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Ioana Miruna Balmus, Radu Lefter, Alin Ciobica, Iulia Antioch, Daniela Ababei, Romeo Dobrin
INTRODUCTION: Oxytocin (OT) is a well-known neuropeptides which together with vasopressin, melatonin, insulin and other hormones can alter both behavior and physiological or neuronal functions. This growing interest on OT roles is also based on the demonstrated beneficial effects as a stress reliever and a social bonding agent. The association between old age and OT was only vaguely studied. Little or few is known on the effect of the OT hormone on the old body. Hereby, we present our preliminary results in the research on behavioral changes regarding the intraperitoneal administration of OT in aged rats...
March 2018: Psychiatria Danubina
Masahiko Machida, Koichiro Kato, Motoyuki Shiga
The isotopologs of liquid water, H2 O, D2 O, and T2 O, are studied systematically by first principles PIMD simulations, in which the whole entity of the electrons and nuclei are treated quantum mechanically. The simulation results are in reasonable agreement with available experimental data on isotope effects, in particular, on the peak shift in the radial distributions of H2 O and D2 O and the shift in the evaporation energies. It is found that, due to differences in nuclear quantum effects, the H atoms in the OH bonds more easily access the dissociative region up to the hydrogen bond center than the D (T) atoms in the OD (OT) bonds...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
Jacek Mularski, Barbara Czaplińska, Wioleta Cieślik, Jakub Bebłot, Piotr Bartczak, Rafał Sitko, Jarosław Polański, Robert Musiol
Electrolytic copper is a well-known form of pure, oxygen free copper that is used for industrial applications. In this work, the catalytic potential of this relatively cheap material was studied. The addition of less than 0.015 mol equivalent of copper powder effectively catalysed the one-pot synthesis of triazoles from a diverse range of organic halides and alkynes. Quantitative conversions in aqueous solvents can be achieved within minutes. The heterogenous nature of the catalyst afforded a low level of copper contamination in the products, thus meeting the rigorous criteria of the pharmaceutical industry...
March 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Oscar A Klockars, Anica Klockars, Allen S Levine, Pawel K Olszewski
Oxytocin (OT) at acting central nuclei decreases meal size and reduces intake of palatable sweet solutions. It remains largely unclear as to which brain sites mediate OT's effect on palatability versus energy or the combination of those aspects of consumption. Here, we expanded the search for sites that mediate anorexigenic properties of OT by focusing on two subdivisions of the amygdala, its central (CNA) and basolateral (BLA) nuclei. We injected OT directly into the BLA or CNA in rats and assessed intake of standard chow induced by energy deprivation and intake of sweet solutions in nondeprived animals...
March 13, 2018: Neuroreport
Lie Wang, Giri Kumar Chandaka, Robert C Foehring, Joseph C Callaway, William E Armstrong
Oxytocin (OT) neurons exhibit larger afterhyperpolarizations (AHPs) following spike trains during pregnancy and lactation, when these neurons burst and release more OT. Calcium-dependent AHPs mediated by SK channels show this plasticity, and are reduced when the channel is phosphorylated by casein kinase 2 (CK2), and increased when dephosphorylated by protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), by altering Ca2+ sensitivity. We compared AHP currents in supraoptic OT neurons after CK2 inhibition with 4,5,6,7-tetrabromobenzotriazole (TBB), or PP1-PP2A inhibition with okadaic acid (OA) focusing on the peak current at 100 ms representing the SK-mediated, medium AHP (ImAHP )...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
Éverton L Vogt, Jorge F A Model, Anapaula S Vinagre
Organotins (OTs) are considered some of the most toxic chemicals introduced into aquatic environments by anthropogenic activities. They are widely used for agricultural and industrial purposes and as antifouling additives on boat hull's paints. Even though the use of OTs was banned in 2008, elevated levels of OTs can still be detected in aquatic environments. OTs' deleterious effects upon wildlife and experimental animals are well documented and include endocrine disruption, immunotoxicity, neurotoxicity, genotoxicity, and metabolic dysfunction...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Jon Cavanaugh, Aaryn Mustoe, Jeffrey A French
While separation from significant social partners produces a host of neurobiological and behavioral perturbations, including behavioral distress and increased glucocorticoid production, positive social interactions upon reunion are critical for the reestablishment of normative relationship dynamics and the attenuation of the biobehavioral stress response. The hormone oxytocin has critical and pervasive roles in reproductive and behavioral processes across the lifespan, and plays a particularly prominent role in social bonding...
