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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720569/platelets-as-autonomous-drones-for-hemostatic-and-immune-surveillance
#1
REVIEW
Jackson LiangYao Li, Alexander Zarbock, Andrés Hidalgo
Platelets participate in many important physiological processes, including hemostasis and immunity. However, despite their broad participation in these evolutionarily critical roles, the anucleate platelet is uniquely mammalian. In contrast with the large nucleated equivalents in lower vertebrates, we find that the design template for the evolutionary specialization of platelets shares remarkable similarities with human-engineered unmanned aerial vehicles in terms of overall autonomy, maneuverability, and expendability...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718788/implementation-of-an-imu-aided-image-stacking-algorithm-in-a-digital-camera-for-unmanned-aerial-vehicles
#2
Ahmad Audi, Marc Pierrot-Deseilligny, Christophe Meynard, Christian Thom
Images acquired with a long exposure time using a camera embedded on UAVs (Unmanned Aerial Vehicles) exhibit motion blur due to the erratic movements of the UAV. The aim of the present work is to be able to acquire several images with a short exposure time and use an image processing algorithm to produce a stacked image with an equivalent long exposure time. Our method is based on the feature point image registration technique. The algorithm is implemented on the light-weight IGN (Institut national de l'information géographique) camera, which has an IMU (Inertial Measurement Unit) sensor and an SoC (System on Chip)/FPGA (Field-Programmable Gate Array)...
July 18, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714936/extending-wireless-rechargeable-sensor-network-life-without-full-knowledge
#3
Najeeb W Najeeb, Carrick Detweiler
When extending the life of Wireless Rechargeable Sensor Networks (WRSN), one challenge is charging networks as they grow larger. Overcoming this limitation will render a WRSN more practical and highly adaptable to growth in the real world. Most charging algorithms require a priori full knowledge of sensor nodes' power levels in order to determine the nodes that require charging. In this work, we present a probabilistic algorithm that extends the life of scalable WRSN without a priori power knowledge and without full network exploration...
July 17, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713402/unmanned-aerial-vehicle-remote-sensing-for-field-based-crop-phenotyping-current-status-and-perspectives
#4
REVIEW
Guijun Yang, Jiangang Liu, Chunjiang Zhao, Zhenhong Li, Yanbo Huang, Haiyang Yu, Bo Xu, Xiaodong Yang, Dongmei Zhu, Xiaoyan Zhang, Ruyang Zhang, Haikuan Feng, Xiaoqing Zhao, Zhenhai Li, Heli Li, Hao Yang
Phenotyping plays an important role in crop science research; the accurate and rapid acquisition of phenotypic information of plants or cells in different environments is helpful for exploring the inheritance and expression patterns of the genome to determine the association of genomic and phenotypic information to increase the crop yield. Traditional methods for acquiring crop traits, such as plant height, leaf color, leaf area index (LAI), chlorophyll content, biomass and yield, rely on manual sampling, which is time-consuming and laborious...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694843/quantifying-pruning-impacts-on-olive-tree-architecture-and-annual-canopy-growth-by-using-uav-based-3d-modelling
#5
F M Jiménez-Brenes, F López-Granados, A I de Castro, J Torres-Sánchez, N Serrano, J M Peña
BACKGROUND: Tree pruning is a costly practice with important implications for crop harvest and nutrition, pest and disease control, soil protection and irrigation strategies. Investigations on tree pruning usually involve tedious on-ground measurements of the primary tree crown dimensions, which also might generate inconsistent results due to the irregular geometry of the trees. As an alternative to intensive field-work, this study shows a innovative procedure based on combining unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) technology and advanced object-based image analysis (OBIA) methodology for multi-temporal three-dimensional (3D) monitoring of hundreds of olive trees that were pruned with three different strategies (traditional, adapted and mechanical pruning)...
2017: Plant Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694819/assessment-of-vegetation-indices-derived-by-uav-imagery-for-durum-wheat-phenotyping-under-a-water-limited-and-heat-stressed-mediterranean-environment
#6
Angelos C Kyratzis, Dimitrios P Skarlatos, George C Menexes, Vasileios F Vamvakousis, Andreas Katsiotis
There is growing interest for using Spectral Vegetation Indices (SVI) derived by Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) imagery as a fast and cost-efficient tool for plant phenotyping. The development of such tools is of paramount importance to continue progress through plant breeding, especially in the Mediterranean basin, where climate change is expected to further increase yield uncertainty. In the present study, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Simple Ratio (SR) and Green Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (GNDVI) derived from UAV imagery were calculated for two consecutive years in a set of twenty durum wheat varieties grown under a water limited and heat stressed environment...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655333/deworming-of-stray-dogs-and-wild-canines-with-praziquantel-laced-baits-delivered-by-an-unmanned-aerial-vehicle-in-areas-highly-endemic-for-echinococcosis-in-china
#7
Qing Yu, Ning Xiao, Shi-Jie Yang, Shuai Han
BACKGROUND: Canines, the definitive hosts for the parasites causing alveolar (AE) and cystic echinococcosis (CE), are the main source of this infections playing the key role in the transmission. The ten-year mortality rate of AE is extremely high (94%) if the patients are not given sustained treatment. The aim of this field study is to explore the possibility of delivery of praziquantel-laced baits using unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) aimed at deworming wild canines in the endemic areas...
