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Acute bronchiolitis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193180/viral-aetiology-of-bronchiolitis-in-hospitalised-children-in-qatar
#1
Ibrahim Janahi, Anas Abdulkayoum, Fawziya Almeshwesh, Mohamed Alkuwari, Ahmed Al Hammadi, Marwah Alameri
BACKGROUND: Bronchiolitis is considered one of the earliest and most common causes of hospitalisation in young children. Development of molecular technologies allowed a better understanding of bronchiolitis aetiology. Results from cohort studies evaluating the association between single, multiple viral infections and clinical outcomes are conflicting. Data on viral bronchiolitis in children were found to be limited in Qatar. This study aimed to determine frequency and seasonal trends of viral pathogens causing acute bronchiolitis, and to explore association between viral pathogens, disease severity and length of stay (LOS)...
February 13, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192893/non-invasive-ventilation-improves-respiratory-distress-in-children-with-acute-viral-bronchiolitis-a-systematic-review
#2
Yann Combret, Guillaume Prieur, Pascal LE Roux, Clément Médrinal
BACKGROUND: Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) is a common treatment for bronchiolitis. However, consensus concerning its efficacy is lacking. The aim of this systematic review was to assess NIV effectiveness to reduce respiratory distress. Secondary objectives were to summarize the effects of NIV, identify predictive factors for failure and describe settings and applications. METHODS: Searches were conducted in MEDLINE Pubmed, PEDro, COCHRANE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Web of Science, Up-todate and Sudoc from 1990 to April 2015...
February 13, 2017: Minerva Anestesiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161017/high-flow-oxygen-therapy-in-acute-bronchiolitis
#3
Steve Cunningham, Ricardo M Fernandes
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 1, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159510/immune-and-inflammatory-response-in-bronchiolitis-due-to-respiratory-syncytial-virus-and-rhinovirus-infections-in-infants
#4
REVIEW
Silvia Vandini, Elisabetta Calamelli, Giacomo Faldella, Marcello Lanari
Bronchiolitis is a common disease in infancy, mostly due to Respiratory Syncytial Virus and Rhinovirus. In addition to acute infection, viral bronchiolitis is responsible for sequelae including recurrent wheezing and asthma. The analysis of the viral characteristics and of the pathogenesis of the infection shows differences between the two viruses that may be helpful for the development of therapies and preventive strategies.
January 16, 2017: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144069/a-severe-mycoplasma-pneumoniae-pneumonia-inducing-an-acute-antibody-mediated-pulmonary-graft-rejection
#5
Sarah Démir, Julien Saison, Agathe Sénéchal, Jean-Francois Mornex
A 40-year-old cystic fibrosis woman with a history of double-lung transplantation 2 years previously was admitted for a progressive respiratory distress. Physical examination revealed fever (39°C) and diffuse bilateral lung crackles. Laboratory findings included severe hypoxemia and inflammatory syndrome. Bronchoalveolar lavage and serological test were positive for mycoplasma pneumonia. As the patient did not improve after 3 days of antibiotics and donor-specific HLA antibodies had been detected, an acute antibody-mediated graft rejection was treated with high-dose corticosteroids, plasma exchange, intravenous immunoglobulin, and rituximab...
January 2017: Lung India: Official Organ of Indian Chest Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131664/survival-and-outcomes-after-lung-transplantation-for-non-scleroderma-connective-tissue-related-interstitial-lung-disease
#6
Andrew M Courtwright, Souheil El-Chemaly, Paul F Dellaripa, Hilary J Goldberg
BACKGROUND: Patients with non-scleroderma connective tissue-related lung disease (NS-CTLD), including rheumatoid arthritis, idiopathic inflammatory myopathies, Sjögren syndrome, mixed connective tissue disease, and systemic lupus erythematosus, may be at risk for worse outcomes after lung transplantation because of immune dysregulation or extrapulmonary manifestations of their underlying disease. We compared survival, acute and chronic rejection, and extrapulmonary organ dysfunction after transplantation in patients with NS-CTLD and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF)...
December 31, 2016: Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131494/immunomodulation-by-hyperimmunoglobulins-after-solid-organ-transplantation-beyond-prevention-of-viral-infection
#7
REVIEW
Rogier van Gent, Herold J Metselaar, Jaap Kwekkeboom
Hyperimmunoglobulins are pharmaceutical formulations of human IgG which contain high titers of antibodies against specific viruses. They have been successfully used in solid organ transplantation (SOT) to prevent Cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) infection. The introduction of effective and cheaper antiviral drugs has resulted in decreasing usage of hyperimmunoglobulins in SOT. However, it may still be attractive to combine antiviral drug therapy with hyperimmunoglobulins after SOT, as there is some evidence that hyperimmunoglobulins, similar to high doses of intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIgs), might exert anti-inflammatory activity and thereby prevent immunological graft damage and improve graft and patient survival...