March 11, 2018: American Journal of Primatology
Aubrey M Kelly, Lisa C Hiura, Alexander G Ophir
Vasopressin (VP) and oxytocin (OT) are involved in modulating basic physiology and numerous social behaviors. Although the anatomical distributions of nonapeptide neurons throughout development have been described, the functional roles of VP and OT neurons during development are surprisingly understudied, and it is unknown whether they exhibit functional changes throughout early development. We utilized an acute social isolation paradigm to determine if VP and OT neural responses in eight nonapeptide cell groups differ at three different stages of early development in prairie voles...
March 9, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
Rômulo V Paixão, Josiane Ribolli, Evoy Zaniboni-Filho
Steindachneridion scriptum is an important species as a resource for fisheries and aquaculture; it is currently threatened and has a reduced occurrence in South America. The damming of rivers, overfishing, and contamination of freshwater environments are the main impacts on the maintenance of this species. We accessed the genetic diversity and structure of S. scriptum using the DNA barcode and control region (D-loop) sequences of 43 individuals from the Upper Uruguay River Basin (UUR) and 10 sequences from the Upper Paraná River Basin (UPR), which were obtained from GenBank...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
Sung Who Park, So Hee Kim, Han Jo Kwon, Seung Min Lee, Ik Soo Byon, Ji Eun Lee
PURPOSE: To assess the value of positive immunoglobulin (Ig) M serum antibody (Ab) findings in uveitis patients. METHODS: We reviewed medical records of patients who had a positive serological test for Toxoplasma gondii-specific IgM Ab. Their clinical data, including history, demographic characteristics, laboratory findings, clinical findings, treatment outcomes, and recurrences, were reviewed retrospectively. RESULTS: Of 2919 uveitis patients who underwent a serological test for suspected ocular toxoplasmosis (OT), 18 presented with positive Ig M results...
March 7, 2018: Ocular Immunology and Inflammation
Carlo Alberto Artusi, Ashar Farooqi, Alberto Romagnolo, Luca Marsili, Roberta Balestrino, Leonard L Sokol, Lily L Wang, Maurizio Zibetti, Andrew P Duker, George T Mandybur, Leonardo Lopiano, Aristide Merola
BACKGROUND: In uncommon tremor disorders, clinical efficacy and optimal anatomical targets for deep brain stimulation (DBS) remain inadequately studied and insufficiently quantified. METHODS: We performed a systematic review of and Relevant articles were identified using the following keywords: "tremor", "Holmes tremor", "orthostatic tremor", "multiple sclerosis", "multiple sclerosis tremor", "neuropathy", "neuropathic tremor", "fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome", and "fragile X...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Neurology
Connie B Gilfillan, Sabine Kuhn, Camille Baey, Evelyn J Hyde, Jianping Yang, Christiane Ruedl, Franca Ronchese
In the steady state, tumors harbor several populations of dendritic cells (DCs) and myeloid cells that are key regulators of the intratumoral immune environment. Among these cells, migratory CD103+ cross-presenting DCs are thought to be critical for tumor-specific CTL responses and tumor resistance. However, it is unclear whether this prominent role also extends to immunotherapy. We used a murine orthotopic mammary tumor model, as well as Clec9A-diphtheria toxin receptor mice that can be depleted of the specialized cross-presenting CD8α+ and CD103+ DC1 subsets, to investigate the role of these DCs in immunotherapy...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Ekaterina Perminov, Sara Mangosing, Alexandra Confer, Olga Gonzalez, Jason R Crawford, Natalia Schlabritz-Loutsevitch, Shyamesh Kumar, Edward Dick
Disorders of sexual development are rare in non-human primates. We report a case of true hermaphroditism in a 19-year-old, nulliparous, female baboon (Papio spp.). At necropsy, the animal was obese with adequate muscle mass and hydration. Reproductive organs appeared normal with the exception of 2 firm nodular structures in the myometrium (1-1.5 cm diameter) and a thickened, dark endocervical mucosa. Histologically, both gonads were ovotestes and contained discrete areas of ovarian and testicular tissue. There were follicles in various stages of development surrounded by ovarian stroma...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Medical Primatology
Tsu-Hsin Howe, Ching-Fan Sheu, Jim Hinojosa
Cooperative learning provides an important vehicle for active learning, as knowledge is socially constructed through interaction with others. This study investigated the effect of cooperative learning on occupational therapy (OT) theory knowledge attainment in professional-level OT students in a classroom environment. Using a pre- and post-test group design, 24 first-year, entry-level OT students participated while taking a theory course in their second semester of the program. Cooperative learning methods were implemented via in-class group assignments...
