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Parichehr Hassanzadeh, Fatemeh Atyabi, Rassoul Dinarvand
Limited efficiency of the conventional therapeutic options against a variety of diseases has provoked nanotech-based research efforts to develop advanced materials and devices for targeted delivery of theranostics which may provide imminent breakthroughs in medicine. However, nonspecific distribution or inappropriate tissue penetration of nanoparticles, complexity of drug delivery process, insufficient drug accumulation, loss of targeting ability, occurrence of the unexpected phenomena, safety concerns, and data reliability have remained challenging...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
YoungTae Seo, Sunil Jeong, JuKyung Lee, Hak Soo Choi, Jonghan Kim, HeaYeon Lee
Nanostructured biosensors have pioneered biomedical engineering by providing highly sensitive analyses of biomolecules. The nanowell array (NWA)-based biosensing platform is particularly innovative, where the small size of NWs within the array permits extremely profound sensing of a small quantity of biomolecules. Undoubtedly, the NWA geometry of a gently-sloped vertical wall is critical for selective docking of specific proteins without capillary resistances, and nanoprocessing has contributed to the fabrication of NWA electrodes on gold substrate such as molding process, e-beam lithography, and krypton-fluoride (KrF) stepper semiconductor method...
2018: Nano Convergence
Nagendra S Ningaraj, Polluru L Reddy, Divya Khaitan
This review elucidates ongoing research, which show improved delivery of anticancer drugs alone and/ or enclosed in carriers collectively called nanomedicines to cross the Blood brain barrier (BBB) / blood-brain tumor barrier (BTB) to kill tumor cells and impact patient survival. We highlighted various advances in understanding the mechanism of BTB function that impact on anticancer therapeutics delivery. We discussed latest breakthroughs in developing pharmaceutical strategies, including nanomedicines and delivering them across BTB for brain tumor management and treatment...
April 12, 2018: Current Clinical Pharmacology
Tim Hornyak
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 7, 2017: Nature
Lei He, Danqing Lu, Hao Liang, Sitao Xie, Xiaobing Zhang, Qiaoling Liu, Quan Yuan, Weihong Tan
DNA molecular machines show great promise in fields such as biomarker discovery and biological activity regulation, but operating DNA machines with specific functions within living systems remains extremely challenging. Although DNA machines have been engineered with exact molecular-level specifications, some intrinsic imperfections such as poor cell permeation and fragility in complex cytoplasmic milieu persist due to the well-established character of nucleic acid molecules. To circumvent these problems, we herein report a molecularly engineered, entropy-driven three-dimensional DNA amplifier (EDTD) that can operate inside living cells in response to a specific mRNA target...
January 10, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
James Vicary
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 6, 2017: Nature Nanotechnology
Benjamin N Ho, Claire M Pfeffer, Amareshwar T K Singh
The emerging field of nanotechnology meets the demands for innovative approaches in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer. The nanoparticles are biocompatible and biodegradable and are made of a core, a particle that acts as a carrier, and one or more functional groups on the core which target specific sites. Nanotech in drug delivery includes nanodisks, High Density Lipoprotein nanostructures, liposomes, and gold nanoparticles. The fundamental advantages of nanoparticles are: improved delivery of water-insoluble drugs, targeted delivery, co-delivery of two or more drugs for combination therapy, and visualization of the drug delivery site by combining imaging system and a therapeutic drug...
November 2017: Anticancer Research
Menghao Wu, Xiao Cheng Zeng
Atomically thin Bi2O2Se has been recently synthesized, and it possesses ultrahigh mobility (Nat. Nanotechnol. 2017, 12, 530; Nano Lett. 2017, 17, 3021). Herein, we show first-principles evidence that Bi2O2Se and a related class of bismuth oxychalcogenides, such as Bi2O2S and Bi2O2Te, not only are novel semiconductors with ultrahigh mobility but also possess previously unreported ferroelectricity/ferroelasticity. Such a unique combination of semiconducting with ferroelectric/ferroelastic properties enables bismuth oxychalcogenides to potentially meet a great challenge, that is, integration of room-temperature functional nonvolatile memories into future nanocircuits...
October 11, 2017: Nano Letters
Yi Yu, Huiyong Sun, Keith Gilmore, Tingjun Hou, Suidong Wang, Youyong Li
Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) have attracted considerable attention owing to their applications in various fields such as biotechnology and biomedicine. Recently, aggregated SWCNTs have shown more significant effects on the treatment of methamphetamine addiction (Nat. Nanotech. 2016, 11, 613). However, the mechanisms underlying these actions are unclear. By using all-atom molecular dynamics simulations, we investigate the effects of single and aggregated SWCNTs (single-(10,10)CNT, aggregated-7-(10,10)CNTs, and single-(35,35)CNT with the same diameter as that of the aggregated one) on the activity of dopamine-related proteins [tyrosine hydroxylase (TyrOH) and dopamine transporter (DAT), which are related to the synthesis and transport of dopamine, respectively]...
