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Acute bronchiolitis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327810/nebulized-hypertonic-saline-in-infants-hospitalized-with-moderately-severe-bronchiolitis-due-to-rsv-infection-a-multicenter-randomized-controlled-trial
#1
Yoshihiko Morikawa, Masaru Miura, Megumi Y Furuhata, Saeko Morino, Tae Omori, Masahiro Otsuka, Michiko Chiga, Toshimasa Obonai, Hiroshi Hataya, Tetsuji Kaneko, Kenji Ishikura, Masataka Honda, Yukihiro Hasegawa
INTRODUCTION: The efficacy of nebulized hypertonic saline (HS) therapy for shortening hospital length of stay (LOS) or improving bronchiolitic symptoms remains controversial. Most studies enrolled small numbers of subjects and did not consider the role of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), the most common cause of acute bronchiolitis. Our aim was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of nebulized HS therapy for acute bronchiolitis due to RSV in moderately ill hospitalized infants. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was an open-label, multicenter, randomized controlled trial comparing a nebulized HS treatment group with a normal saline (NS) group...
January 12, 2018: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327719/the-histomorphological-spectrum-of-restrictive-chronic-lung-allograft-dysfunction-and-implications-for-prognosis
#2
Jan H von der Thüsen, Elly Vandermeulen, Robin Vos, Birgit Weynand, Erik K Verbeken, Stijn E Verleden
Chronic lung allograft dysfunction continues to be the main contributor to poor long-term allograft survival after lung transplantation. The restrictive phenotype of chronic lung allograft dysfunction carries a particularly poor prognosis. Little is known about the pathogenetic mechanisms involved in restrictive chronic lung allograft dysfunction. In this study, we performed histomorphological and immunohistochemical analysis of restrictive chronic lung allograft dysfunction lungs. Explant lung tissue from 21 restrictive chronic lung allograft dysfunction patients was collected and histopathologic patterns of rejection, fibrosis and vascular changes were scored after routine histochemical stains and additional immunohistochemistry for endothelial markers and C4d...
January 12, 2018: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321255/multisite-emergency-department-inpatient-collaborative-to-reduce-unnecessary-bronchiolitis-care
#3
Grant M Mussman, Michele Lossius, Faiza Wasif, Jeffrey Bennett, Kristin A Shadman, Susan C Walley, Lauren Destino, Elizabeth Nichols, Shawn L Ralston
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: There is high variation in the care of acute viral bronchiolitis. We sought to promote collaboration between emergency department (ED) and inpatient (IP) units with the goal of reducing unnecessary testing and treatment. METHODS: Multisite collaborative with improvement teams co-led by ED and IP physicians and a 1-year period of active participation. The intervention consisted of a multicomponent change package, regular webinars, and optional coaching...
January 10, 2018: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315663/circulating-25-hydroxyvitamin-d-nasopharyngeal-airway-metabolome-and-bronchiolitis-severity
#4
Kohei Hasegawa, Christopher J Stewart, Juan C Celedón, Jonathan M Mansbach, Courtney Tierney, Carlos A Camargo
Low circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) levels are a risk factor for acute respiratory infection (e.g., bronchiolitis) in children. However, little is known about the relation of circulating 25OHD with the many downstream functional molecules in target organs - such as the airway - and with clinical outcomes. In this prospective multicenter study of infants (age <1 year) hospitalized with bronchiolitis, we measured serum 25OHD levels and profiled the metabolome of 144 nasopharyngeal airway samples. Among 254 metabolites identified, we defined a set of 20 metabolites that are related to lower serum 25OHD and higher vitamin D-binding protein levels...
January 9, 2018: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29312755/acute-rejection
#5
REVIEW
Mark Benzimra, Greg L Calligaro, Allan R Glanville
Despite induction immunosuppression and the use of aggressive maintenance immunosuppressive regimens, acute allograft rejection following lung transplantation is still a problem with important diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. As well as causing early graft loss and mortality, acute rejection also initiates the chronic alloimmune responses and airway-centred inflammation that predispose to bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS), also known as chronic lung allograft dysfunction (CLAD), which is a major source of morbidity and mortality after lung transplantation...
December 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303276/-diagnostics-and-treatment-of-community-acquired-pneumonia-simplicity-is-the-key-to-success
#6
Vítězslav Kolek, Petr Jakubec, Stanislav Losse
Pneumonia is the most wide-spread infectious disease and requires unrelenting attention. It is defined as an acute inflammatory disease affecting pulmonary alveoli, respiratory bronchioles and the pulmonary interstitium. In recent years we have seen the endeavour to rationalize the approach to pneumonias and utilize the current methods of administering effective antibiotics to reduce occurrence of complications, limit the number of hospitalizations and shorten the length of treatment. With the awareness of all the potential agents it is empiric therapy which predominates, being supported by the knowledge of a regional epidemiological situation, good diagnosing and experience of rational antibiotic treatment...
