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Nutrition of late preterms

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768640/lipoprotein-profile-modifications-during-gestation-a-current-approach-to-cardiovascular-risk-surrogate-markers-and-maternal-fetal-unit-complications
#1
Ana Paula Caires Dos Santos, Ricardo David Couto
Several changes occur in lipid metabolism during gestation due to hormonal and metabolic changes, which are essential to satisfy the nutritional demands of the maternal-fetal unit development. The gestation shows two distinct periods that begin with fat accumulation, mainly in maternal adipose tissue, and the late phase, characterized by accelerated catabolism, with the increase of fatty acids in the circulation that causes hyperlipidemia, especially the one characterized as hypertriglyceridemia. Maternal hyperlipidemia may be associated with the development of maternal-fetal complications (preterm birth, preeclampsia, vascular complications) and the development of long-term cardiovascular disease...
May 16, 2018: Revista Brasileira de Ginecologia e Obstetrícia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666202/nutritional-role-of-amniotic-fluid-clues-from-infants-with-congenital-obstruction-of-the-digestive-tract
#2
Nigel J Hall, Melanie Drewett, David Burge
AIMS: To investigate the role played by amniotic fluid in late fetal nutrition by analysis of infants born with digestive tract atresia. METHODS: Birth weight (BW), gestational age and gender of infants born with oesophageal (OA), duodenal (DA), jejunal (JA) and ileal atresia (IA) were recorded and BW Z-scores compared. Infants with incomplete obstruction (stenosis), chromosomal or syndromic conditions and multiple congenital malformations were excluded. Term infants admitted with suspected postnatal intestinal obstruction in whom no congenital malformation was found were used as a control group...
April 17, 2018: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664498/-hypophosphatemia-in-preterm-infants-a-bimodal-disorder
#3
María Paz Cubillos Celis, Patricia Mena Nannig
New nutritional approaches to treat extreme premature babies have demonstrated relevant eviden ce of metabolic disturbances with early hypophosphatemia, especially in patients with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). They have shown late hypophosphatemia, as well, which is characteristic in the metabolic bone disease. A sytematic search of literature describing metabolic disturbances of phosphorus in preterm newborns is presented, related to the use of early parenteral nutrition and also in the context of metabolic bone disease...
February 2018: Revista Chilena de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29505664/higher-versus-lower-amino-acid-intake-in-parenteral-nutrition-for-newborn-infants
#4
REVIEW
David A Osborn, Tim Schindler, Lisa J Jones, John Kh Sinn, Srinivas Bolisetty
BACKGROUND: Sick newborn and preterm infants frequently are not able to be fed enterally, necessitating parenteral fluid and nutrition. Potential benefits of higher parenteral amino acid (AA) intake for improved nitrogen balance, growth, and infant health may be outweighed by the infant's ability to utilise high intake of parenteral AA, especially in the days after birth. OBJECTIVES: The primary objective is to determine whether higher versus lower intake of parenteral AA is associated with improved growth and disability-free survival in newborn infants receiving parenteral nutrition...
March 5, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445923/inpatient-outcomes-of-preterm-infants-receiving-%C3%AF-3-enriched-lipid-emulsion-smoflipid-an-observational-study
#5
Nalin Choudhary, Kenneth Tan, Atul Malhotra
Neonatal units have started to switch from using conventional soy-based to alternate lipid emulsions, like SMOFlipid. SMOFlipid has been associated with an improvement in biochemical parameters and delays progression of parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease (PNALD). This retrospective epoch study aimed to compare clinically relevant neonatal outcomes in preterm infants (< 32 weeks), receiving SMOFlipid versus Intralipid. We compared clinical outcomes in two epochs-epoch 1 (Intralipid, October 2013-June 2015) versus epoch 2 (SMOFlipid, July 2015-March 2017)...
