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Neuronal plasticity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926076/electronic-imitation-of-behavioral-and-psychological-synaptic-activities-using-tiox-al2o3-based-memristor-devices
#1
Writam Banerjee, Qi Liu, Hangbing Lv, Shibing Long, Ming Liu
Seeking an effective electronic synapse to emulate biological synaptic behavior is fundamental for building brain-inspired computers. An emerging two-terminal memristor, in which the conductance can be gradually modulated by external electrical stimuli, is widely considered as the strongest competitor of the electronic synapse. Here, we show the capability of TiOx/Al2O3-based memristor devices to imitate synaptic behaviors. Along with analog resistive switching performances, the devices replicate the bio-synapse behaviors of potentiation/depression, short-term-plasticity, and long-term-potentiation, which show that TiOx/Al2O3-based memristors may be useful as electronic synapses...
September 19, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926001/ketamine-differential-neurophysiological-dynamics-in-functional-networks-in-the-rat-brain
#2
A Ahnaou, H Huysmans, R Biermans, N V Manyakov, W H I M Drinkenburg
Recently, the N-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor (NMDAR) antagonist ketamine has emerged as a fast-onset mechanism to achieve antidepressant activity, whereas its psychomimetic, dissociative and amnestic effects have been well documented to pharmacologically model schizophrenia features in rodents. Sleep-wake architecture, neuronal oscillations and network connectivity are key mechanisms supporting brain plasticity and cognition, which are disrupted in mood disorders such as depression and schizophrenia. In rats, we investigated the dynamic effects of acute and chronic subcutaneous administration of ketamine (2...
September 19, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925106/myelin-development-plasticity-and-pathology-in-the-auditory-system
#3
REVIEW
Patrick Long, Guoqiang Wan, Michael T Roberts, Gabriel Corfas
Myelin allows for the rapid and precise timing of action potential propagation along neuronal circuits and is essential for healthy auditory system function. In this review we discuss what is currently known about myelin in the auditory system with a focus on the timing of myelination during auditory system development, the role of myelin in supporting peripheral and central auditory circuit function, and how various myelin pathologies compromise auditory information processing. Additionally, in keeping with the increasing recognition that myelin is dynamic and is influenced by experience throughout life, we review the growing evidence that auditory sensory deprivation alters myelin along specific segments of the brain's auditory circuit...
September 19, 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924236/in-vivo-mouse-and-live-cell-sted-microscopy-of-neuronal-actin-plasticity-using-far-red-emitting-fluorescent-proteins
#4
Waja Wegner, Peter Ilgen, Carola Gregor, Joris van Dort, Alexander C Mott, Heinz Steffens, Katrin I Willig
The study of proteins in dendritic processes within the living brain is mainly hampered by the diffraction limit of light. STED microscopy is so far the only far-field light microscopy technique to overcome the diffraction limit and resolve dendritic spine plasticity at superresolution (nanoscopy) in the living mouse. After having tested several far-red fluorescent proteins in cell culture we report here STED microscopy of the far-red fluorescent protein mNeptune2, which showed best results for our application to superresolve actin filaments at a resolution of ~80 nm, and to observe morphological changes of actin in the cortex of a living mouse...
September 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924170/the-tyrosine-phosphatase-ptpn13-fap-1-links-calpain-2-tbi-and-tau-tyrosine-phosphorylation
#5
Yubin Wang, Randy A Hall, Moses Lee, Andysheh Kamgar-Parsi, Xiaoning Bi, Michel Baudry
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) increases the risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Calpain activation and tau hyperphosphorylation have been implicated in both TBI and AD. However, the link between calpain and tau phosphorylation has not been fully identified. We recently discovered that the two major calpain isoforms in the brain, calpain-1 and calpain-2, play opposite functions in synaptic plasticity and neuronal survival/death, which may be related to their different C-terminal PDZ binding motifs. Here, we identify the tyrosine phosphatase PTPN13 as a key PDZ binding partner of calpain-2...