2018: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276868/rational-drug-use-for-acute-bronchiolitis-in-emergency-care
#7
Metin Uysalol, Fatih Haşlak, Zeynep Güneş Özünal, Hayriye Vehid, Nedret Uzel
Uysalol M, Haşlak F, Özünal ZG, Vehid H, Uzel N. Rational drug use for acute bronchiolitis in emergency care. Turk J Pediatr 2017; 59: 155-161. Despite the large variety of inhaled treatment options of acute bronchiolitis, there is no generally agreed treatment regime. This study aimed to determine the most appropriate treatment option. This was a double-blind randomized prospective clinical trial and has been performed in emergency department. The mean age of the 378 infants included in the study was 7...
2017: Turkish Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260375/changing-characteristics-of-hospital-admissions-but-not-the-children-admitted-a-whole-population-study-between-2000-and-2013
#8
Maryam Al-Mahtot, Rebecca Barwise-Munro, Philip Wilson, Steve Turner
There are increasing numbers of emergency medical paediatric admissions. Our hypothesis was that characteristics of children and details of their emergency admissions are also changing over time. Details of emergency admissions in Scotland 2000-2013 were analysed. There were 574,403 emergency admissions, median age 2.3 years. The age distribution, proportion of boys and socioeconomic status of children admitted were essentially unchanged. Emergency admissions rose by 49% from 36/1000 children per annum to 54/1000 between 2000 and 2013...
December 19, 2017: European Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250560/pulmonary-susceptibility-of-neonates-to-respiratory-syncytial-virus-infection-a-problem-of-innate-immunity
#9
REVIEW
Carole Drajac, Daphné Laubreton, Sabine Riffault, Delphyne Descamps
Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a common and highly contagious viral agent responsible for acute lower respiratory infection in infants. This pathology characterized by mucus hypersecretion and a disturbed T cell immune response is one of the major causes of infant hospitalization for severe bronchiolitis. Although different risk factors are associated with acute RSV bronchiolitis, the immunological factors contributing to the susceptibility of RSV infection in infants are not clearly elucidated...
2017: Journal of Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248322/-can-a-simple-lung-ultrasound-score-predict-length-of-ventilation-for-infants-with-severe-acute-viral-bronchiolitis
#10
M Taveira, N Yousef, J Miatello, C Roy, C Claude, B Boutillier, C Dubois, A-F Pierre, P Tissières, P Durand
BACKGROUND: Lung ultrasound (LU) is a bedside point-of-care technique in critical care and emergency medicine. LU is quick and non-irradiating, and provides accurate diagnostic information when compared with chest radiographs. Specific LU signs have been described for bronchiolitis. This study aimed to evaluate the correlation between severity of LU-diagnosed lung lesions, using a quantitative LU score, and the length of non-invasive ventilation (LOV) for infants diagnosed with severe viral bronchiolitis...
December 13, 2017: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244796/rsv-bronchiolitis-versus-rhinovirus-difference-in-nasal-airway-microrna-profiles-and-nf%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling
#11
Kohei Hasegawa, Marcos Pérez-Losada, Claire E Hoptay, Samuel Epstein, Jonathan M Mansbach, Stephen J Teach, Pedro A Piedra, Carlos A Camargo, Robert J Freishtat
BACKGROUND: Although rhinovirus infection is associated with increased risks of acute and chronic respiratory outcomes during childhood compared with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. We aimed to determine differences in nasal airway microRNA profiles and their downstream effects between infants with rhinovirus and RSV bronchiolitis. METHODS: As part of multicenter cohort study of infants hospitalized for bronchiolitis, we examined nasal samples obtained from 16 infants with rhinovirus and 16 infants with RSV...
December 15, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238000/elevation-of-serum-acid-sphingomyelinase-activity-in-children-with-acute-respiratory-syncytial-virus-bronchiolitis
#12
Shuichiro Yoshida, Atsuko Noguchi, Wataru Kikuchi, Hiroshi Fukaya, Kiyoshi Igarashi, Tsutomu Takahashi
Acid sphingomyelinase (ASM) is a lysosomal enzyme that hydrolyzes sphingomyelin into ceramide, a bioactive lipid to regulate cellular physiological functions. Thus, ASM activation has been reported as a key event in pathophysiological reactions including inflammation, cytokine release, oxidative stress, and endothelial damage in human diseases. Since ASM activation is associated with extracellular ASM secretion through unknown mechanisms, it can be detected by recognizing the elevation of secretory ASM (S-ASM) activity...
