disorder, could potentially support all students with special needs. Therefore, the aim of this study was to explore how teachers experience OT services delivered using the P4C model to support children with a variety of special needs. METHODS: P4C was implemented at one elementary school in Courtenay, British Columbia...
April 14, 2017: Physical & Occupational Therapy in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409648/assessment-of-simulated-emergency-scenarios-are-trained-observers-necessary
#16
Juliane Noveanu, Felix Amsler, Wolfgang Ummenhofer, Thomas von Wyl, Mathias Zuercher
OBJECTIVES: Simulation-based medical training is associated with superior educational outcomes and improved cost efficiency. Self- and peer-assessment may be a cost-effective and flexible alternative to expert-led assessment. We compared accuracy of self- and peer-assessment of untrained raters using basic evaluation tools to expert assessment using advanced validation tools including validated questionnaires and post hoc video-based analysis. METHODS: Twenty-eight simulated emergency airway management scenarios were observed and video-recorded for further assessment...
April 14, 2017: Prehospital Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406700/moderate-exercise-based-on-artificial-gravity-preserves-orthostatic-tolerance-and-exercise-capacity-during-short-term-head-down-bed-rest
#17
Xiao-Tao Li, Chang-Bin Yang, Yong-Sheng Zhu, Jing Sun, Fei Shi, Yong-Chun Wang, Yuan Gao, Jiang-Dong Zhao, Xi-Qing Sun
Numerous countermeasures have been proposed to minimize microgravity-induced physical deconditioning, but their benefits are limited. The present study aimed to investigate whether personalized aerobic exercise based on artificial gravity (AG) mitigates multisystem physical deconditioning. Fourteen men were assigned to the control group (n=6) and the countermeasure group (CM, n=8). Subjects in the CM group were exposed to AG (2Gz at foot level) for 30 min twice daily, during which time cycling exercise of 80-95% anaerobic threshold (AT) intensity was undertaken...
April 12, 2017: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405951/posterior-retroperitonoscopic-adrenalectomy-a-back-door-access-with-an-unusually-rapid-learning-curve
#18
Sohail Bakkar, Gabriele Materazzi, Lorenzo Fregoli, Piermarco Papini, Paolo Miccoli
Posterior retroperitonoscopic adrenalectomy (PRA) has become a standard approach to the adrenal gland. The aim of this study was to report an initial experience with the procedure following a proper preparatory phase highlighting the rapidity, safety and effectiveness by which it could be introduced into a surgeon's practice. Between May 2015 and July 2016, 14 PRAs were performed in 14 patients (9 females and 5 males). The average age was 46 years, BMI: 25.5 kg/m(2), and ASA score: 2. Indications included: incidenatloma (n = 5), Conn's adenoma (n = 5), and Cushing's adenoma (n = 4)...
April 12, 2017: Updates in Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405099/tba-for-ot-hhc-vs-opc-f-u
#19
EDITORIAL
Herbert L Fred
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2017: Proceedings of the Baylor University Medical Center
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405035/safety-and-efficacy-of-transdermal-buprenorphine-versus-oral-tramadol-for-the-treatment-of-post-operative-pain-following-surgery-for-fracture-neck-of-femur-a-prospective-randomised-clinical-study
#20
Sameer N Desai, Santhoshi V Badiger, Shreesha B Tokur, Prashanth A Naik
BACKGROUND: Transdermal buprenorphine, which is used in chronic pain management, has rarely been studied for use in acute pain management. The aim of this study was to compare the safety and efficacy of transdermal buprenorphine patch to oral tramadol for post-operative analgesia, following proximal femur surgeries. METHODOLOGY: Fifty adult patients undergoing surgery for hip fracture under spinal anaesthesia were included in this study. One group (Group TDB) received transdermal buprenorphine 10 mcg/h patch applied a day before the surgery and other group received oral tramadol 50 mg three times a day for analgesia (Group OT)...
March 2017: Indian Journal of Anaesthesia
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