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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905075/ouabain-attenuates-ovalbumin-induced-airway-inflammation
#1
José Guilherme F M Galvão, Luiz Henrique Agra Cavalcante-Silva, Deyse Cristina M Carvalho, Laércia Karla D P Ferreira, Talissa Mozzini Monteiro, Adriano Francisco Alves, Larissa Adilis M P Ferreira, Francisco Allysson A F Gadelha, Marcia Regina Piuvezam, Sandra Rodrigues-Mascarenhas
PURPOSE: Ouabain, an Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase inhibitor hormone, presents immunomodulatory actions, including anti-inflammatory effect on acute inflammation models. METHODS: In the present study, the effect of ouabain in a model of allergic airway inflammation induced by ovalbumin (OVA) was assessed. RESULTS: Initially, it was observed that ouabain treatment inhibited cellular migration induced by OVA on bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), mostly granulocytes, without modulating macrophage migration...
September 13, 2017: Inflammation Research: Official Journal of the European Histamine Research Society ... [et Al.]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886185/clinical-features-and-seasonality-of-parechovirus-infection-in-an-asian-subtropical-city-hong-kong
#2
Grace P K Chiang, Zigui Chen, Martin C W Chan, Simon H M Lee, Angela K Kwok, Apple C M Yeung, E Anthony S Nelson, Kam Lun Hon, Ting Fan Leung, Paul K S Chan
BACKGROUND: The epidemiology of human parechovirus (HPeV) in Asia remains obscure. We elucidated the prevalence, seasonality, type distribution and clinical presentation of HPeV among children in Hong Kong. METHODS: A 24-month prospective study to detect HPeV in children ≤36 months hospitalized for acute viral illnesses. RESULTS: 2.3% of the 3911 children examined had HPeV infection, with most (87.5%) concentrated in September-January (autumn-winter)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863322/il-17-contributes-to-the-pathogenesis-of-obliterative-bronchiolitis-via-regulation-of-m1-macrophages-polarization-in-murine-heterotopic-trachea-transplantation-models
#3
Qingshu Meng, Jie Liu, Fang Lin, Luer Bao, Yuyu Jiang, Liang Zheng, Jinjun Tie, Lin Zhang, Xiaoting Liang, Lu Wei, Yuan Li, Huimin Fan, Xiaohui Zhou
Acute allograft rejection is a principal conundrum in lung obliterative bronchiolitis (OB). Monocytes/macrophages infiltration has been proved to be the main reason for acute rejection. IL-17 contributes to the recruitment and function of macrophages. However, the mechanism of IL-17 underlying OB progression remains elusive. In the present study, we showed that the deficiency of IL-17 attenuated the pathology of murine heterotopic trachea allografts. Compared to WT recipients, IL-17(-/-) mice displayed higher frequency of CD206+ cells and lower ratio of CD86+ cells among F4/80+ macrophages in allografts and spleens on day 7 post heterotopic trachea transplantation...
August 29, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861397/modulation-of-host-immunity-by-human-respiratory-syncytial-virus-virulence-factors-a-synergic-inhibition-of-both-innate-and-adaptive-immunity
#4
REVIEW
Gisela Canedo-Marroquín, Orlando Acevedo-Acevedo, Emma Rey-Jurado, Juan M Saavedra, Margarita K Lay, Susan M Bueno, Claudia A Riedel, Alexis M Kalergis
The Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus (hRSV) is a major cause of acute lower respiratory tract infections (ARTIs) and high rates of hospitalizations in children and in the elderly worldwide. Symptoms of hRSV infection include bronchiolitis and pneumonia. The lung pathology observed during hRSV infection is due in part to an exacerbated host immune response, characterized by immune cell infiltration to the lungs. HRSV is an enveloped virus, a member of the Pneumoviridae family, with a non-segmented genome and negative polarity-single RNA that contains 10 genes encoding for 11 proteins...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860332/negative-pressure-ventilation-in-pediatric-acute-respiratory-failure
#5
Amanda B Hassinger, Ryan K Breuer, Kirsten Nutty, Chang-Xing Ma, Omar S Al Ibrahim
BACKGROUND: The objective of this work was to describe the use of negative-pressure ventilation (NPV) in a heterogeneous critically ill, pediatric population. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was conducted of all patients admitted to a pediatric ICU with acute respiratory failure supported with NPV from January 1, 2012 to May 15, 2015. RESULTS: Two hundred thirty-three subjects at a median age of 15.5 months were supported with NPV for various etiologies, most commonly bronchiolitis (70%)...
