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head and neck pathology

Moran Amit, Samantha Tam, Ahmed S Abdelmeguid, Dianna B Roberts, Shaan M Raza, Shirley Y Su, Michael E Kupferman, Franco DeMonte, Ehab Y Hanna
BACKGROUND: Mucosal melanomas in the head and neck region are most often located in the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses. To the authors' knowledge, the prognostic effects of lymph node metastasis in patients with sinonasal mucosal melanoma (SNMM) have not been established. Therefore, the objective of the current study was to determine the effects of lymph node metastasis on survival. METHODS: The current study included 198 patients with SNMM who had been treated between 1985 and 2016 at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center in Houston...
October 17, 2017: Cancer
Patricia A Hudgins, Kristen L Baugnon
There are a myriad of head and neck pathologies that extend from the extracranial to the intracranial compartment, traversing the skull base, and knowledge of the imaging appearance of this pathology is critical to practicing neurosurgeons. This article reviews some of the important inflammatory or acquired head and neck pathology along the skull base, neoplastic skull base lesions, and the intracranial extension of head and neck malignancy. Focus will be on the relevant anatomy, appropriate imaging protocols to evaluate these processes, as well as the differentiating imaging findings on computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging...
October 10, 2017: Neurosurgery
Aishu Ren, Gang Fu, Yu Qiu, Hongjuan Cui
Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the most prevalent pathological cancer occurring in the head and neck area. Progress has previously been made regarding treatment strategies of OSCC, however the 5‑year survival rate of these patients is only 50%. The present study examined if leflunomide (LEF), a drug primarily used for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, exhibited antitumor effects in OSCC. The results demonstrated that LEF inhibited cell proliferation and blocked the cell cycle at the S phase in OSCC cells, with upregulation of cyclin A protein expression...
October 10, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
Kaan Orhan, Hakan Avsever, Seçil Aksoy, Umut Seki, Poyzan Bozkurt
OBJECTIVE: To report the number and frequency of incidental findings (IFs) detected during magnetic resonance (MR) imaging screening of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) and to define related diseases. METHODS: Bilateral TMJ MR images in the sagittal and coronal sections, from 518 patients with TMJ symptoms were evaluated retrospectively. Patients who were diagnosed with IFs were sent for consultation and clarification of the findings. Patient age, gender, IFs, locations, and diseases were classified and noted...
October 17, 2017: Cranio: the Journal of Craniomandibular Practice
Nafiseh Shamloo, Alireza Ghannadan, Mahsa Jafari, Samane Ahmadi, Hamed Mortazavi, Maryam Baharvand
INTRODUCTION: This study is aimed to assess the prevalence and characteristics of head and neck lymphoma in a defined group of an Iranian population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this retrospective study, 126,450 biopsy reports from two referral Pathology Departments, (Tehran, the capital of Iran) were evaluated. In cases with head and neck lymphoma, other variables such as age, sex, specific location of lesions, and histopathological findings were recorded. Descriptive statistics were used to measure the prevalence and characteristics of head and neck lymphoma by means of SPSS soft ware, version 18...
September 2017: Iranian Journal of Otorhinolaryngology
Ramanujam Prativadi, Nirvikar Dahiya, Aya Kamaya, Shweta Bhatt
With approximately 800 lymph nodes in the body, and more than one-third found within the head and neck, lymph nodes are a common site for neck pathology. Differentiation between benign and malignant lymph nodes is critical in accurate prognosis; similarly, treatment hinges on accurate identification of the etiology of the pathologic process. Key gray-scale and color Doppler ultrasound criteria can help accurately distinguish between benign and malignant lymph nodes.
October 2017: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT, and MR
Hillary R Kelly, Hugh D Curtin
The presence of cervical lymph node metastases is a major prognostic factor in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. The presence of a solitary ipsilateral metastatic lymph node reduces expected survival by almost 50%, and the presence of regional metastatic nodes at the time of presentation is the strongest predictor of recurrence or the development of distant metastases or both. Therefore, accurate identification of metastatic cervical lymph nodes is essential for staging and treatment planning. Pretreatment imaging is important for identifying clinically occult pathologic nodes as well as delineating nodal size and morphologic characteristics used in staging...