January 19, 2017: Transplantation Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124966/-a-case-of-bronchiolitis-obliterans-secondary-to-human-metapneumovirus-bronchiolitis
#8
Osman Yeşilbaş, Esra Şevketoğlu, Hasan Serdar Kıhtır, Mey Talip Petmezci, Elif Bato, Seda Balkaya, Nevin Hatipoğlu, Mert Ahmet Kuşkucu, Figen Palabıyık, Erkan Çakır
Human metapneumovirus (hMPV), formerly classified in Paramyxoviridae family is now moved into Pneumoviridae, which was described as a novel family. It causes upper and lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) usually in children younger than five years old. The recent epidemiological studies indicated that hMPV is the second most frequently detected virus in LRTIs of young children, following the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). Bronchiolitis obliterans (BO) is a chronic obstructive lung disease characterized by fibrosis of the distal respiratory airways...
October 2016: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124736/high-flow-nasal-cannula-hfnc-versus-nasal-continuous-positive-airway-pressure-ncpap-for-the-initial-respiratory-management-of-acute-viral-bronchiolitis-in-young-infants-a-multicenter-randomized-controlled-trial-tramontane-study
#9
Christophe Milési, Sandrine Essouri, Robin Pouyau, Jean-Michel Liet, Mickael Afanetti, Aurélie Portefaix, Julien Baleine, Sabine Durand, Clémentine Combes, Aymeric Douillard, Gilles Cambonie
PURPOSE: Nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) is currently the gold standard for respiratory support for moderate to severe acute viral bronchiolitis (AVB). Although oxygen delivery via high flow nasal cannula (HFNC) is increasingly used, evidence of its efficacy and safety is lacking in infants. METHODS: A randomized controlled trial was performed in five pediatric intensive care units (PICUs) to compare 7 cmH2O nCPAP with 2 L/kg/min oxygen therapy administered with HFNC in infants up to 6 months old with moderate to severe AVB...
February 2017: Intensive Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123339/mean-platelet-volume-may-not-be-reduced-in-patients-with-acute-bronchiolitis
#10
COMMENT
Cengiz Beyan, Esin Beyan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Türk Pediatri Arşivi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118023/il-17a-blockade-attenuates-obliterative-bronchiolitis-and-ifn%C3%AE-cellular-immune-response-in-lung-allografts
#11
Pawan Kumar Gupta, Sarah R Wagner, Qiang Wu, Rebecca A Shilling
Obliterative bronchiolitis (OB), characterized by fibrous obliteration of the small airways, is a major impediment to long-term survival in lung transplant recipients. We have previously found that IL-17A is primarily produced by CD4+ T cells and γδ T cells after lung transplant in a mouse model of orthotopic lung transplant. Absence of either subset of T cells was compensated for by expansion of the other subset, which suggested systemic blockade of IL-17A was necessary. To determine the specific role of IL-17A in the development of OB, we treated lung allograft recipients with an IL-17A antagonistic antibody...
January 24, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116959/immunomodulatory-indications-of-azithromycin-in-respiratory-disease-a-concise-review-for-the-clinician
#12
Cassondra L Cramer, Allie Patterson, Abdulrazak Alchakaki, Ayman O Soubani
Azithromycin has a well-characterized bacteriostatic activity. However, it also has a robust immunomodulatory effect that has proven beneficial in a variety of chronic illnesses. This effect results in decreased production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the acute phase and promotes resolution of chronic inflammation in the later phases. Specifically, azithromycin has direct activity on airway epithelial cells to maintain their function and reduce mucus secretion. These characteristics have resulted in the use of azithromycin in the management of a variety of chronic lung diseases including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cystic fibrosis (CF), non-CF bronchiectasis, bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome, diffuse panbronchiolitis, and asthma...
February 1, 2017: Postgraduate Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114728/the-modified-respiratory-index-score-ris-guides-resource-allocation-in-acute-bronchiolitis
#13
Shu-Ling Chong, Oon Hoe Teoh, Nivedita Nadkarni, Joo Guan Yeo, Zaw Lwin, Yong-Kwang Gene Ong, Jan Hau Lee
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Bronchiolitis is a common disease in early childhood with increasing healthcare utilization. We aim to study how well a simple and improved respiratory score (the modified Respiratory Index Score [RIS]) would perform when predicting for a warranted admission. METHODS: This is an observational prospective study, from June 2015 to December 2015 in a paediatric emergency department (ED) of a large tertiary hospital in Singapore. We included children aged less than 2 years old, presenting with typical symptoms and signs of bronchiolitis but excluded children with four or more previous wheezes, a gestation of <35 weeks, and known cardiopulmonary disease...
January 23, 2017: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106480/radio-pathological-correlation-of-organising-pneumonia-op-a-pictorial-review
#14
Mohammad Zare Mehrjardi, Shahram Kahkouee, Mihan Pourabdollah
Since the description of cryptogenic organising pneumonia (COP) in 1983 by Davison et al. and the subsequent report on bronchiolitis obliterans organising pneumonia (BOOP) by Epler et al., some reports have been published regarding the imaging features of organising pneumonia (OP). In this pictorial review, we aim to describe different manifestations of OP on high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) accompanied by their histopathological correlations for a better comprehension of the radiological findings pathomechanism...
