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lung pathology

Satyanarayana Swamy Cheekatla, Deepak Tripathi, Sambasivan Venkatasubramanian, Pavan Kumar Nathella, Padmaja Paidipally, Munenori Ishibashi, Elwyn Welch, Amy R Tvinnereim, Mitsuo Ikebe, Vijaya Lakshmi Valluri, Subash Babu, Hardy Kornfeld, Ramakrishna Vankayalapati
In this study, we developed a mouse model of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) using streptozotocin and nicotinamide and identified factors that increase susceptibility of T2DM mice to infection by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). All Mtb-infected T2DM mice and 40% of uninfected T2DM mice died within 10 months, whereas all control mice survived. In Mtb-infected mice, T2DM increased the bacterial burden and pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine and chemokine production in the lungs relative to those in uninfected T2DM mice and infected control mice...
October 2016: PLoS Pathogens
Elie El Agha, Werner Seeger, Saverio Bellusci
Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) constitute a large family of polypeptides that are involved in many biological processes, ranging from prenatal cell-fate specification and organogenesis to hormonal and metabolic regulation in postnatal life. During embryonic development, these growth factors are important mediators of the crosstalk among ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm-derived cells and they instruct the spatial and temporal growth of organs and tissues such as the brain, bone, lung, gut etc. The involvement of FGFs in postnatal lung homeostasis is a growing field and there is emerging literature about their roles in lung pathophysiology...
October 26, 2016: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
Marlon E F Wilsterman, Pauline de Jager, Robert Blokpoel, Inez Frerichs, Sandra K Dijkstra, Marcel J I J Albers, Johannes G M Burgerhof, Dick G Markhorst, Martin C J Kneyber
BACKGROUND: Neuromuscular blockade (NMB) has been shown to improve outcome in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in adults, challenging maintaining spontaneous breathing when there is severe lung injury. We tested in a prospective physiological study the hypothesis that continuous administration of NMB agents in mechanically ventilated children with severe acute hypoxemic respiratory failure (AHRF) improves the oxygenation index without a redistribution of tidal volume V T toward non-dependent lung zones...
December 2016: Annals of Intensive Care
J Man, J C Hutchinson, M Ashworth, L Judge-Kronis, S Levine, N J Sebire
OBJECTIVES: Guidelines for the investigation of intrauterine death and sudden unexpected death in infancy (SUDI) recommend, based on expert opinion, autopsy procedures and tissue sampling strategies for histological analysis. Although stillbirth is much more common than SUDI, there have been no large-scale studies published which evaluate the usefulness of histological evaluation of specific organs in stillbirth for determining cause of death. Our aim was to evaluate the use of macroscopic and microscopic assessment of internal organs to determine cause of intrauterine death...
October 25, 2016: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
Ya Yang, Di Li, Zhiqiang Tian, Jun Lv, Fengjun Sun, Qian Wang, Yao Liu, Peiyuan Xia
Endotoxin tolerance (ET) is a complex protective mechanism against endotoxin shock. The looped CLP-19 peptide derived from Limulus anti-LPS peptide induced the ET phenomenon but the molecular mechanism has yet to be fully elucidated. Here, we confirmed that CLP-19 attenuated upon LPS stimulated pro-inflammatory factor secretion of TNF-α and IL-6 but increased anti-inflammatory factor production of IL-10 in dose- and time-dependent manners. CLP-19 also inhibited subsequent LPS stimulated expression of TLR4 on the cell membrane...
October 22, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Deepthi Alapati, Edward E Morrisey
While our understanding of the genetics and pathology of congenital lung diseases such as surfactant protein deficiency, cystic fibrosis and alpha 1 antitrypsin deficiency is extensive, treatment options are lacking. Since the lung is a barrier organ in direct communication with the external environment, targeted delivery of gene corrective technologies to the respiratory system via intra-tracheal or intranasal routes is an attractive option for therapy. CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing technology is a promising approach to repair or inactivate disease causing mutations...
