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Neuronal plasticity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346754/input-specific-nmdar-dependent-potentiation-of-dendritic-gabaergic-inhibition
#1
Chiayu Q Chiu, James S Martenson, Maya Yamazaki, Rie Natsume, Kenji Sakimura, Susumu Tomita, Steven J Tavalin, Michael J Higley
Preservation of a balance between synaptic excitation and inhibition is critical for normal brain function. A number of homeostatic cellular mechanisms have been suggested to play a role in maintaining this balance, including long-term plasticity of GABAergic inhibitory synapses. Many previous studies have demonstrated a coupling of postsynaptic spiking with modification of perisomatic inhibition. Here, we demonstrate that activation of NMDA-type glutamate receptors leads to input-specific long-term potentiation of dendritic inhibition mediated by somatostatin-expressing interneurons...
January 17, 2018: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346028/biophysics-model-of-heavy-ion-degradation-of-neuron-morphology-in-mouse-hippocampal-granular-cell-layer-neurons
#2
Murat Alp, Francis A Cucinotta
Exposure to heavy-ion radiation during cancer treatment or space travel may cause cognitive detriments that have been associated with changes in neuron morphology and plasticity. Observations in mice of reduced neuronal dendritic complexity have revealed a dependence on radiation quality and absorbed dose, suggesting that microscopic energy deposition plays an important role. In this work we used morphological data for mouse dentate granular cell layer (GCL) neurons and a stochastic model of particle track structure and microscopic energy deposition (ED) to develop a predictive model of high-charge and energy (HZE) particle-induced morphological changes to the complex structures of dendritic arbors...
January 18, 2018: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342400/a-unifying-framework-of-synaptic-and-intrinsic-plasticity-in-neural-populations
#3
Johannes Leugering, Gordon Pipa
A neuronal population is a computational unit that receives a multivariate, time-varying input signal and creates a related multivariate output. These neural signals are modeled as stochastic processes that transmit information in real time, subject to stochastic noise. In a stationary environment, where the input signals can be characterized by constant statistical properties, the systematic relationship between its input and output processes determines the computation carried out by a population. When these statistical characteristics unexpectedly change, the population needs to adapt to its new environment if it is to maintain stable operation...
January 17, 2018: Neural Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339293/methylphenidate-significantly-alters-the-functional-coupling-between-the-prefrontal-cortex-and-dopamine-neurons-in-the-ventral-tegmental-area
#4
Ike C Dela Peña, Guofang Shen, Wei-Xing Shi
Amphetamine-like psychostimulants, including methylphenidate, have been shown to produce two opposing effects on dopamine (DA) neurons: a DA receptor-mediated feedback inhibition and a non-DA receptor-mediated excitation. To test whether the latter effect is mediated through the prefrontal cortex (PFC), we made dual-site recordings from the PFC and ventral tegmental area (VTA). Consistent with previous reports, methylphenidate inhibited VTA DA neurons. The D2 receptor antagonist raclopride completely reversed the inhibition and further increased the activity, particularly bursting, to above pre-drug baseline...
January 12, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339150/altered-function-of-neuronal-l-type-calcium-channels-in-ageing-and-neuroinflammation-implications-in-age-related-synaptic-dysfunction-and-cognitive-decline
#5
REVIEW
Sheeja Navakkode, Chao Liu, Tuck Wah Soong
The rapid developments in science have led to an increase in human life expectancy and thus, ageing and age-related disorders/diseases have become one of the greatest concerns in the 21st century. Cognitive abilities tend to decline as we get older. This age-related cognitive decline is mainly attributed to aberrant changes in synaptic plasticity and neuronal connections. Recent studies show that alterations in Ca2+ homeostasis underlie the increased vulnerability of neurons to age-related processes like cognitive decline and synaptic dysfunctions...
January 12, 2018: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339018/nicotine-alleviates-chronic-stress-induced-anxiety-and-depressive-like-behavior-and-hippocampal-neuropathology-via-regulating-autophagy-signaling
#6
Xi Xiao, Xueliang Shang, Baohui Zhai, Hui Zhang, Tao Zhang
Recently, we reported that chronic nicotine significantly improved chronic stress-induced impairments of cognition and the hippocampal synaptic plasticity in mice, however, the underlying mechanism still needs to be explored. In the present study, 32 male C57BL/6 mice were divided into four groups: control (CON), stress (CUS), stress with chronic nicotine administration (CUS + Nic) and chronic nicotine administration (Nic). The anxiety-like behavior and neuropathological alteration of DG neurons were examined...