January 20, 2017: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104904/-prediction-of-severe-course-in-infants-with-rsv-bronchiolitis-under-6-months-spain
#15
José Miguel Ramos-Fernández, David Moreno-Pérez, Mario Gutiérrez-Bedmar, Alexandra Hernández-Yuste, Ana María Cordón-Martínez, Guillermo Milano-Manso, Antonio Urda-Cardona
OBJECTIVE: The need for mechanical ventilation (MV) in acute bronchiolitis (AB) by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) varies depending on the series (6-18%). Our goal is to determine the admissions to PICU for MV in patients under 6 months with AB and define the risk factors for building a prediction model. METHODS: Retrospective study of patients younger than 6 months admitted by BA-VRS between the periods April 1, 2010 and March 31, 2015 was made. The primary variable was the admission to PICU for MV...
January 19, 2017: Revista Española de Salud Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095826/non-invasive-respiratory-support-for-infants-with-bronchiolitis-a-national-survey-of-practice
#16
H Turnham, R S Agbeko, J Furness, J Pappachan, A G Sutcliffe, P Ramnarayan
BACKGROUND: Bronchiolitis is a common respiratory illness of early childhood. For most children it is a mild self-limiting disease but a small number of children develop respiratory failure. Nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) has traditionally been used to provide non-invasive respiratory support in these children, but there is little clinical trial evidence to support its use. More recently, high-flow nasal cannula therapy (HFNC) has emerged as a novel respiratory support modality...
January 17, 2017: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092107/rsv-associated-hospitalizations-in-children-in-karachi-pakistan-implications-for-vaccine-prevention-strategies
#17
Asad Ali, Mohammad Tahir Yousafzai, Rabbia Waris, Fatima Jafri, Fatima Aziz, Imran Naeem Abbasi, Anita Zaidi
Major progress is being made in vaccines against Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV), with multiple vaccine candidates currently in the clinical phase of development. Making an investment case for public sector financing of RSV vaccine will require estimation of burden, cost-effectiveness and impact. The aim of this study is to determine the proportion, age distribution and clinical spectrum of RSV associated hospitalizations in children in Karachi, Pakistan. A three years prospective study was conducted at the Aga Khan University hospital in Karachi, a city of 20 million in south Pakistan, from August 2009 to June 2012...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087650/simkania-negevensis-may-produce-long-lasting-infections-in-human-pneumocytes-and-endometrial-cells
#18
Manon Vouga, David Baud, Gilbert Greub
Simkania negevensis is a novel Chlamydia-related bacterium and the founding member of the Simkaniaceae family within the Chlamydiales order. Little is known about the biology and pathogenesis of this bacterium. So far, S. negevensis has been considered as an amoebal symbiont, but its natural host remains unknown. Moreover, evidence of human exposition has been reported worldwide and an association with pneumonia and bronchiolitis is suspected. Here, we evaluated the ability of S. negevensis to replicate in potential environmental reservoirs, namely amoebae and arthropods, as well as in mammalian cells (Vero cells, pneumocytes and endometrial cells) and further evaluated the characteristics of its replicative vacuole...
January 12, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011970/zinc-sulphate-for-acute-bronchiolitis-a-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial
#19
Abolfazl Mahyar, Parviz Ayazi, Negin Khoshbakht Ahmadi, Sara Talebi Pour Nikoo, Samaneh Hamzehloo, Alireza Taremiha, Zohreh Yazdi, Shiva Esmaeily
The use of adjunctive therapies to achieve rapid recovery from clinical symptoms of acute bronchiolitis would appear necessary. This study was performed to determine the effect of zinc sulphate on treating acute bronchiolitis. In this study, 100 children affected with acute bronchiolitis were investigated. Fifty patients received oral zinc sulphate and 50 patients placebo. Signs and symptoms of the disease were compared between two groups at the time of admission and then 24, 48, 72, 96 and 120 hours after the beginning of treatment...
1, 2016: Le Infezioni in Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008661/rescue-alemtuzumab-for-refractory-acute-cellular-rejection-and-bronchiolitis-obliterans-syndrome-after-lung-transplantation
#20
Christopher R Ensor, Lindsey C Rihtarchik, Matthew R Morrell, J W Awori Hayanga, Alicia B Lichvar, Joseph M Pilewski, Stephen Wisniewski, Bruce A Johnson, Jonathan D'Cunha, Adriana Zeevi, John F McDyer
Refractory acute-cellular rejection (rACR) is associated with death and bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) post-lung transplantation. We report the largest cohort of lung transplant recipients (LTR) treated with rescue alemtuzumab for rACR or BOS. RACR outcomes included burden of ACR 30-days before and 180-days after rescue assessed by a novel composite rejection standardized score (CRSS, range 0-6); freedom from ≥A2 ACR. BOS outcomes included freedom from BOS progression and FEV1 decline >10%. Univariate parametric and nonparametric statistical approaches were used to assess treatment response...
December 23, 2016: Clinical Transplantation
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