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Neuronal plasticity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735226/perinatal-fluoxetine-effects-on-social-play-the-hpa-system-and-hippocampal-plasticity-in-pre-adolescent-male-and-female-rats-interactions-with-pre-gestational-maternal-stress
#1
Mary Gemmel, Mariah Hazlett, Eszter Bögi, Sonsoles De Lacalle, Lesley A Hill, Nikolaos Kokras, Geoffrey L Hammond, Christina Dalla, Thierry D Charlier, Jodi L Pawluski
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor medications (SSRIs) are the first lines of treatment for maternal affective disorders, and are prescribed to up to 10% of pregnant women. Concern has been raised about how perinatal exposure to these medications affect offspring neurobehavioral outcomes, particularly those related to social interactions, as recent research has reported conflicting results related to autism spectrum disorder (ASD) risk in children prenatally exposed to SSRIs. Therefore, the aim of this work was to investigate the effects of perinatal exposure to the SSRI fluoxetine on social play behaviors and the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal system, using a model of pre-gestational maternal stress...
July 15, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734961/radix-puerariae-modulates-glutamatergic-synaptic-architecture-and-potentiates-functional-synaptic-plasticity-in-primary-hippocampal-neurons
#2
Mohammad Maqueshudul Haque Bhuiyan, Md Nazmul Haque, Md Mohibbullah, Yung Kyu Kim, Il Soo Moon
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Neurologic disorders are frequently characterized by synaptic pathology, including abnormal density and morphology of dendritic spines, synapse loss, and aberrant synaptic signaling and plasticity. Therefore, to promote and/or protect synapses by the use of natural molecules capable of modulating neurodevelopmental events, such as, spinogenesis and synaptic plasticity, could offer a preventive and curative strategy for nervous disorders associated with synaptic pathology...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734834/dynein-binds-and-stimulates-axonal-motility-of-the-endosome-adaptor-and-neep21-family-member-calcyon
#3
Liang Shi, Nagendran Muthusamy, Deanna Smith, Clare Bergson
The neuron-enriched, endosomal protein Calcyon (Caly) regulates endocytosis and vesicle sorting, and is important for synaptic plasticity and brain development. In the current investigation of Caly interacting proteins in brain, the microtubule retrograde motor subunit, cytoplasmic dynein 1 heavy chain (DYNC1H), and microtubule structural proteins, α and β tubulin, were identified as Caly associated proteins by MALDI-ToF/ToF. Direct interaction of the Caly-C terminus with dynein and tubulin was further confirmed in in vitro studies...
July 19, 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734458/rett-like-severe-encephalopathy-caused-by-a-de%C3%A2-novo-grin2b-mutation-is-attenuated-by-d-serine-dietary-supplement
#4
David Soto, Mireia Olivella, Cristina Grau, Judith Armstrong, Clara Alcon, Xavier Gasull, Macarena Gómez de Salazar, Esther Gratacòs-Batlle, David Ramos-Vicente, Víctor Fernández-Dueñas, Francisco Ciruela, Àlex Bayés, Carlos Sindreu, Anna López-Sala, Àngels García-Cazorla, Xavier Altafaj
BACKGROUND: N-Methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) play pivotal roles in synaptic development, plasticity, neural survival, and cognition. Despite recent reports describing the genetic association between de novo mutations of NMDAR subunits and severe psychiatric diseases, little is known about their pathogenic mechanisms and potential therapeutic interventions. Here we report a case study of a 4-year-old Rett-like patient with severe encephalopathy carrying a missense de novo mutation in GRIN2B(p...