2017: Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230219/functional-impairment-of-mononuclear-phagocyte-system-by-the-human-respiratory-syncytial-virus
#13
REVIEW
Karen Bohmwald, Janyra A Espinoza, Raúl A Pulgar, Evelyn L Jara, Alexis M Kalergis
The mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS) comprises of monocytes, macrophages (MΦ), and dendritic cells (DCs). MPS is part of the first line of immune defense against a wide range of pathogens, including viruses, such as the human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV). The hRSV is an enveloped virus that belongs to the Pneumoviridae family, Orthopneumovirus genus. This virus is the main etiological agent causing severe acute lower respiratory tract infection, especially in infants, children and the elderly. Human RSV can cause bronchiolitis and pneumonia and it has also been implicated in the development of recurrent wheezing and asthma...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227860/respiratory-syncytial-virus-in-brazilian-infants-ten-years-two-cohorts
#14
Elinara Wollmeister, Alfonso Eduardo Alvarez, Juliana Cristina Santiago Bastos, Fernando Augusto Lima Marson, José Dirceu Ribeiro, Emílio Carlos Elias Baracat, Clarice Weis Arns, Adriana Gut Lopes Riccetto
BACKGROUND: Each year, a considerable amount of children will experience at least one episode of acute viral bronchiolitis (AVB) during their first year of life. About 10% of them will be hospitalized, with significant physical and economic burdens. OBJECTIVES: To compare two cohorts of infants with AVB, from same region, in a ten-year interval, regarding epidemiologic factors and viral etiology. STUDY DESIGN: Cohorts: 142 (2004) and 172 (2014) infants at ages zero to 12 months; clinical diagnosis of AVB; medical care in hospital and genetic screening of nasopharyngeal secretion for respiratory viruses...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226974/acute-bronchiolitis-influence-of-viral-co-infection-in-infants-hospitalized-over-12-consecutive-epidemic-seasons
#15
Laura Petrarca, Raffaella Nenna, Antonella Frassanito, Alessandra Pierangeli, Salvatore Leonardi, Carolina Scagnolari, Guido Antonelli, Paola Papoff, Corrado Moretti, Fabio Midulla
Bronchiolitis is the first lower respiratory tract viral infection manifesting in infants younger than 12 months of age. Our aim was to evaluate clinical and serological differences in infants with bronchiolitis from a single or from multiple viruses. Our secondary aim was to investigate differences in recurrent wheezing episodes after 12-24-36 months of follow-up. We reviewed the clinical records for 486 full-term infants hospitalized for bronchiolitis with at least one virus detected in the nasopharyngeal aspirate...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222007/current-concepts-in-pathogenesis-diagnosis-and-management-of-smoking-related-interstitial-lung-diseases
#16
REVIEW
Anupam Kumar, Sujith V Cherian, Robert Vassallo, Eunhee S Yi, Jay H Ryu
Tobacco exposure results in various changes to the airways and lung parenchyma. While emphysema represents the more common injury pattern, in some individuals, cigarette smoke injures alveolar epithelial and other lung cells resulting in diffuse infiltrates and parenchymal fibrosis. Smoking can trigger interstitial injury patterns mediated via recruitment and inappropriate persistence of myeloid and other immune cells including eosinophils. As our understanding of the role of cigarette smoke constituents in triggering lung injury continues to evolve, so does our recognition of the spectrum of smoking-related interstitial lung changes...
December 5, 2017: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215378/developing-resident-sensitive-quality-measures-a-model-from-pediatric-emergency-medicine
#17
Daniel J Schumacher, Eric S Holmboe, Cees van der Vleuten, Jamiu O Busari, Carol Carraccio
PURPOSE: To begin closing the gap with respect to quality measures available for use among residents, the authors sought to identify and develop resident-sensitive quality measures (RSQMs) for use in the pediatric emergency department (PED) setting. METHOD: In May 2016, the authors reviewed National Quality Measures Clearinghouse (NQMC) measures to identify resident-sensitive measures. To create additional measures focused on common, acute illnesses (acute asthma exacerbation, bronchiolitis, closed head injury [CHI]) in the PED, the authors used a nominal group technique (NGT) and Delphi process from September to December 2016...
December 5, 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213258/the-complexity-of-antibody-responses-elicited-against-the-respiratory-syncytial-virus-glycoproteins-in-hospitalized-children-younger-than-2-years
#18
Alfonsina Trento, Rosa Rodríguez-Fernández, María I González-Sánchez, Felipe González-Martínez, Vicente Mas, Mónica Vázquez, Concepción Palomo, José A Melero
The influence of age and maternal antibodies on the antibody responses to human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) glycoproteins in very young children has been a matter of controversy. Both, immaturity of the immune system at very early age and suppression of the host immune response by high level of maternal antibodies have been claimed to limit the host antibody response to virus infection and to jeopardize the use of hRSV vaccines under development in that age group. Hence, the antibody responses to the two major hRSV glycoproteins (F and G) were evaluated in children younger than 2 years, hospitalized with laboratory confirmed hRSV bronchiolitis...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206851/role-of-viral-coinfections-in-asthma-development
#19
Maria Luz Garcia-Garcia, Cristina Calvo, Sara Ruiz, Francisco Pozo, Victoria Del Pozo, Laura Remedios, Nadia Exposito, Ana Tellez, Inmaculada Casas
BACKGROUND: Viral respiratory infections, especially acute bronchiolitis, play a key role in the development of asthma in childhood. However, most studies have focused on respiratory syncytial virus or rhinovirus infections and none of them have compared the long-term evolution of single versus double or multiple viral infections. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to compare the frequency of asthma development at 6-8 years in children with previous admission for bronchiolitis associated with single versus double or multiple viral infection...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206734/viral-bronchiolitis-in-picus-looking-further-than-the-acute-phase
#20
Florent Baudin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
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