October 2017: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT, and MR
C M Glastonbury, S K Mukherji, B O'Sullivan, W M Lydiatt
The updated eighth edition of the Cancer Staging Manual of the American Joint Committee on Cancer will be implemented in January 2018. There are multiple changes to the head and neck section of the manual, which will be relevant to radiologists participating in multidisciplinary head and neck tumor boards and reading pretreatment head and neck cancer scans. Human papillomavirus-related/p16(+) oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma will now be staged separately; this change reflects the markedly better prognosis of these tumors compared with non-human papillomavirus/p16(-) oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma...
October 12, 2017: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
Young-Hoon Joo, Kwang-Jae Cho, Jun-Ook Park, Sang-Yeon Kim, Min-Sik Kim
OBJECTIVES: The aim was to evaluate the importance of clinical factors in the prediction of postoperative complications in patients with microvascular reconstruction for head and neck squamous cell cancer (HNSCC). DESIGN: A retrospective review of case notes was performed. SETTING: Patients treated at a single institute. PARTICIPANTS: The present study included 259 patients with HNSCC treated with radical surgery and microvascular reconstruction between 1993 and 2014...
October 11, 2017: Clinical Otolaryngology
Yan Pan, Nikki R Adler, Rory Wolfe, Catriona A McLean, John W Kelly
OBJECTIVES: To determine the frequency of naevus-associated melanoma among superficial spreading and nodular subtypes; and to investigate associations between naevus-associated melanoma and other clinico-pathological characteristics. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Cross-sectional study of all patients with nodular and superficial spreading melanomas diagnosed between 1994 and 2015 at the Victorian Melanoma Service, Melbourne. METHODS AND MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Clinical and pathological characteristics of naevus-associated and de novo melanomas were assessed in univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses...
October 16, 2017: Medical Journal of Australia
Vivek Tiwari, Rakesh Mahawar
BACKGROUND: The magnitude of head and neck (H&N) cancers in the Indian subcontinent is very high. Neck nodal involvement is indicative of higher stage and subsequent adverse prognosis when compared with node negative disease. The frequency of such spread is greater than 20% for most H&N squamous cell carcinomas (SCC). The purpose of this study was to analyze the pattern of nodal metastasis in patients presenting with SCC of buccal mucosa (BM) and correlate it with survival. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Ninety-nine cases of carcinoma BM who received post op radiotherapy were analyzed retrospectively...
September 2017: Gulf Journal of Oncology
Vaninder K Dhillon, Mai G Al Khadem, Ralph P Tufano, Jonathon O Russell
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: We hypothesized that self-referred patients to academic centers will be equally distributed between general surgery and otolaryngology departments that perform thyroid surgery. We sought to quantify disparities in the assignment of these self-referred patients who may reach an institution through call centers or online pathways. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey. METHODS: Key words "thyroid surgery" and "thyroid cancer" were used along with the name of the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education-listed otolaryngology program in both Google and Bing search engines...
October 8, 2017: Laryngoscope
Yukihiro Yokoyama, Tomoki Ebata, Tsuyoshi Igami, Gen Sugawara, Takashi Mizuno, Junpei Yamaguchi, Masato Nagino
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to compare the perioperative clinical characteristics between patients with distal cholangiocarcinoma (DCC) and pancreatic head carcinoma (PHC) with biliary obstruction. METHODS: This study included patients who underwent pancreatoduodenectomy and were diagnosed with DCC (n = 85) or PHC (n = 90) by final pathological examination. Perioperative clinical characteristics were compared for patients with DCC versus PHC with biliary obstruction...
November 2017: Pancreas
Catherine Zilberg, Matthew Weicai Lee, Bing Yu, Bruce Ashford, Spiridoula Kraitsek, Marie Ranson, Kerwin Shannon, Mark Cowley, N Gopalakrishna Iyer, Carsten E Palme, Sydney Ch'ng, Tsu-Hui Hubert Low, Sandra O'Toole, Jonathan R Clark, Ruta Gupta
Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma is the second most prevalent malignancy, most frequently occurring in the head and neck (head and neck cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma). Treatment of locally advanced or metastatic disease is associated with functional morbidity and disfigurement. Underlying genetic mechanisms are poorly understood. Targeted sequencing of 48 clinically relevant genes was performed on DNA extracted from formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded high-risk primary head and neck cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas that remained non-metastatic at minimum follow-up of 24 months...