June 16, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733355/erk-mapk-signaling-is-required-for-pathway-specific-striatal-motor-functions
#5
Scott R Hutton, James M Otis, Erin M Kim, Yashna Lamsal, Garret D Stuber, William D Snider
The ERK/MAPK intracellular signaling pathway is hypothesized to be a key regulator of striatal activity via modulation of synaptic plasticity and gene transcription. However, prior investigations into striatal ERK/MAPK functions have yielded conflicting results. Further, these studies have not delineated the cell type-specific roles of ERK/MAPK signaling due to the reliance on globally-administered pharmacological ERK/MAPK inhibitors and the use of genetic models that only partially reduce total ERK/MAPK activity...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733161/functional-determination-of-the-differentiation-potential-of-ventral-mesencephalic-neural-precursor-cells-during-dopaminergic-neurogenesis
#6
Gilda Guerrero-Flores, Aimée Bastidas-Ponce, Omar Collazo-Navarrete, Magdalena Guerra-Crespo, Luis Covarrubias
The ventral mesencephalic neural precursor cells (vmNPCs) that give rise to dopaminergic (DA) neurons have been identified by the expression of distinct genes (e.g., Lmx1a, Foxa2, Msx1/2). However, the commitment of these NPCs to the mesencephalic DA neuronal fate has not been functionally determined. Evaluation of the plasticity of vmNPCs suggests that their commitment occurs after E10.5. Here we show that E9.5 vmNPCs implanted in an ectopic area of E10.5 mesencephalic explants, retained their specification marker Lmx1a and efficiently differentiated into neurons but did not express the gene encoding tyrosine hydroxylase (Th), the limiting enzyme for dopamine synthesis...
July 18, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730825/the-implication-of-ampa-receptor-in-synaptic-plasticity-impairment-and-intellectual-disability-in-fragile-x-syndrome
#7
G-R Cheng, X-Y Li, Y-D Xiang, D Liu, S M McClintock, Y Zeng
Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most frequently inherited form of intellectual disability and prevalent single-gene cause of autism. A priority of FXS research is to determine the molecular mechanisms underlying the cognitive and social functioning impairments in humans and the FXS mouse model. Glutamate ionotropic alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA) receptors (AMPARs) mediate a majority of fast excitatory neurotransmission in the central nervous system and are critically important for nearly all aspects of brain function, including neuronal development, synaptic plasticity, and learning and memory...
July 18, 2017: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729826/sleep-dependent-oscillatory-synchronization-a-role-in-fear-memory-consolidation
#8
Michael S Totty, Logan A Chesney, Phillip A Geist, Subimal Datta
Sleep plays an important role in memory consolidation through the facilitation of neuronal plasticity; however, how sleep accomplishes this remains to be completely understood. It has previously been demonstrated that neural oscillations are an intrinsic mechanism by which the brain precisely controls neural ensembles. Inter-regional synchronization of these oscillations is also known to facilitate long-range communication and long-term potentiation (LTP). In the present study, we investigated how the characteristic rhythms found in local field potentials (LFPs) during non-REM and REM sleep play a role in emotional memory consolidation...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729735/the-wnt-receptor-ryk-is-a-negative-regulator-of-mammalian-dendrite-morphogenesis
#9
Vanessa Lanoue, Michael Langford, Amanda White, Kai Sempert, Lily Fogg, Helen M Cooper
The unique dendritic architecture of a given neuronal subtype determines its synaptic connectivity and ability to integrate into functional neuronal networks. It is now clear that abnormal dendritic structure is associated with neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. Currently, however, the nature of the extrinsic factors that limit dendritic growth and branching within predetermined boundaries in the mammalian brain is poorly understood. Here we identify the Wnt receptor Ryk as a novel negative regulator of dendritic arborisation...
July 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728878/a-mass-spectrometry-based-proteomic-analysis-of-homer2-interacting-proteins-in-the-mouse-brain
#10
Scott P Goulding, Karen K Szumlinski, Candice Contet, Michael J MacCoss, Christine C Wu
In the brain, the Homer protein family modulates excitatory signal transduction and receptor plasticity through interactions with other proteins in dendritic spines. Homer proteins are implicated in a variety of psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and addiction. Since Homers serve as scaffolding proteins, identifying their interaction partners is an important first step in understanding their biological function and could help design novel therapeutic strategies. The present study set out to document Homer2-interacting proteins in the mouse brain using a co-immunoprecipitation-based mass spectrometry approach...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728834/calcium-signaling-and-molecular-mechanisms-underlying-neurodegenerative-diseases
#11
REVIEW
Ekaterina Pchitskaya, Elena Popugaeva, Ilya Bezprozvanny
Calcium (Ca(2+)) is a ubiquitous second messenger that regulates various activities in eukaryotic cells. Especially important role calcium plays in excitable cells. Neurons require extremely precise spatial-temporal control of calcium-dependent processes because they regulate such vital functions as synaptic plasticity. Recent evidence indicates that neuronal calcium signaling is abnormal in many of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), Huntington's disease (HD) and Parkinson's disease (PD)...
