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Phlebotomy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045799/opt-out-hiv-and-hepatitis-c-testing-at-the-dallas-county-jail-uptake-prevalence-and-demographic-characteristics-of-testers
#1
Carolina de la Flor, Esmaeil Porsa, Ank E Nijhawan
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection are common in the criminal justice system. We offered opt-out HIV/HCV testing at the Dallas County Jail during intake from June 2015 to November 2016, after which testing was integrated into routine phlebotomy processes. The uptake of testing increased from 12.9% (118/915) in June 2015 to 80.5% (269/334) in January 2016. HIV was confirmed in 1.0% (30/3155) of inmates; 6 were new diagnoses and all were linked to care. HCV antibody positivity was found in 16...
January 1, 2017: Public Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020142/acute-inflammation-following-personal-exposure-to-fine-particulate-air-pollution
#2
Cuicui Wang, Renjie Chen, Min Shi, Jing Cai, Jingjin Shi, Changyuan Yang, Huichu Li, Zhijing Lin, Xia Meng, Cong Liu, Yue Niu, Yongjie Xia, Zhuohui Zhao, Haidong Kan, Clarice R Weinberg
Air pollution may increase cardiovascular and respiratory risk through inflammatory pathways, but evidence for acute effects has been weak and indirect. We enrolled 36 healthy nonsmoking college students for a panel study in Shanghai, China, a city with highly variable levels of air pollution, between December 2014 and July 2015. We measured personal exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) continuously for 72-hour preceding each of four clinical visits that included phlebotomy. We measured four inflammation proteins and DNA methylation at nearby regulatory CpG loci...
August 17, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016811/drone-transport-of-chemistry-and-hematology-samples-over-long-distances
#3
Timothy K Amukele, James Hernandez, Christine L H Snozek, Ryan G Wyatt, Matthew Douglas, Richard Amini, Jeff Street
Objectives: We addressed the stability of biological samples in prolonged drone flights by obtaining paired chemistry and hematology samples from 21 adult volunteers in a single phlebotomy event-84 samples total. Methods: Half of the samples were held stationary, while the other samples were flown for 3 hours (258 km) in a custom active cooling box mounted on the drone. After the flight, 19 chemistry and hematology tests were performed. Results: Seventeen analytes had small or no bias, but glucose and potassium in flown samples showed an 8% and 6...
September 5, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016531/myocardial-preload-alters-central-pressure-augmentation-through-changes-in-the-forward-wave
#4
Lennart van de Velde, Daan W Eeftinck Schattenkerk, Pascale A H T Venema, Hendrik J Best, Bas van den Bogaard, Wim J Stok, Berend E Westerhof, Bert Jan H van den Born
OBJECTIVE: Augmentation index (AIx) is often used to quantify the contribution of wave reflection to central pulse pressure. Recent studies have challenged this view by showing how contractility-induced changes in the forward pressure wave can markedly impact AIx. We hypothesized that changes in preload will also affect AIx through changes in the forward wave and studied this in two experiments. METHODS: Noninvasively obtained aortic pressure was used to study central haemodynamics and wave morphology...
October 7, 2017: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992910/extreme-tetralogy-of-fallot-with-polycythemia-in-a-ferret-mustela-putorius-furo
#5
Sara Dias, Marta Planellas, Albert Canturri, Jaume Martorell
A 5-month-old, intact male ferret (Mustela putorius furo) was presented with apathy, tachypnea and exercise intolerance. On initial physical examination, tachypnea and cyanosis were the two primary clinical signs detected. The complete blood count also revealed a severe polycythemia, with lymphopenia, neutrophilia and eosinophilia. Further diagnostic imaging tests were performed. The thoracic radiographs revealed cardiomegaly and a diffuse alveolar pulmonary pattern. Consequently, an echocardiography was performed and showed an interventricular septal defect, pulmonic artery occlusion, overriding of the aorta and right ventricle hypertrophy...