May 2018: European Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425475/anthropometry-and-body-composition-of-preterm-neonates-in-the-light-of-metabolic-programming
#6
Elisavet Parlapani, Charalampos Agakidis, Thomais Karagiozoglou-Lampoudi
The improved survival of preterm infants has led to increased interest regarding their health as adults. In the context of metabolic programming, the connection between perinatal and early postnatal nutrition and growth with health in later life has brought to the fore the role of catch-up growth during the first months of preterm infants' lives and its association with body fat and obesity in childhood or puberty. A state-of-the art review was conducted in order to assess the way catch-up is evaluated, in terms of timing and rate...
May 2018: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417204/the-influence-of-gestational-age-mode-of-delivery-and-abdominal-wall-closure-method-on-the-surgical-outcome-of-neonates-with-uncomplicated-gastroschisis
#7
Maria V Fraga, Pablo Laje, William H Peranteau, Holly L Hedrick, Nahla Khalek, Juliana S Gebb, Julie S Moldenhauer, Mark P Johnson, Alan W Flake, N Scott Adzick
AIM OF THE STUDY: To evaluate if gestational age (GA), mode of delivery and abdominal wall closure method influence outcomes in uncomplicated gastroschisis (GTC). METHODS: Retrospective review of NICU admissions for gastroschisis, August 2008-July 2016. Primary outcomes were: time to start enteral feeds (on-EF), time to discontinue parenteral nutrition (off-PN), and length of stay (LOS). MAIN RESULTS: A total of 200 patients with GTC were admitted to our NICU...
April 2018: Pediatric Surgery International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29406002/mineral-homeostasis-and-effects-on-bone-mineralization-in-the-preterm-neonate
#8
REVIEW
Heidi E Karpen
Most bone formation and mineralization occurs late in gestation. Accretion of adequate minerals is a key element of this process and is often interrupted through preterm birth. In utero, mineral transport is accomplished via active transport across the placenta and does not require fetal hormone input. Postnatal mineral homeostasis requires a balance of actions of parathyroid hormone, calcitonin, and vitamin D on target organs. Preterm birth, asphyxia, acidosis, and prolonged parenteral nutrition increase the risk of mineral imbalance and metabolic bone disease (MBD)...
March 2018: Clinics in Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29384838/probiotics-for-preterm-infants-a-strain-specific-systematic-review-and-network-meta-analysis
#9
Chris H P van den Akker, Johannes B van Goudoever, Hania Szajewska, Nicholas D Embleton, Iva Hojsak, Daan Reid, Raanan Shamir
OBJECTIVES: Several randomised controlled trials (RCTs) on the use of probiotics to reduce morbidity and mortality in preterm infants have provided inconsistent results. Whilst meta-analyses that group all of the used strains together, suggest efficacy, it is not possible to determine the most effective strain which is more relevant to the clinician. We therefore used a network meta-analysis (NMA) approach in order to identify strains with greatest efficacy. METHODS: A PubMed search identified placebo-controlled or head-to-head RCTs investigating probiotics in preterm infants...
January 30, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301912/monitoring-the-postnatal-growth-of-preterm-infants-a-paradigm-change
#10
REVIEW
Jose Villar, Francesca Giuliani, Fernando Barros, Paola Roggero, Irma Alejandra Coronado Zarco, Maria Albertina S Rego, Roseline Ochieng, Maria Lorella Gianni, Suman Rao, Ann Lambert, Irina Ryumina, Carl Britto, Deepak Chawla, Leila Cheikh Ismail, Syed Rehan Ali, Jane Hirst, Jagjit Singh Teji, Karim Abawi, Jacqueline Asibey, Josephine Agyeman-Duah, Kenny McCormick, Enrico Bertino, Aris T Papageorghiou, Josep Figueras-Aloy, Zulfiqar Bhutta, Stephen Kennedy
There is no consensus regarding how the growth of preterm infants should be monitored or what constitutes their ideal pattern of growth, especially after term-corrected age. The concept that the growth of preterm infants should match that of healthy fetuses is not substantiated by data and, in practice, is seldom attained, particularly for very preterm infants. Hence, by hospital discharge, many preterm infants are classified as postnatal growth-restricted. In a recent systematic review, 61 longitudinal reference charts were identified, most with considerable limitations in the quality of gestational age estimation, anthropometric measures, feeding regimens, and how morbidities were described...