August 31, 2017: Respiratory Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859915/viral-bronchiolitis-in-young-infants-new-perspectives-for-management-and-treatment
#6
REVIEW
Mauricio T Caballero, Fernando P Polack, Renato T Stein
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this review was to address advances in management and treatment of acute viral bronchiolitis in infants. SOURCES: A systematic review search was made including all articles published in English between 2010 and 2017, and available in the electronic databases PubMed and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) and specialized register of the Acute Respiratory Infections Group (Cochrane review group). The following MESH terms in English were included, using different Boolean operators for the search strategy: "bronchiolitis, viral," "diagnosis," "epidemiology," "etiology," "therapy," "virology," "prevention and control," "respiratory syncytial virus, human...
August 30, 2017: Jornal de Pediatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859019/age-specific-antibiotic-prescribing-and-adherence-to-guidelines-in-pediatric-patients-in-primary-care
#7
Verica Ivanovska, Karin Hek, Aukje K Mantel-Teeuwisse, Hubert G M Leufkens, Liset van Dijk
BACKGROUND: Most antibiotics in children are used to treat viral and self-limiting conditions. This study aims to compare physicians' adherence to guidelines on antibiotic prescribing in fever and in ear and respiratory infections to children in different age groups in the Netherlands. METHODS: Data were used from the NIVEL Primary Care Database. For all pediatric episodes of fever, acute otitis media (AOM), streptococcal pharyngitis (strep throat), sinusitis, acute tonsillitis, acute bronchitis/bronchiolitis and pneumonia in 2012, we determined whether national guidelines were followed in regard to whether an antibiotic was prescribed, and the type of antibiotic...
August 28, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28839957/high-flow-nasal-cannulae-for-acute-viral-bronchiolitis-in-young-infants-evidence-based-medicine-is-underway-to-define-target-populations-and-optimal-flows
#8
EDITORIAL
Gilles Cambonie, Marti Pons-Odena, Julien Baleine, Christophe Milési
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28839157/acute-respiratory-infections-in-hospitalized-children-in-vientiane-lao-pdr-the-importance-of-respiratory-syncytial-virus
#9
Van Hoan Nguyen, Audrey Dubot-Pérès, Fiona M Russell, David A B Dance, Keoudomphone Vilivong, Souphatsone Phommachan, Chanthaphone Syladeth, Jana Lai, Ruth Lim, Melinda Morpeth, Mayfong Mayxay, Paul N Newton, Hervé Richet, Xavier De Lamballerie
The Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is one of the most important viral pathogens, causing epidemics of acute respiratory infection (ARI), especially bronchiolitis and pneumonia, in children worldwide. To investigate the RSV burden in Laos, we conducted a one-year study in children <5 years old admitted to Mahosot Hospital, Vientiane Capital, to describe clinical and epidemiological characteristics and predictive factors for severity of RSV-associated ARI. Pooled nasal and throat swabs were tested using multiplex real-time PCR for 33 respiratory pathogens (FTD(®) kit)...
August 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28834426/detection-of-respiratory-syncytial-virus-rsv-at-birth-in-a-newborn-with-respiratory-distress
#10
Sara Manti, Caterina Cuppari, Angela Lanzafame, Carmelo Salpietro, Pasqua Betta, Salvatore Leonardi, Miriam K Perez, Giovanni Piedimonte
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most common respiratory pathogen in infants and young children. From the nasopharyngeal or conjunctival mucosa of infected individuals, RSV spreads to the lower respiratory tract causing acute bronchiolitis and pneumonia after an incubation period of 4-6 days. In addition to its well-documented tropism for the airway epithelium, it has been shown previously that RSV can also spread hematogenously and efficiently infect extrapulmonary tissues of human hosts. Furthermore, it has been shown in animal models that RSV can spread transplacentally from the respiratory tract of a pregnant mother to the lungs of the fetus...