June 2017: Topics in Companion Animal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28959897/procedural-pain-systematic-review-of-parent-experiences-and-information-needs
#6
Allison Gates, Kassi Shave, Robin Featherstone, Kelli Buckreus, Samina Ali, Shannon D Scott, Lisa Hartling
Parents wish to reduce their child's pain during medical procedures but may not know how to do so. We systematically reviewed the literature on parents' experiences and information needs related to managing their child's pain for common medical procedures. Of 2678 records retrieved through database searching, 5 were included. Three additional records were identified by scanning reference lists. Five studies were qualitative, and 3 were quantitative. Most took place in North America or Europe (n = 7) and described neonatal intensive care unit experiences (n = 5)...
September 1, 2017: Clinical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28949941/polycythemia-vera-from-new-modified-diagnostic-criteria-to-new-therapeutic-approaches
#7
Margherita Maffioli, Barbara Mora, Francesco Passamonti
Polycythemia vera (PV) is a Philadelphia chromosome-negative chronic myeloproliferative neoplasm that is associated with a Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) mutation in most cases. The most recent update to the World Health Organization diagnostic criteria for PV was published in 2016. These were the modifications with the greatest effect: (1) lowering the hemoglobin threshold, allowing a diagnosis of PV at 16.5 g/dL in males and at 16.0 g/dL in females and (2) introducing a hematocrit cutoff (49% in males and 48% in females)...
September 2017: Clinical Advances in Hematology & Oncology: H&O
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948901/evaluation-of-an-intramuscular-butorphanol-and-alfaxalone-protocol-for-feline-blood-donation-a-pilot-study
#8
Marcella C Granfone, Julie M Walker, Lesley J Smith
Objectives The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate the use of an intramuscular (IM) sedation protocol with butorphanol and alfaxalone in cats undergoing blood donation. We hypothesized that this drug combination would provide sufficient sedation to perform phlebotomy without causing hypotension or significant changes in heart rate. Methods Six purpose-bred, healthy adult cats were sedated using IM butorphanol (0.4 mg/kg) and alfaxalone (2-3 mg/kg). Pulse and Doppler blood pressure (BP) were recorded at baseline, after sedation and immediately following phlebotomy...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948488/prognostication-in-philadelphia-chromosome-negative-myeloproliferative-neoplasms-a-review-of-the-recent-literature
#9
REVIEW
Amy Zhou, Amber Afzal, Stephen T Oh
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The prognosis for patients with Philadelphia chromosome (Ph)-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) is highly variable. All Ph-negative MPNs carry an increased risk for thrombotic complications, bleeding, and leukemic transformation. Several clinical, biological, and molecular prognostic factors have been identified in recent years, which provide important information in guiding management of patients with Ph-negative MPNs. In this review, we critically evaluate the recent published literature and discuss important new developments in clinical and molecular factors that impact survival, disease transformation, and thrombosis in patients with polycythemia vera, essential thrombocythemia, and primary myelofibrosis...
September 25, 2017: Current Hematologic Malignancy Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941929/minimizing-variance-in-care-of-pediatric-blunt-solid-organ-injury-through-utilization-of-a-hemodynamic-driven-protocol-a-multi-institution-study
#10
Aaron J Cunningham, Katrine M Lofberg, Sanjay Krishnaswami, Marilyn W Butler, Kenneth S Azarow, Nicholas A Hamilton, Elizabeth A Fialkowski, Pamela Bilyeu, Erika Ohm, Erin C Burns, Margo Hendrickson, Preetha Krishnan, Cynthia Gingalewski, Mubeen A Jafri
BACKGROUND: An expedited recovery protocol for management of pediatric blunt solid organ injury (spleen, liver, and kidney) was instituted across two Level 1 Trauma Centers, managed by nine pediatric surgeons within three hospital systems. METHODS: Data were collected for 18months on consecutive patients after protocol implementation. Patient demographics (including grade of injury), surgeon compliance, National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) complications, direct hospital cost, length of stay, time in the ICU, phlebotomy, and re-admission were compared to an 18-month control period immediately preceding study initiation...
