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Nutrition of late preterms

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603716/optimizing-nutrition-in-preterm-low-birth-weight-infants-consensus-summary
#1
REVIEW
R Kishore Kumar, Atul Singhal, Umesh Vaidya, Saswata Banerjee, Fahmina Anwar, Shashidhar Rao
Preterm birth survivors are at a higher risk of growth and developmental disabilities compared to their term counterparts. Development of strategies to lower the complications of preterm birth forms the rising need of the hour. Appropriate nutrition is essential for the growth and development of preterm infants. Early administration of optimal nutrition to preterm birth survivors lowers the risk of adverse health outcomes and improves cognition in adulthood. A group of neonatologists, pediatricians, and nutrition experts convened to discuss and frame evidence-based recommendations for optimizing nutrition in preterm low birth weight (LBW) infants...
2017: Frontiers in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534028/mechanisms-affecting-the-gut-of-preterm-infants-in-enteral-feeding-trials
#2
Nicholas D Embleton, Janet E Berrington, Jon Dorling, Andrew K Ewer, Edmund Juszczak, John A Kirby, Christopher A Lamb, Clare V Lanyon, William McGuire, Christopher S Probert, Stephen P Rushton, Mark D Shirley, Christopher J Stewart, Stephen P Cummings
Large randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in preterm infants offer unique opportunities for mechanistic evaluation of the risk factors leading to serious diseases, as well as the actions of interventions designed to prevent them. Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) a serious inflammatory gut condition and late-onset sepsis (LOS) are common feeding and nutrition-related problems that may cause death or serious long-term morbidity and are key outcomes in two current UK National Institutes for Health Research (NIHR) trials...
2017: Frontiers in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443560/advances-in-nutrition-of-the-newborn-infant
#3
REVIEW
Jane E Harding, Barbara E Cormack, Tanith Alexander, Jane M Alsweiler, Frank H Bloomfield
Nutrition of newborn infants, particularly of those born preterm, has advanced substantially in recent years. Extremely preterm infants have high nutrient demands that are challenging to meet, such that growth faltering is common. Inadequate growth is associated with poor neurodevelopmental outcomes, and although improved early growth is associated with better cognitive outcomes, there might be a trade-off in terms of worse metabolic outcomes, although the contribution of early nutrition to these associations is not established...
April 22, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407219/multiple-micronutrient-supplementation-for-women-during-pregnancy
#4
REVIEW
Batool A Haider, Zulfiqar A Bhutta
BACKGROUND: Multiple-micronutrient (MMN) deficiencies often coexist among women of reproductive age in low- to middle-income countries. They are exacerbated in pregnancy due to the increased demands, leading to potentially adverse effects on the mother and developing fetus. Though supplementation with MMNs has been recommended earlier because of the evidence of impact on pregnancy outcomes, a consensus is yet to be reached regarding the replacement of iron and folic acid supplementation with MMNs...
April 13, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369652/early-versus-late-enteral-feeding-in-preterm-intrauterine-growth-restricted-neonates-with-antenatal-doppler-abnormalities-an-open-label-randomized-trial
#5
Vishal Vishnu Tewari, Sachin Kumar Dubey, Reema Kumar, Shakti Vardhan, C M Sreedhar, Girish Gupta
Background of the study: Enteral feeding in preterm neonates with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and absent or reversed end diastolic flow (AREDF) on umbilical artery (UA) Doppler is delayed owing to an increased risk of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Delaying enteral feeding with longer duration of parenteral nutrition (PN) carries an increased risk of sepsis. Objectives: To study early versus late feeding in preterm IUGR neonates for time required to attain sufficient feed volume to discontinue PN and increased risk of NEC or feed intolerance (FI)...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335478/lactational-stage-of-pasteurized-human-donor-milk-contributes-to-nutrient-limitations-for-infants
#6
Christina J Valentine, Georgia Morrow, Amanda Reisinger, Kelly A Dingess, Ardythe L Morrow, Lynette K Rogers
BACKGROUND: Mother's own milk is the first choice for feeding preterm infants, but when not available, pasteurized human donor milk (PDM) is often used. Infants fed PDM have difficulties maintaining appropriate growth velocities. To assess the most basic elements of nutrition, we tested the hypotheses that fatty acid and amino acid composition of PDM is highly variable and standard pooling practices attenuate variability; however, total nutrients may be limiting without supplementation due to late lactational stage of the milk...
March 18, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143994/intra-uterine-growth-retardation-and-development-of-hypertension
#7
REVIEW
Haerani Rasyid, Syakib Bakri
Low birth weight (LBW) is defined as a birth weight of a liveborn infant of <2,500 gram. In developed countries, LBW is commonly caused by preterm birth; while in developing countries, it is mostly due to intrauterine growth retardation. The concept of developmental origins of adult diseases, particularly on late-onset diseases such as hypertension and kidney disease, implies that there is a correlation between intrauterine milieu, intrauterine growth retardation, premature birth and infant feeding. The 'fetal origin hypothesis' suggests that metabolic diseases are directly related to poor nutritional status in early life...