October 25, 2016: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
Amanda N Fletcher, Agostino Molteni, Rakesh Ponnapureddy, Chirag Patel, Mark Pluym, Alan M Poisner
BACKGROUND: Fat embolism (FE) and the consequent fat embolism syndrome (FES) occurring after trauma or surgery can lead to serious pulmonary injury, including ARDS and death. Current treatment of FES is limited to supportive therapy. We have shown in a rat model that the renin angiotensin system (RAS) plays a significant role in the pathophysiology of FE since drugs interfering with the RAS, captopril and losartan, reduce the histopathologic pulmonary damage. The purpose of the current study was to determine if inhibition of renin by aliskiren, an FDA-approved drug for treating hypertension, would produce effective protection in the same model...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
Xiu-Li Zheng, Yu Yang, Bao-Jia Wang, Ju Wang, Hong-Qu Tang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the mechanism of the Chinese medicine theory that Fei (Lung) and Dachang (Large Intestine) are exteriorly and interiorly related via synchronous observation on the dynamic changes of the respiratory and intestinal microflora. METHODS: Forty specific pathogen free Sprague-Dawley rats were selected and randomly divided into blank (10 rats) and chronic bronchitis model groups (30 rats). The blank group rats were put into the smoke-free environment and the model group rats were put into the smoke environment in order to establish pulmonary disease (chronic bronchitis) model...
October 24, 2016: Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine
Wei Li, Xiu-Jun Yin, Hua-Ying Liu, Rong Yang
INTRODUCTION: Syphilitic aortic aneurysm (SAA) is caused by tertiary stage of syphilis infection. As the wide application of penicillin, this complication is becoming rarer than before. The SAA with lung cancer is a very rare disease in patient. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 55-year-old male was admitted to the hospital complaining "progressive hoarseness for 3 months" and the patient has been diagnosed with syphilis after specific blood exams, computed tomography angiography (CTA) and 3dimensional (3D) reconstructions of cardiac vessels...
2016: SpringerPlus
Hua Wang, Matthew B Schabath, Ying Liu, Ying Han, Qi Li, Robert J Gillies, Zhaoxiang Ye
PURPOSE: To determine if clinical and CT characteristics of surgically resected lung adenocarcinomas can distinguish those harboring ALK rearrangements from EGFR mutations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients who had surgical resection and histologically confirmed lung adenocarcinoma were enrolled, including 41 patients with ALK rearrangements and 66 patients with EGFR mutations. Eighteen categorical and six quantitative CT characteristics were used to evaluate the tumors...
November 2016: European Journal of Radiology
Hirotsugu Hashimoto, Masahiro Yanagiya, Masashi Kusakabe, Atsushi Kurata, Sayaka Ohara, Yoshio Suzuki, Jun Matsumoto, Hajime Horiuchi
Vascular changes observed in intralobar pulmonary sequestration (PS) have been reported to be similar to those observed in pulmonary hypertension (PH). However, atherosclerosis in the pulmonary artery, which is one of the characteristic arterial changes of PH, has scarcely been reported in PS. Here, we report this unique manifestation in a 66-year-old man, in whom an intralobar PS fed by an aberrant artery branching from the left gastric artery had been identified 10 years earlier, and who was diagnosed with pneumonia after having symptoms of fever and cough...
October 5, 2016: Cardiovascular Pathology: the Official Journal of the Society for Cardiovascular Pathology
Julia Reinfelder, Torsten Kuwert, Michael Beck, James C Sanders, Philipp Ritt, Christian Schmidkonz, Peter Hennig, Olaf Prante, Michael Uder, Bernd Wullich, Peter Goebell
AIM: Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is overexpressed in most prostate cancers (PCs). Here, we report our first experience using the Tc-labeled PSMA inhibitor MIP-1404 (Progenics Pharmaceuticals, Inc, Tarrytown, NY) in 60 patients with biochemically recurrent PC. METHODS: Whole-body planar scintigraphy and SPECT/CT of the lower abdominal pelvic region of 60 patients with biochemical relapse of PC were analyzed retrospectively. In these subjects, an average dose of 733...
October 21, 2016: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
Ping Zeng, Lei Hou, Xiuli He, Qiaoyi Ning, Jing Zhou, Wukai Ma
Objective To observe multi-organ damages at different stages in immune-mediated mouse models of Sjogren's syndrome. Methods Eighty C57BL/6J mice were divided randomly into 2 groups, a blank control group and a model group. Sjogren's syndrome was induced in the 40 mice in the latter group by immune injury. Every 10 mice were killed at 4, 6, 8 and 10 weeks. The submandibular gland, thymus, lung, spleen and kidney were isolated under sterile condition. HE staining was used to observe the pathological changes of the organs under a light microscope...