September 4, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934512/increased-patient-satisfaction-and-a-reduction-in-pre-analytical-errors-following-implementation-of-an-electronic-specimen-collection-module-in-outpatient-phlebotomy
#11
Michalis Kantartjis, Stacy E F Melanson, Athena K Petrides, Adam B Landman, David W Bates, Bernard A Rosner, Ellen Goonan, Ida Bixho, Milenko J Tanasijevic
Background: Patient satisfaction in outpatient phlebotomy settings typically depends on wait time and venipuncture experience, and many patients equate their experiences with their overall satisfaction with the hospital. Methods: We compared patient service times and preanalytical errors pre- and postimplementation of an integrated electronic health record (EHR)-laboratory information system (LIS) and electronic specimen collection module. We also measured patient wait time and assessed patient satisfaction using a 5-question survey...
August 1, 2017: Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924316/quantitative-assessment-of-prevalence-of-pre-analytical-variables-and-their-effect-on-coagulation-assay-can-intervention-improve-patient-safety
#12
Ravi Bhushan, Arijit Sen
BACKGROUND: Very few Indian studies exist on evaluation of pre-analytical variables affecting "Prothrombin Time" the commonest coagulation assay performed. The study was performed in an Indian tertiary care setting with an aim to assess quantitatively the prevalence of pre-analytical variables and their effects on the results (patient safety), for Prothrombin time test. The study also evaluated their effects on the result and whether intervention, did correct the results. METHODS: The firstly evaluated the prevalence for various pre-analytical variables detected in samples sent for Prothrombin Time testing...
April 2017: Medical Journal, Armed Forces India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902419/reassessing-the-safety-concerns-of-utilizing-blood-donations-from-patients-with-hemochromatosis
#13
REVIEW
Adam C Winters, Douglas Tremblay, Suzanne Arinsburg, John Mascarenhas, Thomas D Schiano
Hereditary hemochromatosis (HH) is a genetic disorder of iron metabolism which may lead to iron overload. Clinical penetrance is low, however those afflicted may develop cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, diabetes mellitus and cardiomyopathy. Treatment involves regular phlebotomy to reduce the systemic iron burden. In many countries-including the United States-numerous blood centers do not accept donated blood obtained from HH patients during therapeutic phlebotomy and there are inconsistent positions regarding this globally...
September 13, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854919/adaption-implementation-and-evaluation-of-collaborative-service-improvements-in-the-testing-and-result-communication-process-in-primary-care-from-patient-and-staff-perspectives-a-qualitative-study
#14
Ian J Litchfield, Louise M Bentham, Richard J Lilford, Richard J McManus, Ann Hill, Sheila Greenfield
BACKGROUND: Increasing numbers of blood tests are being ordered in primary care settings and the swift and accurate communication of test results is central to providing high quality care. The process of testing and result communication is complex and reliant on the coordinated actions of care providers, external groups in laboratory and hospital settings, and patients. This fragmentation leaves it vulnerable to error and the need to improve an apparently fallible system is apparent. However, primary care is complex and does not necessarily adopt change in a linear and prescribed manner influenced by a range of factors relating to practice staff, patients and organisational factors...
August 30, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830584/immune-activation-of-platelets-in-response-to-serial-phlebotomy-in-pigtailed-macaques-macaca-nemestrina
#15
Meghan S Vermillion, Claire E Lyons, Kevin M Najarro, Robert J Adams, Kelly A Metcalf Pate
Serial phlebotomy is a common sampling practice for repeated-measures studies in biomedical research. In NHP, the effect of serial blood collection on RBC parameters has been characterized, but the effects on platelet parameters and other aspects of the hemogram have not been well studied. We sought to characterize the circulating platelet phenotype throughout the course of 7 serial phlebotomies spanning 30 d in pigtailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina). Phlebotomy was performed on 23 animals at days 0, 2, 4, 7, 10, 21, and 30 to quantify the circulating platelet count and markers of both hemostatic and immune platelet activation...