February 2018: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228972/impact-of-prematurity-and-nutrition-on-the-developing-gut-microbiome-and-preterm-infant-growth
#11
Alex Grier, Xing Qiu, Sanjukta Bandyopadhyay, Jeanne Holden-Wiltse, Haeja A Kessler, Ann L Gill, Brooke Hamilton, Heidie Huyck, Sara Misra, Thomas J Mariani, Rita M Ryan, Lori Scholer, Kristin M Scheible, Yi-Horng Lee, Mary T Caserta, Gloria S Pryhuber, Steven R Gill
BACKGROUND: Identification of factors that influence the neonatal gut microbiome is urgently needed to guide clinical practices that support growth of healthy preterm infants. Here, we examined the influence of nutrition and common practices on the gut microbiota and growth in a cohort of preterm infants. RESULTS: With weekly gut microbiota samples spanning postmenstrual age (PMA) 24 to 46 weeks, we developed two models to test associations between the microbiota, nutrition and growth: a categorical model with three successive microbiota phases (P1, P2, and P3) and a model with two periods (early and late PMA) defined by microbiota composition and PMA, respectively...
December 11, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198616/incidence-of-hypoglycemia-in-newborns-at-risk-and-an-audit-of-the-2011-american-academy-of-pediatrics-guideline-for-hypoglycemia
#12
Nihan Hilal Hosagasi, Mustafa Aydin, Aysegul Zenciroglu, Nuran Ustun, Serdar Beken
BACKGROUND: Hypoglycemia is low blood glucose level that may negatively affect neurological and developmental prognosis. The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP), Committee on Fetus and Newborn defined the safe glucose concentrations in the 2011 guideline for newborns at risk for hypoglycemia. This study aimed to investigate the incidence and associated risk factors for hypoglycemia in newborn infants having risk and to assess compliance with the AAP guideline. METHODS: According to 2011 AAP guideline for hypoglycemia, the newborns at risk for hypoglycemia included in this study were divided to four groups [infant of diabetic mother (IDM), large-for-gestational-age (LGA) infants, small-for-gestational-age (SGA) infants, and late preterm infants (LPI)]...
November 15, 2017: Pediatrics and Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048409/maternal-milk-feedings-reduce-sepsis-necrotizing-enterocolitis-and-improve-outcomes-of-premature-infants
#13
J Cortez, K Makker, D F Kraemer, J Neu, R Sharma, M L Hudak
OBJECTIVE: Human milk (donor milk (DM) and/or maternal milk (MM)) feedings protect against late onset sepsis (LOS), necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) and death. However, DM lacks many anti-infective components of MM. Therefore, we studied exclusive MM feedings to evaluate the full effect of human milk on infectious and other outcomes in premature infants. STUDY DESIGN: All infants born before 33 weeks postmenstrual age (PMA) who received exclusive (>95%) MM or exclusive preterm formula (PF) were included in this prospective investigation...
January 2018: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829405/probiotics-prevent-late-onset-sepsis-in-human-milk-fed-very-low-birth-weight-preterm-infants-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#14
Arianna Aceti, Luca Maggio, Isadora Beghetti, Davide Gori, Giovanni Barone, Maria Luisa Callegari, Maria Pia Fantini, Flavia Indrio, Fabio Meneghin, Lorenzo Morelli, Gianvincenzo Zuccotti, Luigi Corvaglia
Growing evidence supports the role of probiotics in reducing the risk of necrotizing enterocolitis, time to achieve full enteral feeding, and late-onset sepsis (LOS) in preterm infants. As reported for several neonatal clinical outcomes, recent data have suggested that nutrition might affect probiotics' efficacy. Nevertheless, the currently available literature does not explore the relationship between LOS prevention and type of feeding in preterm infants receiving probiotics. Thus, the aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the effect of probiotics for LOS prevention in preterm infants according to type of feeding (exclusive human milk (HM) vs...