October 2016: Acta Medica Indonesiana
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128874/policy-of-feeding-very-preterm-infants-with-their-mother-s-own-fresh-expressed-milk-was-associated-with-a-reduced-risk-of-bronchopulmonary-dysplasia
#8
Odile Dicky, Virginie Ehlinger, Nathalie Montjaux, Gisèle Gremmo-Féger, Jacques Sizun, Jean-Christophe Rozé, Catherine Arnaud, Charlotte Casper
AIM: Since 2005, the French Food Safety Agency has recommended that very preterm or low-birthweight babies should be fed with pasteurised, expressed breastmilk, and feeding policies on this vary widely in French neonatal units. We investigated the differences between using a mother's expressed milk, in fresh or pasteurised forms, for very preterm infants. METHODS: This observational multicentre study analysed data on 926 very preterm infants: 636 from neonatal units who used the mother's own fresh milk and 290 who used the mother's milk after pasteurisation...
May 2017: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27769191/protocol-of-the-low-birth-weight-south-asia-trial-lbwsat-a-cluster-randomised-controlled-trial-testing-impact-on-birth-weight-and-infant-nutrition-of-participatory-learning-and-action-through-women-s-groups-with-and-without-unconditional-transfers-of-fortified
#9
Naomi M Saville, Bhim P Shrestha, Sarah Style, Helen Harris-Fry, B James Beard, Aman Sengupta, Sonali Jha, Anjana Rai, Vikas Paudel, Anni-Maria Pulkki-Brannstrom, Andrew Copas, Jolene Skordis-Worrall, Bishnu Bhandari, Rishi Neupane, Joanna Morrison, Lu Gram, Raghbendra Sah, Machhindra Basnet, Jayne Harthan, Dharma S Manandhar, David Osrin, Anthony Costello
BACKGROUND: Low birth weight (LBW, < 2500 g) affects one third of newborn infants in rural south Asia and compromises child survival, infant growth, educational performance and economic prospects. We aimed to assess the impact on birth weight and weight-for-age Z-score in children aged 0-16 months of a nutrition Participatory Learning and Action behaviour change strategy (PLA) for pregnant women through women's groups, with or without unconditional transfers of food or cash to pregnant women in two districts of southern Nepal...
October 21, 2016: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27676603/is-early-breast-milk-fortification-more-effective-in-preterm-infants-a-clinical-trial
#10
Peymaneh Alizadeh Taheri, Negar Sajjadian, Marzieh Asgharyan Fargi, Mamak Shariat
OBJECTIVE: Breast feeding alone does not provide adequate nutrition for growth in preterm infants; therefore, fortifiers are added when over 70-80 cc/kg/day of breast milk is tolerated. As there are few studies comparing early and late breast milk fortification, the following study was conducted. STUDY DESIGN: This double-blind clinical trial was performed on 80 preterm infants (gestational age of 28-34 weeks, birth weight <2 kg). The newborns were randomly divided into two groups to receive either early or late fortification...
September 27, 2016: Journal of Perinatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27613336/modeling-the-impact-of-growth-and-leptin-deficits-on-the-neuronal-regulation-of-blood-pressure
#11
REVIEW
Baiba Steinbrekera, Robert Roghair
The risk of hypertension is increased by intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and preterm birth. In the search for modifiable etiologies for this life-threatening cardiovascular morbidity, a number of pathways have been investigated, including excessive glucocorticoid exposure, nutritional deficiency and aberration in sex hormone levels. As a neurotrophic hormone that is intimately involved in the cardiovascular regulation and whose levels are influenced by glucocorticoids, nutritional status and sex hormones, leptin has emerged as a putative etiologic and thus a therapeutic agent...
November 2016: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27577968/cup-feeding-versus-other-forms-of-supplemental-enteral-feeding-for-newborn-infants-unable-to-fully-breastfeed
#12
REVIEW
Anndrea Flint, Karen New, Mark W Davies
BACKGROUND: Breast milk provides optimal nutrition for term and preterm infants, and the ideal way for infants to receive breast milk is through suckling at the breast. Unfortunately, this may not always be possible for medical or physiological reasons such as being born sick or preterm and as a result requiring supplemental feeding. Currently, there are various ways in which infants can receive supplemental feeds. Traditionally in neonatal and maternity units, bottles and nasogastric tubes have been used; however, cup feeding is becoming increasingly popular as a means of offering supplemental feeds in an attempt to improve breastfeeding rates...
August 31, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27504517/nutrition-in-the-preterm-infant-what%C3%A2-s-new
#13
REVIEW
Jemma S Cleminson, Stefan P Zalewski, Nicholas D Embleton
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The increasing recognition of the role of nutritional care for preterm infants continues to result in a proliferation of review articles, systematic reviews, observational studies and trials. In this article, we review a selection of important studies published in the last 12–18 months. RECENT FINDINGS: The selected studies demonstrate the potential importance of light protecting parenteral nutrition solutions, the benefits of standardized concentrated parenteral nutrition solutions and the importance of insulin-like growth factor I in early life...