August 1, 2017: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804090/repeated-phlebotomies-decrease-body-iron-storage-in-adult-dogs
#16
Seishiro Chikazawa, Fumio Hoshi, Kazutaka Kanai
The aim of the present study was to determine changes in body iron storage in adult dogs following phlebotomy. We performed repeated phlebotomies by removing 1% body weight (approximately 10% of the total blood volume) weekly for a total of 12 times using adult beagle dogs without an iron-restricted diet. After treatment, stored iron was decreased, as demonstrated by gradual reductions in serum ferritin levels and hepatic iron contents. Anemia and abnormalities in blood chemistry analysis were not observed; therefore, this method was considered safe and useful for control of stored iron levels in adult dogs...
August 11, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756498/post-transplant-erythrocytosis-related-maculopathy-successful-management-of-hyperviscosity-with-phlebotomy
#17
Sumeet Khanduja, Brijesh Takkar, Neha Khanduja, Pradeep Venkatesh
PURPOSE: To report clinical features in a case of hyperviscosity retinopathy following post-renal transplant erythrocytosis (PTE) and its outcome after phlebotomy. METHODS: Fundus fluorescein angiography and optical coherence tomography (OCT) were carried out for a 29-year-old renal allograft recipient who presented with acute unilateral visual loss. RESULT: There was mild retinal vascular dilation in both eyes with retinal hemorrhages and retinal opaqueness in left eye...
July 29, 2017: International Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749274/evaluation-of-the-i-stat-portable-clinical-analyzer-for-measurement-of-ionized-calcium-and-selected-blood-chemistry-values-in-asian-elephants-elephas-maximus
#18
Danielle K Tarbert, Erica Behling-Kelly, Heather Priest, Sara Childs-Sanford
Thei-STAT® portable clinical analyzer (PCA) provides patient-side results for hematologic, biochemical, and blood gas values when immediate results are desired. This analyzer is commonly used in nondomestic animals; however, validation of this method in comparison with traditional benchtop methods should be performed for each species. In this study, the i-STAT PCA was compared with the Radiometer ABL 800 Flex benchtop analyzer using 24 heparinized whole blood samples obtained from healthy E. maximus . In addition, the effect of sample storage was evaluated on the i-STAT PCA...
June 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715092/the-origins-of-oral-medicine-in-the-hippocratic-collected-works
#19
REVIEW
Helen Askitopoulou, Vasileia Nyktari, Alexandra Papaioannou, Georgios Stefanakis, Elina Konsolaki
The collected works of Hippocrates describe for the first time in a systematic way a large number of oral diseases, such as ulcers, inflammations, abscesses and tumours from the epiglottis, mouth, tongue, palate, uvula and the sublingual area. Several of these case reports are remarkable for the accurate observation of clinical symptoms and signs, the aetiology, the pathogenesis and their therapeutic approach in relation to prognosis. The Hippocratic authors report cases of aphthae as part of a polysystemic disease, described many centuries later by Behçet and Adamantiades, while they associate features of splenomegaly from endemic malaria with gingivitis (ulitis)...
October 2017: Journal of Oral Pathology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711526/xpert-hiv-1-point-of-care-test-for-neonatal-diagnosis-of-hiv-in-the-birth-testing-programme-of-a-maternity-hospital-a-field-evaluation-study
#20
Karl-Günter Technau, Louise Kuhn, Ashraf Coovadia, Pamela M Murnane, Gayle Sherman
BACKGROUND: Point-of-care testing (POCT) among HIV-exposed infants might improve linkage to care relative to laboratory-based testing (LABT). We evaluated HIV-1 POCT at birth in the context of universal LABT in a maternity hospital and describe our implementation experience. METHODS: We did a field evaluation study between Oct 1, 2014, and April 30, 2016, at the urban Rahima Moosa Mother and Child Hospital (RMMCH), Johannesburg, South Africa. We aimed to sample consecutive neonates at birth with POCT (Cepheid Xpert HIV-1 Qualitative test) and compared results with those of LABT (Roche COBAS TaqMan HIV-1 Qualitative test) with respect to performance in terms of sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and Cohen's κ coefficient, result return, antiretroviral treatment (ART) initiation, and coverage...
October 2017: Lancet HIV
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