January 12, 2018: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337145/interaction-of-dcf1-with-atp1b1-induces-impairment-in-astrocyte-structural-plasticity-via-the-p38-signaling-pathway
#7
Jiao Wang, Fangfang Zhou, Dong Wang, Jie Li, Dongfang Lu, Qian Li, Hong Zhou, Weihao Li, Qian Wang, Yiliu Wu, Jiang Xie, Tieqiao Wen
Astrocytes are known to regulate and support neuronal and synaptic functions. Changes in their size and morphology in mouse models result in mental retardation. However, the mechanism underlying these morphological changes remains unclear. In the present study, abnormal astrocyte morphology was found in the mouse brain following knockout of dendritic cell factor 1 (Dcf1). Immunoprecipitation-mass spectrometry (IP-Mass) identified that ATP1B1 is bound to DCF1, and co-immunoprecipitation and cell fluorescence further confirmed an interaction between these two proteins, with asparagine residue 266 of ATP1B1 being required for the interaction with DCF1...
January 12, 2018: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337116/impact-of-swiprosin-1-efhd2-on-adult-hippocampal-neurogenesis
#8
Martin Regensburger, Iryna Prots, Dorothea Reimer, Sebastian Brachs, Sandra Loskarn, Dieter Chichung Lie, Dirk Mielenz, Beate Winner
Swiprosin-1/Efhd2 (Efhd2) is highly expressed in the CNS during development and in the adult. EFHD2 is regulated by Ca2+ binding, stabilizes F-actin, and promotes neurite extension. Previous studies indicated a dysregulation of EFHD2 in human Alzheimer's disease brains. We hypothesized a detrimental effect of genetic ablation of Efhd2 on hippocampal integrity and specifically investigated adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Efhd2 was expressed throughout adult neuronal development and in mature neurons. We observed a severe reduction of the survival of adult newborn neurons in Efhd2 knockouts, starting at the early neuroblast stage...
January 9, 2018: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335828/low-but-not-high-doses-of-copper-sulfate-impair-synaptic-plasticity-in-the-hippocampal-ca1-region-in-vivo
#9
Abolfazl Jand, Mohammad Reza Taheri-Nejad, Masoumeh Mosleh, Mohammad Reza Palizvan
Previous studies have shown the inhibitory effect of the in vitro application of copper sulfate on hippocampal long-term potentiation. While in vivo administration of copper did not affect spatial learning and memory. To find possible answers to this controversial issue, we evaluate the effect of different doses of copper sulfate on in vivo long-term potentiation, synaptic transmission, and paired-pulse behavior of CA1 pyramidal cells. Thirty-two male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: control, 5, 10, and 15 mg of copper sulfate...
January 15, 2018: Biological Trace Element Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335778/hippocampal-area-ca2-properties-and-contribution-to-hippocampal-function
#10
REVIEW
Vincent Robert, Sadiyah Cassim, Vivien Chevaleyre, Rebecca A Piskorowski
This review focuses on area CA2 of the hippocampus, as recent results have revealed the unique properties and surprising role of this region in encoding social, temporal and contextual aspects of memory. Originally identified and described by Lorente de No, in 1934, this region of the hippocampus has unique intra-and extra-hippocampal connectivity, sending and receiving input to septal and hypothalamic regions. Recent in vivo studies have indicated that CA2 pyramidal neurons encode spatial information during immobility and play an important role in the generation of sharp-wave ripples...
January 15, 2018: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335431/synaptic-localisation-of-srf-coactivators-mkl1-and-mkl2-and-their-role-in-dendritic-spine-morphology
#11
Marisa Kaneda, Hiroyuki Sakagami, Yamato Hida, Toshihisa Ohtsuka, Natsumi Satou, Yuta Ishibashi, Mamoru Fukuchi, Anna Krysiak, Mitsuru Ishikawa, Daisuke Ihara, Katarzyna Kalita, Akiko Tabuchi
The megakaryoblastic leukaemia (MKL) family are serum response factor (SRF) coactivators, which are highly expressed in the brain. Accordingly, MKL plays important roles in dendritic morphology, neuronal migration, and brain development. Further, nucleotide substitutions in the MKL1 and MKL2 genes are found in patients with schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorder, respectively. Thus, studies on the precise synaptic localisation and function of MKL in neurons are warranted. In this study, we generated and tested new antibodies that specifically recognise endogenously expressed MKL1 and MKL2 proteins in neurons...