October 2017: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831577/chest-radiographic-features-of-human-metapneumovirus-infection-in-pediatric-patients
#11
Melissa A Hilmes, F Daniel Dunnavant, Sudha P Singh, Wendy D Ellis, Daniel C Payne, Yuwei Zhu, Marie R Griffin, Kathryn M Edwards, John V Williams
BACKGROUND: Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) was identified in 2001 and is a common cause of acute respiratory illness in young children. The radiologic characteristics of laboratory-confirmed HMPV acute respiratory illness in young children have not been systematically assessed. OBJECTIVE: We systematically evaluated the radiographic characteristics of acute respiratory illness associated with HMPV in a prospective cohort of pediatric patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We included chest radiographs from children <5 years old with acute respiratory illness who were enrolled in the prospective New Vaccine Surveillance Network (NVSN) study from 2003 to 2009 and were diagnosed with HMPV by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)...
August 22, 2017: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829494/pneumopericardium-pneumomediastinum-and-pneumorrachis-complicating-acute-respiratory-syncytial-virus-bronchiolitis-in-children
#12
C Fantacci, P Ferrara, F Franceschi, A Chiaretti
OBJECTIVE: We report 2 children with Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) infection complicated with spontaneous pneumopericardium (PP) and pneumomediastinum (PM), one also associated with pneumorrhachis (PR). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Two previously healthy children presented with fever, violent dry cough, dyspnea, and tachypnea. Chest X-ray and CT scans showed sizeable PP and PM in both patients. One of them also presented PR. Children were initially treated with intravenous antibiotics, antipyretics, and a cough sedative...
August 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828759/antibiotics-for-persistent-cough-or-wheeze-following-acute-bronchiolitis-in-children
#13
REVIEW
Gabrielle B McCallum, Erin J Plumb, Peter S Morris, Anne B Chang
BACKGROUND: Bronchiolitis is a common acute respiratory condition with high prevalence worldwide. This clinically diagnosed syndrome is manifested by tachypnoea (rapid breathing), with crackles or wheeze in young children. In the acute phase of bronchiolitis (≤ 14 days), antibiotics are not routinely prescribed unless the illness is severe or a secondary bacterial infection is suspected. Although bronchiolitis is usually self-limiting, some young children continue to have protracted symptoms (e...
August 22, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818563/-lower-lymphocyte-response-in-severe-cases-of-acute-bronchiolitis-due-to-respiratory-syncytial-virus
#14
José Miguel Ramos-Fernández, David Moreno-Pérez, Cristina Antúnez-Fernández, Guillermo Milano-Manso, Ana María Cordón-Martínez, Antonio Urda-Cardona
INTRODUCTION: Acute bronchiolitis (AB) of the infant has a serious outcome in 6-16% of the hospital admitted cases. Its pathogenesis and evolution is related to the response of the T lymphocytes. The objective of the present study is to determine if the lower systemic lymphocytic response is related to a worse outcome of AB in hospitalised infants. PATIENTS AND METHOD: Retrospective observational-analytical study of cases-controls nested in a cohort of patients admitted due to RSV-AB between the period from October 2010 to March 2015...
August 14, 2017: Anales de Pediatría: Publicación Oficial de la Asociación Española de Pediatría (A.E.P.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814783/mycoplasma-pneumoniae-associated-bronchiolitis-obliterans-following-acute-bronchiolitis
#15
Chengsong Zhao, Jinrong Liu, Haiming Yang, Li Xiang, Shunying Zhao
The characteristics of Mycoplasma pneumonia (M. pneumoniae)-associated bronchiolitis obliterans (BO) are not well known. We retrospectively reviewed 17 patients with M. pneumoniae-associated BO. All patients had M. pneumoniae-associated acute bronchiolitis prior to the development of BO. In the acute bronchiolitis stage, all patients had fever and cough; six patients also had wheezing and dyspnoea. BO was diagnosed approximately 1.5-8 months later based on clinical manifestations and chest high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) findings...