May 2016: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27345327/endocrine-regulation-of-gut-maturation-in-early-life-in-pigs
#14
REVIEW
T Thymann
After birth, the newborn must adapt to the acute challenges of circulatory changes, active respiration, thermoregulation, microbial colonization, and enteral nutrition. Whereas these processes normally occur without clinical complications in neonates born at term, birth at a preterm state of gestation is associated with high morbidity and mortality. In commercial pig production, perinatal mortality is higher than in any other mammalian species. Asphyxia, hypothermia, hypoglycemia, sepsis, and gut dysmotility, represent some of the most common findings...
July 2016: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27296357/total-energy-intake-accounts-for-postnatal-anthropometric-growth-in-moderately-late-preterm-infants
#15
Hideaki Yagasaki, Yasushi Murakami, Tetsuo Ohyama, Keiichi Koizumi, Minako Hoshiai, Takaya Nakane, Kanji Sugita
OBJECTIVE: Moderately preterm (MP) (32-33 weeks) and late preterm (LP) (34-36 weeks) infants have higher risks of mortality and growth and developmental problems. We, herein present a new concept of nutritional assessment, total energy intake (TEI), which is the sum total of kilocalories administered in all nutrient forms. METHODS: Fifty-two preterm infants were classified as MP (n = 12), LP/appropriate for gestational age (LP/AGA) (n = 33), or LP/small for gestational age (LP/SGA) (n = 7)...
May 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27257513/clinical-findings-and-autopsy-of-a-preterm-infant-with-breast-milk-acquired-cytomegalovirus-infection
#16
Lopes Anne-Aurélie, Belhabri Souad, Karaoui Leila
Background Nonpasteurized, nonfrozen, fresh breast milk from mothers with positive cytomegalovirus (CMV) serology was initially contraindicated to very low-birth-weight infants because of the risk of milk-acquired CMV infection. Recently, the severity of this infection was increasingly discussed and the international guidelines now differ. Since 2012, the American Academy of Pediatrics has recommended nutrition through raw breast milk for all preterm infants. Case We report the case of an infant born prematurely at 27 weeks and 4 days and fed with raw breastmilk from day 12 of life (D12)...
April 2016: American Journal of Perinatology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27251645/retinopathy-of-prematurity-therapeutic-strategies-based-on-pathophysiology
#17
Rowena Cayabyab, Rangasamy Ramanathan
Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) continues to be a major preventable cause of blindness and visual handicaps globally. With improved perinatal care, improved survival of moderately preterm infants, and limited resources for oxygen delivery and monitoring, more mature preterm infants are developing severe ROP in developing countries. The pathophysiology of ROP is characterized by two phases. Phase I ROP is due to vaso-obliteration beginning immediately after birth secondary to a marked decrease in vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1)...
2016: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27207940/changes-in-parenteral-nutrition-during-the-first-week-of-life-influence-early-but-not-late-postnatal-growth-in-very-low-birth-weight-infants
#18
Montserrat Izquierdo, Antonio Federico Martínez-Monseny, Neus Pociello, Paloma Gonzalez, Ruth Del Rio, Martin Iriondo, Isabel Iglesias-Platas
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Postnatal growth restriction remains a serious problem in very low-birth-weight infants. Enhanced parenteral supply of nutrients as soon as possible after birth is one of the strategies addressed to avoid extrauterine growth restriction. We aimed to analyze changes in growth patterns and in clinical outcomes in our unit after a change in our parenteral nutrition (PN) protocol. METHODS: We collected data from 2 time periods, comprising the 2 years before (period I) and the 2 years after (period II) the change of protocol...
October 2016: Nutrition in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27081478/probiotics-in-critically-ill-children
#19
REVIEW
Sunit C Singhi, Suresh Kumar
Gut microflora contribute greatly to immune and nutritive functions and act as a physical barrier against pathogenic organisms across the gut mucosa. Critical illness disrupts the balance between host and gut microflora, facilitating colonization, overgrowth, and translocation of pathogens and microbial products across intestinal mucosal barrier and causing systemic inflammatory response syndrome and sepsis. Commonly used probiotics, which have been developed from organisms that form gut microbiota, singly or in combination, can restore gut microflora and offer the benefits similar to those offered by normal gut flora, namely immune enhancement, improved barrier function of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), and prevention of bacterial translocation...
2016: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27077685/respiratory-morbidity-in-late-preterm-infants
#20
Claudia Correia, Gustavo Rocha, Filipa Flor-DE-Lima, Hercília Guimarães
BACKGROUND: Late preterm delivery (74% of all preterm births) increases the incidence of respiratory pathology, namely respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), transient tachypnea of the newborn (TTN) and the need of ventilator support when compared to term delivery. The aim is to evaluate the respiratory morbimortality in late preterm infants and the risk factors associated with RDS and TTN. METHODS: Descriptive retrospective study of all newborns of 34+0 to 36+6 weeks of gestational age, born at our centre between September 1, 2012 and August 31, 2015...
April 14, 2016: Minerva Pediatrica
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