September 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924007/multiple-signaling-pathways-coordinately-regulate-forgetting-of-olfactory-adaptation-through-control-of-sensory-responses-in-c-elegans
#6
Tomohiro Kitazono, Sayuri Hara-Kuge, Osamu Matsuda, Akitoshi Inoue, Manabi Fujiwara, Takeshi Ishihara
Forgetting memories is important for animals to properly respond to continuously changing environments. To elucidate the mechanisms of forgetting, we used one of the behavioral plasticities of C. elegans hermaphrodite, olfactory adaptation to an attractive odorant, diacetyl, as a simple model of learning. In C. elegans, the TIR-1/JNK-1 pathway accelerates forgetting of olfactory adaptation by facilitating neural secretion from AWC sensory neurons. In this study, to identify the downstream effectors of the TIR-1/JNK-1 pathway, we conducted a genetic screen for suppressors of the gain-of-function mutant of tir-1 (ok1052), which shows excessive forgetting...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922860/structural-plasticity-of-synaptopodin-in-the-axon-initial-segment-during-visual-cortex-development
#7
Annabelle Schlüter, Domenico Del Turco, Thomas Deller, Annika Gutzmann, Christian Schultz, Maren Engelhardt
The axon initial segment (AIS) is essential for action potential generation. Recently, the AIS was identified as a site of neuronal plasticity. A subpopulation of AIS in cortical principal neurons contains stacks of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) forming the cisternal organelle (CO). The function of this organelle is poorly understood, but roles in local Ca2+-trafficking and AIS plasticity are discussed. To investigate whether the presence and/or the size of COs are linked to the development and maturation of AIS of cortical neurons, we analyzed the relationship between COs and the AIS during visual cortex development under control and visual deprivation conditions...
September 1, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922504/selective-remodeling-of-glutamatergic-transmission-to-striatal-cholinergic-interneurons-after-dopamine-depletion
#8
Jose de Jesus Aceves Buendia, Lior Tiroshi, Wei-Hua Chiu, Joshua A Goldberg
The widely-held view that the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease arises from an under-activation of the direct pathway striatal spiny neurons (dSPNs) has gained support from a recently described weakening of the glutamatergic projection from the parafascicular nucleus (PfN) to dSPNs in experimental parkinsonism. However, the impact of the remodeling of the thalamostriatal projection cannot be fully appreciated without considering its impact on cholinergic interneurons (ChIs) that themselves preferentially activate indirect pathway spiny neurons (iSPNs)...
September 18, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921934/mirror-trends-of-plasticity-and-stability-indicators-in-primate-prefrontal-cortex
#9
Miguel Á García-Cabezas, Mary Kate P Joyce, Yohan J John, Basilis Zikopoulos, Helen Barbas
Research on plasticity markers in the cerebral cortex has largely focused on their timing of expression and role in shaping circuits during critical and normal periods. By contrast, little attention has been focused on the spatial dimension of plasticity-stability across cortical areas. The rationale for this analysis is based on the systematic variation in cortical structure that parallels functional specialization and raises the possibility of varying levels of plasticity. Here we investigated in adult rhesus monkeys the expression of markers related to synaptic plasticity or stability in prefrontal limbic and eulaminate areas that vary in laminar structure...
September 16, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921856/disruption-of-perineuronal-nets-increases-the-frequency-of-sharp-wave-ripple-events
#10
ZhiYong Sun, P Lorenzo Bozzelli, Adam Caccavano, Megan Allen, Jason Balmuth, Stefano Vicini, Jian-Young Wu, Katherine Conant
Hippocampal sharp wave ripples (SWRs) represent irregularly occurring synchronous neuronal population events that are observed during phases of rest and slow wave sleep. SWR activity that follows learning involves sequential replay of training-associated neuronal assemblies and is critical for systems level memory consolidation. SWRs are initiated by CA2 or CA3 pyramidal cells and require initial excitation of CA1 pyramidal cells as well as participation of parvalbumin (PV) expressing fast spiking (FS) inhibitory interneurons...