September 27, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Finbarr Murphy, Martin Mullins, Karena Hester, Allen Gelwick, Janeck J Scott-Fordsmand, Trevor Maynard
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 4, 2017: Nature Nanotechnology
Silvan Kretschmer, Hannu-Pekka Komsa, Peter Bøggild, Arkady V Krasheninnikov
The polymorphism of two-dimensional (2D) transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) and different electronic properties of the polymorphs make TMDs particularly promising materials in the context of applications in electronics. Recently, local transformations from the semiconducting trigonal prismatic H phase to the metallic octahedral T phase in 2D MoS2 have been induced by electron irradiation [ Nat. Nanotech. 2014 , 9 , 391 ], but the mechanism of the transformations remains elusive. Using density functional theory calculations, we study the energetics of the stable and metastable phases of 2D MoS2 when additional charge, mechanical strain, and vacancies are present...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Priyanka Jain, Shilpa Varshney, Shalini Srivastava
Existing processes for the decontamination of heavy metals from water are found to be cost-prohibitive and energy-intensive which is totally against the sustainable concept of development. Green nanotechnology for water purification for ecosystem management, agricultural and industry is an emerging as leading global priority and occupies better position over the current state of water purification. Herein, the diafunctionalised polyaniline modified nanocellulose composite sorbent (PANI-NCC) has been used to introduce amine and imine functionalities for the removal of trivalent and hexavalent chromium from water bodies...
February 2017: IET Nanobiotechnology
Martin Würmseher, Lea Firmin
Since the early 2000s, numerous publications have presented major scientific opportunities that can be achieved through integrating insights from the area of nanotech into biotech (nanobiotech). This paper aims to explore the economic significance that nanobiotech has gained in the established pharmaceutical industry (big pharma). The empirical investigation draws on patent data as well as product revenue data; and to put the results into perspective, the amounts are compared with the established/traditional biotech sector...
March 2017: Nanomedicine
Alberto Moscatelli
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 6, 2016: Nature Nanotechnology
Andrew D Maynard
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 7, 2016: Nature Nanotechnology
Gopalan Sampath
Experiments have shown that DNA can be sequenced using an electrolytic cell with a nanopore and an exonuclease enzyme in the cis chamber that cleaves the leading mononucleotide in a strand of DNA. The base therein can be identified with an accuracy of 80-90% by the level of the current blockade caused in the pore; a biological adapter inside slows down the cleaved mononucleotide and lowers the detection bandwidth required. In this approach, which has been mathematically modeled, analyzed, and simulated, mononucleotides are likely to be lost to diffusion or enter the pore out of order...
September 2016: Electrophoresis
Yi Ming, Hui-Min Li, Ze-Jun Ding
Thermal rectification and negative differential thermal conductance were realized in harmonic chains in this work. We used the generalized Caldeira-Leggett model to study the heat flow. In contrast to most previous studies considering only the linear system-bath coupling, we considered the nonlinear system-bath coupling based on recent experiment [Eichler et al., Nat. Nanotech. 6, 339 (2011)]. When the linear coupling constant is weak, the multiphonon processes induced by the nonlinear coupling allow more phonons transport across the system-bath interface and hence the heat current is enhanced...
March 2016: Physical Review. E
Jose F Rodrigues, Fernando V Paulovich, Maria Cf de Oliveira, Osvaldo N de Oliveira
An overview is provided of the challenges involved in building computer-aided diagnosis systems capable of precise medical diagnostics based on integration and interpretation of data from different sources and formats. The availability of massive amounts of data and computational methods associated with the Big Data paradigm has brought hope that such systems may soon be available in routine clinical practices, which is not the case today. We focus on visual and machine learning analysis of medical data acquired with varied nanotech-based techniques and on methods for Big Data infrastructure...
April 2016: Nanomedicine
Rohan Lalani, Ambikanandan Misra, Jitendra Amrutiya, Hinal Patel, Priyanka Bhatt, Sushil K Patil
BACKGROUND: The development and progression of atherosclerosis is known to occur at a sluggish pace and the lesions remain concealed for a long duration before the factual situation of the complex atherosclerotic etiology affecting various organ gets apprehended. The root cause mainly involves an imbalance or malfunction of the cholesterol metabolizing pathway. The till date therapeutic alternatives include oral hypo-lipidemic agents along with advances made in biotechnology/tissue engineering and surgical procedures for management purpose...
2016: Recent Patents on Drug Delivery & Formulation
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