June 30, 2017: Cell Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726541/characterization-of-postsynaptic-calcium-signals-in-the-pyramidal-neurons-of-anterior-cingulate-cortex
#12
Xu-Hui Li, Qian Song, Tao Chen, Min Zhuo
Calcium signaling is critical for synaptic transmission and plasticity. N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptors play a key role in synaptic potentiation in the anterior cingulate cortex. Most previous studies of calcium signaling focus on hippocampal neurons, little is known about the activity-induced calcium signals in the anterior cingulate cortex. In the present study, we show that NMDA receptor-mediated postsynaptic calcium signals induced by different synaptic stimulation in anterior cingulate cortex pyramidal neurons...
January 2017: Molecular Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725180/endothelial-nitric-oxide-synthase-is-present-in-dendritic-spines-of-neurons-in-primary-cultures
#13
Ariel Caviedes, Manuel Varas-Godoy, Carlos Lafourcade, Soledad Sandoval, Javiera Bravo-Alegria, Thilo Kaehne, Angela Massmann, Jorge P Figueroa, Francisco Nualart, Ursula Wyneken
Nitric oxide exerts important regulatory functions in various brain processes. Its synthesis in neurons has been most commonly ascribed to the neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) isoform. However, the endothelial isoform (eNOS), which is significantly associated with caveolae in different cell types, has been implicated in synaptic plasticity and is enriched in the dendrites of CA1 hippocampal neurons. Using high resolution microscopy and co-distribution analysis of eNOS with synaptic and raft proteins, we now show for the first time in primary cortical and hippocampal neuronal cultures, virtually devoid of endothelial cells, that eNOS is present in neurons and is localized in dendritic spines...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724781/muscle-disuse-caused-by-botulinum-toxin-injection-leads-to-increased-central-gain-of-the-stretch-reflex-in-the-rat
#14
Jessica Pingel, Hans Hultborn, Lui Naslund-Koch, Dennis Bo Jensen, Jacob Wienecke, Jens Bo Nielsen
Botulinum toxin (Btx) is used in children with cerebral palsy and other neurological patients to diminish spasticity and reduce the risk of development of contractures. Here, we investigated changes in the central gain of the stretch reflex circuitry in response to botulinum toxin injection in the triceps surae muscle in rats. Experiments were performed in 21 rats. 8 rats were in a control group and 13 rats were injected with 6 IU of Btx in the left triceps surae muscle. Two weeks after Btx injection larger monosynaptic reflexes (MSR) were recorded from the left (injected) than the right (non-injected) L4 + L5 ventral roots following stimulation of the corresponding dorsal roots...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723570/dynamic-control-of-dendritic-mrna-expression-by-cnot7-regulates-synaptic-efficacy-and-higher-cognitive-function
#15
Rhonda L McFleder, Fernanda Mansur, Joel D Richter
Translation of mRNAs in dendrites mediates synaptic plasticity, the probable cellular basis of learning and memory. Coordination of translational inhibitory and stimulatory mechanisms, as well as dendritic transport of mRNA, is necessary to ensure proper control of this local translation. Here, we find that the deadenylase CNOT7 dynamically regulates dendritic mRNA translation and transport, as well as synaptic plasticity and higher cognitive function. In cultured hippocampal neurons, synaptic stimulation induces a rapid decrease in CNOT7, which, in the short-term, results in poly(A) tail lengthening of target mRNAs...