September 16, 2017: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921762/inhibition-shapes-the-organization-of-hippocampal-representations
#11
Sam McKenzie
Hippocampal neurons become tuned to stimuli that predict behaviorally salient outcomes. This plasticity suggests that memory formation depends upon shifts in how different anatomical inputs can drive hippocampal activity. Here, I present evidence that inhibitory neurons can provide such a mechanism for learning-related changes in the tuning of pyramidal cells. Inhibitory currents arriving on the dendrites of pyramidal cells determine whether an excitatory input can drive action potential output. Specificity and plasticity of this dendritic modulation allows for precise, modifiable changes in how afferent inputs are integrated, a process that defines a neuron's receptive field...
September 16, 2017: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921695/frequency-dependent-regulation-of-intrinsic-excitability-by-voltage-activated-membrane-conductances-computational-modeling-and-dynamic-clamp
#12
Attila Szűcs, Anikó Rátkai, Katalin Schlett, Ramon Huerta
As one of the most unique properties of nerve cells, their intrinsic excitability allows them to transform synaptic inputs into action potentials. This process reflects a complex interplay between the synaptic inputs and the voltage-dependent membrane currents of the postsynaptic neuron. While neurons in natural conditions mostly fire under the action of intense synaptic bombardment and receive fluctuating patterns of excitation and inhibition, conventional techniques to characterize intrinsic excitability mainly utilize static means of stimulation...
September 16, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921686/the-effects-of-dynamical-synapses-on-firing-rate-activity-a-spiking-neural-network-model
#13
Radwa Khalil, Marie Z Moftah, Ahmed A Moustafa
Accumulating evidence relates the fine-tuning of synaptic maturation and regulation of neural network activity to several key factors, including GABAA signaling and a lateral spread length between neighboring neurons (i.e. local connectivity). Furthermore, a number of studies consider Short-Term synaptic Plasticity (STP) as an essential element in the instant modification of synaptic efficacy in the neuronal network and in modulating responses to sustained ranges of external Poisson Input Frequency (IF). Nevertheless, evaluating the firing activity in response to the dynamical interaction between STP (triggered by ranges of IF), and these key parameters in vitro remains elusive...
September 18, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921611/dendritic-spines-provide-cognitive-resilience-against-alzheimer-s-disease
#14
Benjamin D Boros, Kelsey M Greathouse, Erik G Gentry, Kendall A Curtis, Elizabeth L Birchall, Marla Gearing, Jeremy H Herskowitz
OBJECTIVE: Neuroimaging and other biomarker assays suggest that the pathological processes of Alzheimer's disease (AD) initiate years prior to clinical dementia onset. However some 30%-50% of older individuals that harbor AD pathology do not become symptomatic in their lifetime. It is hypothesized that such individuals exhibit cognitive resilience that protects against AD dementia. We hypothesized that in cases with AD pathology structural changes in dendritic spines would distinguish individuals that had or did not have clinical dementia...
September 16, 2017: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921447/structure-pharmacology-and-roles-in-physiology-of-the-p2y12-receptor
#15
Ivar von Kügelgen
P2Y receptors are G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) for extracellular nucleotides. The platelet ADP-receptor which has been denominated P2Y12 receptor is an important target in pharmacotherapy. The receptor couples to Gαi2 mediating an inhibition of cyclic AMP accumulation and additional downstream events including the activation of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase and Rap1b proteins. The nucleoside analogue ticagrelor and active metabolites of the thienopyridine compounds ticlopidine, clopidogrel and prasugrel block P2Y12 receptors and, thereby, inhibit ADP-induced platelet aggregation...