June 27, 2017: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649041/determination-of-the-vertical-profile-of-particle-number-concentration-adjacent-to-a-motorway-using-an-unmanned-aerial-vehicle
#8
T F Villa, E R Jayaratne, L F Gonzalez, L Morawska
A quantitative assessment of the vertical profile of traffic pollution, specifically particle number concentration (PNC), in an open space adjacent to a motorway was possible for the first time, to the knowledge of the authors, using an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) system. Until now, traffic pollution has only been measured at ground level while the vertical distribution, is limited to studies conducted from buildings or fixed towers and balloons. This new UAV system demonstrated that the PNC sampled during the period form 10 a...
June 22, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643041/skull-fracture-with-effacement-of-the-superior-sagittal-sinus-following-drone-impact-a-case-report
#9
Lawrance K Chung, Yuri Cheung, Carlito Lagman, Nicholas Au Yong, Duncan Q McBride, Isaac Yang
BACKGROUND: The popularity of unmanned aerial vehicles, or drones, raises safety concerns as they become increasingly common for commercial, personal, and recreational use. Collisions between drones and people may result in serious injuries. CASE REPORT: A 13-year-old male presented with a comminuted depressed skull fracture causing effacement of the superior sagittal sinus secondary to a racing drone impact. The patient experienced a brief loss of consciousness and reported lower extremity numbness and weakness after the accident...
June 22, 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629159/intercomparison-of-unmanned-aerial-vehicle-and-ground-based-narrow-band-spectrometers-applied-to-crop-trait-monitoring-in-organic-potato-production
#10
Marston Héracles Domingues Franceschini, Harm Bartholomeus, Dirk van Apeldoorn, Juha Suomalainen, Lammert Kooistra
Vegetation properties can be estimated using optical sensors, acquiring data on board of different platforms. For instance, ground-based and Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV)-borne spectrometers can measure reflectance in narrow spectral bands, while different modelling approaches, like regressions fitted to vegetation indices, can relate spectra with crop traits. Although monitoring frameworks using multiple sensors can be more flexible, they may result in higher inaccuracy due to differences related to the sensors characteristics, which can affect information sampling...
June 18, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621740/a-multi-disciplinary-approach-to-remote-sensing-through-low-cost-uavs
#11
Gabriela Calvario, Basilio Sierra, Teresa E Alarcón, Carmen Hernandez, Oscar Dalmau
The use of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) based on remote sensing has generated low cost monitoring, since the data can be acquired quickly and easily. This paper reports the experience related to agave crop analysis with a low cost UAV. The data were processed by traditional photogrammetric flow and data extraction techniques were applied to extract new layers and separate the agave plants from weeds and other elements of the environment. Our proposal combines elements of photogrammetry, computer vision, data mining, geomatics and computer science...
June 16, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620399/timing-is-important-unmanned-aircraft-vs-satellite-imagery-in-plant-invasion-monitoring
#12
Jana Müllerová, Josef Brůna, Tomáš Bartaloš, Petr Dvořák, Michaela Vítková, Petr Pyšek
The rapid spread of invasive plants makes their management increasingly difficult. Remote sensing offers a means of fast and efficient monitoring, but still the optimal methodologies remain to be defined. The seasonal dynamics and spectral characteristics of the target invasive species are important factors, since, at certain time of the vegetation season (e.g., at flowering or senescing), plants are often more distinct (or more visible beneath the canopy). Our aim was to establish fast, repeatable and a cost-efficient, computer-assisted method applicable over larger areas, to reduce the costs of extensive field campaigns...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609643/training-techniques-for-visual-search-in-complex-task-environments
#13
Svyatoslav Guznov, Gerald Matthews, Joel S Warm, Marc Pfahler
OBJECTIVE: The goal for this study was to evaluate several visual search training techniques in an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) simulated task environment. BACKGROUND: Operators controlling remote unmanned vehicles often must perform complex visual search tasks (e.g., target search). These tasks may pose substantial demands on the operator due to various environmental factors. Visual search training may reduce errors and mitigate stress, but the most effective form of training has not been determined...