July 18, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723559/kmt2a-and-kmt2b-mediate-memory-function-by-affecting-distinct-genomic-regions
#16
Cemil Kerimoglu, M Sadman Sakib, Gaurav Jain, Eva Benito, Susanne Burkhardt, Vincenzo Capece, Lalit Kaurani, Rashi Halder, Roberto Carlos Agís-Balboa, Roman Stilling, Hendrik Urbanke, Andrea Kranz, A Francis Stewart, Andre Fischer
Kmt2a and Kmt2b are H3K4 methyltransferases of the Set1/Trithorax class. We have recently shown the importance of Kmt2b for learning and memory. Here, we report that Kmt2a is also important in memory formation. We compare the decrease in H3K4 methylation and de-regulation of gene expression in hippocampal neurons of mice with knockdown of either Kmt2a or Kmt2b. Kmt2a and Kmt2b control largely distinct genomic regions and different molecular pathways linked to neuronal plasticity. Finally, we show that the decrease in H3K4 methylation resulting from Kmt2a knockdown partially recapitulates the pattern previously reported in CK-p25 mice, a model for neurodegeneration and memory impairment...
July 18, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722251/alteration-in-the-relationship-between-tanycytes-and-gonadotropin-releasing-hormone-gnrh-neurosecretory-terminals-following-long-term-metabolic-manipulation-in-the-sheep
#17
Robert Pouchain Ribeiro Neto, Iain J Clarke, Gregory Conductier
The activity of the hypothalamo-pituitary gonadal (HPG) axis is influenced by energy reserves, such that an increase or a decrease in adiposity may perturb the secretion and action of GnRH. This is thought to be due to the signalling of hormones such as leptin, which act upon neuronal systems controlling GnRH secretion. Other work shows plasticity in the relationship between tanycytes and GnRH neurosecretory terminals in the median eminence across the estrous cycle and we hypothesised that similar plasticity may occur with altered metabolic status...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722015/trpv1-regulates-excitatory-innervation-of-olm-neurons-in-the-hippocampus
#18
Joaquin I Hurtado-Zavala, Binu Ramachandran, Saheeb Ahmed, Rashi Halder, Christiane Bolleyer, Ankit Awasthi, Markus A Stahlberg, Robin J Wagener, Kristin Anderson, Ryan M Drenan, Henry A Lester, Julie M Miwa, Jochen F Staiger, Andre Fischer, Camin Dean
TRPV1 is an ion channel activated by heat and pungent agents including capsaicin, and has been extensively studied in nociception of sensory neurons. However, the location and function of TRPV1 in the hippocampus is debated. We found that TRPV1 is expressed in oriens-lacunosum-moleculare (OLM) interneurons in the hippocampus, and promotes excitatory innervation. TRPV1 knockout mice have reduced glutamatergic innervation of OLM neurons. When activated by capsaicin, TRPV1 recruits more glutamatergic, but not GABAergic, terminals to OLM neurons in vitro...
July 19, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721631/1-trichloromethyl-1-2-3-4-tetrahydro-beta-carboline-taclo-alters-cell-cycle-progression-in-human-neuroblastoma-cell-lines
#19
Rakesh Kumar Sharma, Eduardo Candelario-Jalil, Doris Feineis, Gerhard Bringmann, Bernd L Fiebich, Ravi Shankar Akundi
1-Trichloromethyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-β-carboline, abbreviated as TaClo, is an endogenous neurotoxin capable of formation in the brain through the condensation of neuronal tryptamine with ingested exogenous toxins such as trichloroethylene or chloral hydrate. Due to its structural resemblance to 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,5,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP), and similar ability to inhibit mitochondrial complex I, TaClo has been implicated in the etiology of Parkinson's disease. Previous studies have shown the cytotoxicity of TaClo in various cell culture models...
July 18, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720887/olfactory-bulb-plasticity-ensures-proper-olfaction-after-severe-impairment-in-postnatal-neurogenesis
#20
D Díaz, R Muñoz-Castañeda, C Ávila-Zarza, J Carretero, J R Alonso, E Weruaga
The olfactory bulb (OB) neurons establish a complex network that ensures the correct processing of the olfactory inputs. Moreover, the OB presents a lifelong addition of new neurons into its existing circuitry. This neurogenesis is considered essential for the OB function. However, its functional impact on physiology and behavior is still unclear. Here, we investigate the mechanisms of OB plasticity that underlie bulbar physiology in relation to severe damage of neurogenesis. The neurogenesis of young mice was altered by ionizing radiation...
July 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
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