November 2016: Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Cellular and Molecular Immunology
Juanjuan Zhao, Chao Chen, Mengmeng Guo, Yijin Tao, PanPan Cui, Ya Zhou, Nalin Qin, Jing Zheng, Jidong Zhang, Lin Xu
Recent evidence showed that microRNA-7 (miR-7) played an important role in the pathologies of lung-related diseases. However, the potential role of miR-7 in acute lung injury (ALI) still remains poorly understood. Here, we assessed the effect of miR-7 deficiency on the pathology of ALI. We, first, found that the expression of miR-7 was upregulated in lung tissue in murine LPS-induced ALI model. Notably, we generated miR-7 knock down mice by using miRNA-Sponge technique and found that miR-7 deficiency could ameliorate the pathologies of lung as evidenced by accelerated body weight recovery, reduced level of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) proinflammatory cytokines and decreased number of BAL cells in ALI mice...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
Analía Rial, Florencia Ferrara, Norma Suárez, Paola Scavone, Juan Martín Marqués, José Alejandro Chabalgoity
Respiratory tract infections are among the most frequent infections in humans causing millions of deaths especially in children and the elderly. Antibiotics and vaccines are the main available tools of control, but resistant strains are continuously arising and available vaccines only account for few of many pathogens involved. Non-specific immunotherapies are an emerging alternative to induce protective immunity at the airways. Mucosally administered polyvalent bacterial lysates (PBLs) have been widely used for decades for prevention of respiratory diseases, but the bases of their proposed therapeutic effectiveness are still controversial...
October 20, 2016: Microbes and Infection
John Nixon, Paul Newbold, Tomas Mustelin, Gary P Anderson, Roland Kolbeck
Eosinophils have been linked with asthma for more than a century, but their role has been unclear. This review discusses the roles of eosinophils in asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and describes therapeutic antibodies that affect eosinophilia. The aims of pharmacologic treatments for pulmonary conditions are to reduce symptoms, slow decline or improve lung function, and reduce the frequency and severity of exacerbations. Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) are important in managing symptoms and exacerbations in asthma and COPD...
October 20, 2016: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Bárbara Olmeda, Marta Martinez-Calle, Jesus Pérez-Gil
Pulmonary surfactant is a lipid-protein complex that lines and stabilizes the respiratory interface in the alveoli, allowing for gas exchange during the breathing cycle. At the same time, surfactant constitutes the first line of lung defense against pathogens. This review presents an updated view on the processes involved in biogenesis and intracellular processing of newly synthesized and recycled surfactant components, as well as on the extracellular surfactant transformations before and after the formation of the surface active film at the air-water interface...
October 20, 2016: Annals of Anatomy, Anatomischer Anzeiger: Official Organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft
Christopher B Horn, Nikhil R Patel, Jennifer A Hawasli, Melanie A Edwards
A 46-year-old man presented to the thoracic surgery clinic with a 6-month history of cough and hemoptysis refractory to treatment. Examination of specimens from repeated biopsies was nondiagnostic, so the patient underwent video-assisted thoracoscopic left upper lobe wedge resection. Pathologic examination revealed Paragonimus organisms, and the patient was prescribed praziquantel, with resolution of his symptoms. Although Paragonimus infections are common in Asia, they are rare in the United States despite P kellicotti being endemic...
November 2016: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
Elisa C Martinez, Ravendra Garg, Pratima Shrivastava, Susantha Gomis, Sylvia van Drunen Littel-van den Hurk
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of acute lower respiratory tract infections in infants and young children. There are no licensed RSV vaccines available, and the few treatment options for high-risk individuals are either extremely costly or cause severe side effects and toxicity. Immunomodulation mediated by a novel formulation consisting of the toll-like receptor 3 agonist poly(I:C), an innate defense regulator peptide and a polyphosphazene (P-I-P) was evaluated in the context of lethal infection with pneumonia virus of mice (PVM)...
October 19, 2016: Antiviral Research
Tatsuo Kido, Yun-Fai Chris Lau
Testis specific protein Y-encoded (TSPY) is a Y-located proto-oncogene predominantly expressed in normal male germ cells and various types of germ cell tumor. Significantly, TSPY is frequently expressed in somatic cancers including liver cancer but not in adjacent normal tissues, suggesting that ectopic TSPY expression could be associated with oncogenesis in non-germ cell cancers. Various studies demonstrated that TSPY expression promotes growth and proliferation in cancer cells; however, its relationship to other oncogenic events in TSPY-positive cancers remains unknown...
September 17, 2016: Journal of Genetics and Genomics, Yi Chuan Xue Bao
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