June 1, 2017: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594353/the-development-of-an-open-hardware-and-software-system-onboard-unmanned-aerial-vehicles-to-monitor-concentrated-solar-power-plants
#14
Francisco Javier Mesas-Carrascosa, Daniel Verdú Santano, Fernando Pérez Porras, José Emilio Meroño-Larriva, Alfonso García-Ferrer
Concentrated solar power (CSP) plants are increasingly gaining interest as a source of renewable energy. These plants face several technical problems and the inspection of components such as absorber tubes in parabolic trough concentrators (PTC), which are widely deployed, is necessary to guarantee plant efficiency. This article presents a system for real-time industrial inspection of CSP plants using low-cost, open-source components in conjunction with a thermographic sensor and an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV)...
June 8, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574474/a-lidar-and-imu-integrated-indoor-navigation-system-for-uavs-and-its-application-in-real-time-pipeline-classification
#15
G Ajay Kumar, Ashok Kumar Patil, Rekha Patil, Seong Sill Park, Young Ho Chai
Mapping the environment of a vehicle and localizing a vehicle within that unknown environment are complex issues. Although many approaches based on various types of sensory inputs and computational concepts have been successfully utilized for ground robot localization, there is difficulty in localizing an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) due to variation in altitude and motion dynamics. This paper proposes a robust and efficient indoor mapping and localization solution for a UAV integrated with low-cost Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) and Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) sensors...
June 2, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515537/estimating-spatially-distributed-turbulent-heat-fluxes-from-high-resolution-thermal-imagery-acquired-with-a-uav-system
#16
Claire Brenner, Christina Elisabeth Thiem, Hans-Dieter Wizemann, Matthias Bernhardt, Karsten Schulz
In this study, high-resolution thermal imagery acquired with a small unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) is used to map evapotranspiration (ET) at a grassland site in Luxembourg. The land surface temperature (LST) information from the thermal imagery is the key input to a one-source and two-source energy balance model. While the one-source model treats the surface as a single uniform layer, the two-source model partitions the surface temperature and fluxes into soil and vegetation components. It thus explicitly accounts for the different contributions of both components to surface temperature as well as turbulent flux exchange with the atmosphere...
May 19, 2017: International Journal of Remote Sensing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513552/a-two-echelon-cooperated-routing-problem-for-a-ground-vehicle-and-its-carried-unmanned-aerial-vehicle
#17
Zhihao Luo, Zhong Liu, Jianmai Shi
In this paper, a two-echelon cooperated routing problem for the ground vehicle (GV) and its carried unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) is investigated, where the GV travels on the road network and its UAV travels in areas beyond the road to visit a number of targets unreached by the GV. In contrast to the classical two-echelon routing problem, the UAV has to launch and land on the GV frequently to change or charge its battery while the GV is moving on the road network. A new 0-1 integer programming model is developed to formulate the problem, where the constraints on the spatial and temporal cooperation of GV and UAV routes are included...
May 17, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487713/mechanical-harvesting-effectively-controls-young-typha-spp-invasion-and-unmanned-aerial-vehicle-data-enhances-post-treatment-monitoring
#18
Shane C Lishawa, Brendan D Carson, Jodi S Brandt, Jason M Tallant, Nicholas J Reo, Dennis A Albert, Andrew M Monks, Joseph M Lautenbach, Eric Clark
The ecological impacts of invasive plants increase dramatically with time since invasion. Targeting young populations for treatment is therefore an economically and ecologically effective management approach, especially when linked to post-treatment monitoring to evaluate the efficacy of management. However, collecting detailed field-based post-treatment data is prohibitively expensive, typically resulting in inadequate documentation of the ecological effects of invasive plant management. Alternative approaches, such as remote detection with unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV), provide an opportunity to advance the science and practice of restoration ecology...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481285/a-novel-real-time-reference-key-frame-scan-matching-method
#19
Haytham Mohamed, Adel Moussa, Mohamed Elhabiby, Naser El-Sheimy, Abu Sesay
Unmanned aerial vehicles represent an effective technology for indoor search and rescue operations. Typically, most indoor missions' environments would be unknown, unstructured, and/or dynamic. Navigation of UAVs in such environments is addressed by simultaneous localization and mapping approach using either local or global approaches. Both approaches suffer from accumulated errors and high processing time due to the iterative nature of the scan matching method. Moreover, point-to-point scan matching is prone to outlier association processes...
May 7, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445417/ins-gnss-integration-for-aerobatic-flight-applications-and-aircraft-motion-surveying
#20
Edgar L V Hinüber, Christian Reimer, Tim Schneider, Michael Stock
This paper presents field tests of challenging flight applications obtained with a new family of lightweight low-power INS/GNSS (inertial navigation system/global satellite navigation system) solutions based on MEMS (micro-electro-mechanical- sensor) machined sensors, being used for UAV (unmanned aerial vehicle) navigation and control as well as for aircraft motion dynamics analysis and trajectory surveying. One key is a 42+ state extended Kalman-filter-based powerful data fusion, which also allows the estimation and correction of parameters that are typically affected by sensor aging, especially when applying MEMS-based inertial sensors, and which is not yet deeply considered in the literature...
April 26, 2017: Sensors
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