September 12, 2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920932/a-pathway-from-midcingulate-cortex-to-posterior-insula-gates-nociceptive-hypersensitivity
#16
Linette Liqi Tan, Patric Pelzer, Céline Heinl, Wannan Tang, Vijayan Gangadharan, Herta Flor, Rolf Sprengel, Thomas Kuner, Rohini Kuner
The identity of cortical circuits mediating nociception and pain is largely unclear. The cingulate cortex is consistently activated during pain, but the functional specificity of cingulate divisions, the roles at distinct temporal phases of central plasticity and the underlying circuitry are unknown. Here we show in mice that the midcingulate division of the cingulate cortex (MCC) does not mediate acute pain sensation and pain affect, but gates sensory hypersensitivity by acting in a wide cortical and subcortical network...
September 18, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919534/glutamate-induced-rapid-induction-of-arc-arg3-1-requires-nmda-receptor-mediated-phosphorylation-of-erk-and-creb
#17
Tao Chen, Jie Zhu, Li-Kun Yang, Yi Feng, Wei Lin, Yu-Hai Wang
Arc/Arg3.1 is a unique immediate early gene whose expression is highly dynamic and correlated with various forms of synaptic plasticity. Many previous reports highlight the complexity of mechanisms that regulate Arc/Arg3.1 expression in neurons. In the present study, the expression and regulation of Arc/Arg3.1 after glutamate treatment in primary cultured cortical neurons were investigated. We found that both Arc/Arg3.1 mRNA and Arc/Arg3.1 protein dynamically increased within 24h after glutamate treatment. The results of immunostaining showed that abundant amounts of Arc/Arg3...
September 14, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919309/the-heterogeneity-of-human-cajal-retzius-neurons
#18
REVIEW
Gundela Meyer, Miriam González-Gómez
The definition of a Cajal-Retzius neuron (CRN) is still controversial, in part possibly due to species differences. We review the developmental history of CRN in human neocortex and focus on two main CRN family members, transient (t) and persisting (p) CRN. They share the expression of Reelin andTbr1, complemented by p73, calretinin, CXCR4 and NOS, but differ in their moment of appearance, fate and morphology. The distinctive feature of tCRN is the axon plexus in the lower third of the marginal zone, which innervates the apical dendritic tufts of pyramidal cells and may serve as a migration substrate and waiting compartment for interneurons descending from the subpial granular layer (SGL) into the cortical plate...
September 14, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918435/infant-avoidance-training-alters-cellular-activation-patterns-in-prefronto-limbic-circuits-during-adult-avoidance-learning-ii-cellular-imaging-of-neurons-expressing-the-activity-regulated-cytoskeleton-associated-protein-arc-arg3-1
#19
Nicole Gröger, Anja Mannewitz, Jörg Bock, Susann Becker, Katja Guttmann, Gerd Poeggel, Katharina Braun
Positive and negative feedback learning is essential to optimize behavioral performance. We used the two-way active avoidance (TWA) task as an experimental paradigm for negative feedback learning with the aim to test the hypothesis that neuronal ensembles activate the activity-regulated cytoskeletal (Arc/Arg3.1) protein during different phases of avoidance learning and during retrieval. A variety of studies in humans and other animals revealed that the ability of aversive feedback learning emerges postnatally...
September 16, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918262/circuit-changes-in-motor-cortex-during-motor-skill-learning
#20
Andrew E Papale, Bryan M Hooks
Motor cortex is important for motor skill learning, particularly the dexterous skills necessary for our favorite sports and careers. We are especially interested in understanding how plasticity in motor cortex contributes to skill learning. Although human studies have been helpful in understanding the importance of motor cortex in learning skilled tasks, animal models are necessary for achieving a detailed understanding of the circuitry underlying these behaviors and the changes that occur during training. We review data from these models to try to identify sites of plasticity in motor cortex, focusing on rodents as a model system...
September 13, 2017: Neuroscience
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