2018: Journal of Allied Health
Emma Wheeler, Constance L Coogle, Robert C Fix, Myra G Owens, Leland H Waters
AIMS: Evaluate changes in physical therapy (PT) and occupational therapy (OT) practice following evidence-based practice (EBP) interprofessional modules that teach assessments and interventions to reduce falls in community-dwelling older adults. METHODS: Medical records of post-fall patients in three Programs of All-Inclusive Care for the Elderly (PACE) sites were analyzed to assess differences in documented falls and the OT and PT use of EBP assessment and interventions implemented following fall prevention training...
2018: Journal of Allied Health
Briony K Varda, Patricia Cho, Andrew A Wagner, Richard S Lee
BACKGROUND: In adult urologic oncology the use of robotics has become commonplace; in pediatric urology it is rare. Herein, we describe a collaboration between an adult and a pediatric urologist performing robotic surgery for children and young adults with suspicious or cancerous genitourinary (GU) lesions. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate clinical and oncologic outcomes in children and young adults undergoing robotic surgery for suspicious or cancerous lesions of the GU tract; to describe our collaborative model between an adult and pediatric surgeon at a free-standing children's hospital...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Urology
Damodara N Reddy, Sukrit Singh, Chris M W Ho, Janki Patel, Paul Schlesinger, Stephen Rodgers, Allan Doctor, Garland R Marshall
Gramicidin A, a topical antibiotic made from alternating L and D amino acids, is characterized by its wide central pore; upon insertion into membranes, it forms channels that disrupts ion gradients. We present helical peptidomimetics with this characteristic wide central pore that have been designed to mimic gramicidin A channels. Mimetics were designed using molecular modeling focused on oligomers of heterochiral dipeptides of proline analogs, in particular azaproline (AzPro). Molecular Dynamics simulations in water confirmed the stability of the designed helices...
February 20, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Anne Chong, Soo Hong Chew, Poh San Lai, Richard P Ebstein, Jean-Philippe Gouin
Oxytocin (OT) plays a salient role in contributing to the high levels of human sociality that characterize our species. Across the lifespan this nonapeptide promotes prosocial behaviors and modulates stress responses. Curiously, the OXT-Neurophysin I gene has been little studied despite the fact this is the structural gene for the OT nonapeptide. In a large group of Han Chinese undergraduate students (n = 1593) we examined associations of two single nucleotide polymorphisms of the OXT- Neurophysin I gene with personality traits...
February 28, 2018: International Journal of Psychophysiology
Emily K Simpson, Narissa M Ramirez, Brittany Branstetter, Aileen Reed, Evan Lines
Following a stroke, depression and anxiety may negatively affect recovery and decrease quality of life. Occupational therapy (OT) practitioners are distinctly qualified to address both the physical and psychosocial sequelae of a stroke, including clients' mental and emotional health. This study explored the ways in which OT practitioners address the mental health needs of clients post stroke. A sequential explanatory mixed-methods design was used to collect both survey and focus group data. In all, 754 OT practitioners across the United States completed an online survey, and 10 practitioners participated in focus groups...
March 1, 2018: OTJR: Occupation, Participation and Health
David M Morris, Gavin R Jenkins
Experts around the world support the integration of health promotion and wellness (HPW) services into traditional health care services. If successfully executed, the addition of HPW services would reduce rates of death and disability and significantly reduce health care costs. While all health care providers should be engaged in providing HPW services, many believe that physical therapists (PTs) and occupational therapists (OTs) are uniquely positioned to provide these services. However, research suggests that clinicians in both fields may fall short in doing so...
February 24, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
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