August 22, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818488/education-for-wic-peer-counselors-about-breastfeeding-the-late-preterm-infant
#15
Cindi Faith Bennett, Cynthia Galloway, Jane S Grassley
Mothers of late preterm infants need ongoing support because they often find establishing breastfeeding (BF) to be complex and difficult. Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children peer counselors provide BF information and emotional support to new mothers in many communities. However, their current training does not include education about BF for the late preterm infant. The purpose of this report is to present important information about BF and the late preterm infant that can enhance peer counselors' ability to offer appropriate support...
February 2018: Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799178/retrospective-cohort-study-shows-that-the-risks-for-retinopathy-of-prematurity-included-birth-age-and-weight-medical-conditions-and-treatment
#16
Aliaa A Ali, Nancy A S Gomaa, Ahmed R Awadein, Huda H Al-Hayouti, Ahmed I Hegazy
AIM: This study described the characteristics and risk factors of neonates who developed retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) and severe treatable ROP in two Egyptian neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). METHODS: This retrospective cohort study comprised 108 preterm neonates who were screened for ROP after being admitted to the two NICUs run by Cairo University Hospital from June 2014 to May 2015. Patients were examined using digital fundus photography and indirect ophthalmoscopy was performed if ROP was detected...
December 2017: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603716/optimizing-nutrition-in-preterm-low-birth-weight-infants-consensus-summary
#17
REVIEW
R Kishore Kumar, Atul Singhal, Umesh Vaidya, Saswata Banerjee, Fahmina Anwar, Shashidhar Rao
Preterm birth survivors are at a higher risk of growth and developmental disabilities compared to their term counterparts. Development of strategies to lower the complications of preterm birth forms the rising need of the hour. Appropriate nutrition is essential for the growth and development of preterm infants. Early administration of optimal nutrition to preterm birth survivors lowers the risk of adverse health outcomes and improves cognition in adulthood. A group of neonatologists, pediatricians, and nutrition experts convened to discuss and frame evidence-based recommendations for optimizing nutrition in preterm low birth weight (LBW) infants...
2017: Frontiers in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534028/mechanisms-affecting-the-gut-of-preterm-infants-in-enteral-feeding-trials
#18
Nicholas D Embleton, Janet E Berrington, Jon Dorling, Andrew K Ewer, Edmund Juszczak, John A Kirby, Christopher A Lamb, Clare V Lanyon, William McGuire, Christopher S Probert, Stephen P Rushton, Mark D Shirley, Christopher J Stewart, Stephen P Cummings
Large randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in preterm infants offer unique opportunities for mechanistic evaluation of the risk factors leading to serious diseases, as well as the actions of interventions designed to prevent them. Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) a serious inflammatory gut condition and late-onset sepsis (LOS) are common feeding and nutrition-related problems that may cause death or serious long-term morbidity and are key outcomes in two current UK National Institutes for Health Research (NIHR) trials...
2017: Frontiers in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443560/advances-in-nutrition-of-the-newborn-infant
#19
REVIEW
Jane E Harding, Barbara E Cormack, Tanith Alexander, Jane M Alsweiler, Frank H Bloomfield
Nutrition of newborn infants, particularly of those born preterm, has advanced substantially in recent years. Extremely preterm infants have high nutrient demands that are challenging to meet, such that growth faltering is common. Inadequate growth is associated with poor neurodevelopmental outcomes, and although improved early growth is associated with better cognitive outcomes, there might be a trade-off in terms of worse metabolic outcomes, although the contribution of early nutrition to these associations is not established...
April 22, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407219/multiple-micronutrient-supplementation-for-women-during-pregnancy
#20
REVIEW
Batool A Haider, Zulfiqar A Bhutta
BACKGROUND: Multiple-micronutrient (MMN) deficiencies often coexist among women of reproductive age in low- to middle-income countries. They are exacerbated in pregnancy due to the increased demands, leading to potentially adverse effects on the mother and developing fetus. Though supplementation with MMNs has been recommended earlier because of the evidence of impact on pregnancy outcomes, a consensus is yet to be reached regarding the replacement of iron and folic acid supplementation with MMNs...
April 13, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
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