August 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812472/modifiable-risk-factors-associated-with-bronchiolitis
#16
Raffaella Nenna, Renato Cutrera, Antonella Frassanito, Claudia Alessandroni, Ambra Nicolai, Giulia Cangiano, Laura Petrarca, Serena Arima, Serena Caggiano, Nicola Ullman, Paola Papoff, Enea Bonci, Corrado Moretti, Fabio Midulla
BACKGROUND: We sought to clarify possibly modifiable risk factors related to pollution responsible for acute bronchiolitis in hospitalized infants. METHODS: For this observational study, we recruited 213 consecutive infants with bronchiolitis (cases: median age: 2 months; age range: 0.5-12 months; boys: 55.4%) and 213 children aged <3 years (controls: median age: 12 months; age range: 0.5-36 months; boys: 54.5%) with a negative medical history for lower respiratory tract diseases hospitalized at 'Sapienza' University Rome and IRCCS Bambino Gesù Hospital...
August 1, 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Respiratory Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783078/respiratory-syncytial-virus-the-influence-of-serotype-and-genotype-variability-on-clinical-course-of-infection
#17
REVIEW
Silvia Vandini, Carlotta Biagi, Marcello Lanari
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) belongs to the recently defined Pneumoviridae family, Orthopneumovirus genus. It is the leading cause of acute bronchiolitis and one of the most common causes of infant viral death worldwide, with infection typically occurring as recurrent seasonal epidemics. There are two major RSV subtypes, A and B, and multiple genotypes, which can coexist during RSV epidemic season every year and result in different disease severity. Recently, new RSV genomic sequences and analysis of RSV genotypes have provided important data for understanding RSV pathogenesis...
August 6, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771627/treatment-of-preschool-children-presenting-to-the-emergency-department-with-wheeze-with-azithromycin-a-placebo-controlled-randomized-trial
#18
Piush J Mandhane, Patricia Paredes Zambrano de Silbernagel, Yin Nwe Aung, Janie Williamson, Bonita E Lee, Sheldon Spier, Mary Noseworthy, William R Craig, David W Johnson
BACKGROUND: Antibiotics are frequently used to treat wheezing children. Macrolides may be effective in treating bronchiolitis and asthma. METHOD: We completed a prospective, double-blinded, randomized placebo-control trial of azithromycin among pre-school children (12 to 60 months of age) presenting to the emergency department with wheeze. Patients were randomized to receive either five days of azithromycin or placebo. Primary outcome was time to resolution of respiratory symptoms after treatment initiation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757139/clinical-and-epidemiological-characteristics-of-human-parainfluenza-virus-infections-of-children-in-southern-taiwan
#19
Kai-Wen Wu, Shih-Min Wang, Ching-Fen Shen, Tzong-Shiann Ho, Jen-Ren Wang, Ching-Chuan Liu
BACKGROUND: Human parainfluenza viruses (HPIV) 1-4 had been analyzed as being one of the most frequent causes of hospitalizations for young children with respiratory tract illnesses. METHODS: This retrospective study was performed from children virologically confirmed as HPIV infection through throat swab or nasopharyngeal aspirates at a tertiary care university hospital, between January 2012 and December 2014. HPIV4 was not checked and analyzed, due to not include in the commercial kit...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752350/lung-transplantation-for-bronchiolitis-obliterans-syndrome-after-allogenic-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation
#20
Fei Gao, Jingyu Chen, Dong Wei, Bo Wu, Min Zhou
Bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality with limited treatment options. Lung transplantation (LTX) has been rarely reported as a treatment option for selected HSCT recipients with this problem. In the present study, we reported six patients who underwent LTX due to BOS after HSCT (two females, four males) from January 2012 to December 2014 in our center. The median time from HSCT to diagnosis of BOS was 2.5 years (ranging from 1 to 5 years)...
July 28, 2017: Frontiers of Medicine
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