October 6, 2017: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
Deepak Bansal, Anirban Das, Amita Trehan, Rakesh Kapoor, Naresh K Panda, Radhika Srinivasan, Naresh K Panda, Radhika Srinivasan, Nandita Kakkar, Kushaljit S Sodhi, Akshay K Saxena, Katragadda Lakshmi Narasimha Rao
OBJECTIVE: Analyze the profile and outcome of children with rhabdomyosarcoma from a pediatric-oncology unit. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of case records over 23 years (1990-2012). Setting: Government-run, tertiary-care, university hospital in Northern India. PARTICIPANTS: 159 children (<12-years) with a diagnosis of rhabdomyosarcoma were enrolled. The median age was 4 years; 13% were infants. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Five-year event free survival...
September 15, 2017: Indian Pediatrics
Jason K Wasserman, Denis Gravel, Bibianna Purgina
Chordoma is a rare malignant bone tumor that can arise anywhere along the central neural axis and many involve head and neck sites, most commonly the skull base. The relative rarity of these tumors, combined with the complex anatomy of the head and neck, pose diagnostic challenges to pathologists. This article describes the pertinent clinical, pathologic, and molecular features of chordomas and describes how these features can be used to aid in formulating a differential diagnosis. Emphasis is placed on key diagnostic pitfalls and the importance of incorporating immunohistochemical information into the diagnosis...
October 4, 2017: Head and Neck Pathology
Renuka Gupta, Madhusudan Astekar, Ramakant Dandriyal, Manjunath Bs
One challenging feature of head and neck pathology is that a dizzying array of spindle cell lesions occurs here which ranges all the way from reactive, very aggressive forms to malignant lesions. Leiomyosarcoma is one such malignant tumour of mesenchymal origin exhibiting smooth muscle differentiation; presenting generally nonspecific signs and symptoms. Here we present a case of leiomyosarcoma in a 21 year old female patient associated with single reddish pink swelling present in the posterior right maxillary tuberosity region with moderate facial asymmetry...
September 2017: Journal of Experimental Therapeutics & Oncology
Christa Babst, Alexander Brunner, Reto Babst
BACKGROUND: Treatment recommendations for isolated radial neck delayed union/nonunion are sparse, but include mainly conservative treatment, electro-stimulation, bone grafting, open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) and radial head resection. The purpose of this study was to perform a literature review on isolated delayed union/nonunion of radial neck fractures and to evaluate the reported outcomes of proposed treatment strategies. Furthermore, we aimed to generate data-based recommendations for this rare pathology...
October 3, 2017: Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery
Christoph Krafft, Ferdinand von Eggeling, Orlando Guntinas-Lichius, Arndt Hartmann, Maximilian J Waldner, Markus F Neurath, Jürgen Popp
It is pivotal for medical applications, such as non-invasive histopathologic characterization of tissue, to realize label-free and molecule-specific representation of morphologic and biochemical composition in real-time with subcellular spatial resolution. This unmet clinical need requires new approaches for rapid and reliable real-time assessment of pathologies to complement established diagnostic tools. Photonic imaging combined with digitalization offers the potential to provide the clinician the requested information both under in vivo and ex vivo conditions...
October 3, 2017: Journal of Biophotonics
K O Aramide, M A Ajani, C A Okolo
AIM: To determine the pattern and causes of lymph node enlargement of cervical region in Ibadan, Nigeria. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A 10-year (2003-2012) retrospective study was conducted on all head and neck lymph node biopsies received at the Department of Pathology, University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria. RESULTS: A total of 101 lymph node biopsies of cervical region were received within this period of study. 59.4% cases were seen in Males...
June 2017: Annals of Ibadan Postgraduate Medicine
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