January 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335360/activity-in-the-ventral-medial-prefrontal-cortex-is-necessary-for-the-therapeutic-effects-of-extinction-in-rats
#12
Elizabeth A Fucich, Denisse Paredes, Madeleine O Saunders, David A Morilak
Poor response and high relapse rates remain problematic in the treatment of stress-related psychiatric disorders like depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). While mechanisms of pharmacotherapies are intensely studied, little is known about mechanisms of behavioral therapy that could inform improved treatments. We have previously demonstrated the therapeutic effects of extinction learning as a behavioral intervention modeling exposure therapy in rats. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that activity in the ventral medial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) during extinction is necessary for its therapeutic effects...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335359/recruitment-of-additional-corticospinal-pathways-in-the-human-brain-with-state-dependent-paired-associative-stimulation
#13
Dominic Kraus, Georgios Naros, Robert Guggenberger, Maria Teresa Leão, Ulf Ziemann, Alireza Gharabaghi
Standard brain stimulation protocols modify human motor cortex excitability by modulating the gain of the activated corticospinal pathways. However, the restoration of motor function following lesions of the corticospinal tract requires also the recruitment of additional neurons to increase the net corticospinal output. For this purpose, we investigated a novel protocol based on brain state-dependent paired associative stimulation.Motor imagery (MI)-related electroencephalography was recorded in healthy males and females for brain state-dependent control of both cortical and peripheral stimulation in a brain-machine interface environment...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335248/fast-neurogenesis-from-carotid-body-quiescent-neuroblasts-accelerates-adaptation-to-hypoxia
#14
Verónica Sobrino, Patricia González-Rodríguez, Valentina Annese, José López-Barneo, Ricardo Pardal
Unlike other neural peripheral organs, the adult carotid body (CB) has a remarkable structural plasticity, as it grows during acclimatization to hypoxia. The CB contains neural stem cells that can differentiate into oxygen-sensitive glomus cells. However, an extended view is that, unlike other catecholaminergic cells of the same lineage (sympathetic neurons or chromaffin cells), glomus cells can divide and thus contribute to CB hypertrophy. Here, we show that O2-sensitive mature glomus cells are post-mitotic...
January 15, 2018: EMBO Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331787/val66met-functional-polymorphism-and-serum-protein-level-of-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-bdnf-in-acute-episode-of-schizophrenia-and-depression
#15
Maria Skibinska, Agata Groszewska, Pawel Kapelski, Aleksandra Rajewska-Rager, Joanna Pawlak, Monika Dmitrzak-Weglarz, Aleksandra Szczepankiewicz, Joanna Twarowska-Hauser
BACKGROUND: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) influences neuron differentiation during development as well as the synaptic plasticity and neuron survival in adulthood. BDNF has been implicated in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia and depression. Val66Met polymorphism and BDNF serum level are potential biomarkers in neuropsychiatric disorders. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of BDNF gene Val66Met functional polymorphism on serum BDNF concentration in patients with schizophrenia, during depression episode and in healthy control group...
August 12, 2017: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329879/mir-134-modulates-chronic-stress-induced-structural-plasticity-and-depression-like-behaviors-via-downregulation-of-limk1-cofilin-signaling-in-rats
#16
Cuiqin Fan, Xiuzhi Zhu, Qiqi Song, Peng Wang, Zhuxi Liu, Shu Yan Yu
Increasing evidence has suggested that depression is a neuropsychiatric condition associated with neuroplasticity within specific brain regions. However, the mechanisms by which neuroplasticity exerts its effects in depression remain largely uncharacterized. In the present study we show that chronic stress effectively induces depression-like behaviors in rats, an effect which was associated with structural changes in dendritic spines and synapse abnormalities within neurons of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC)...
January 9, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328958/stdp-based-spiking-deep-convolutional-neural-networks-for-object-recognition
#17
Saeed Reza Kheradpisheh, Mohammad Ganjtabesh, Simon J Thorpe, Timothée Masquelier
Previous studies have shown that spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP) can be used in spiking neural networks (SNN) to extract visual features of low or intermediate complexity in an unsupervised manner. These studies, however, used relatively shallow architectures, and only one layer was trainable. Another line of research has demonstrated - using rate-based neural networks trained with back-propagation - that having many layers increases the recognition robustness, an approach known as deep learning. We thus designed a deep SNN, comprising several convolutional (trainable with STDP) and pooling layers...
December 23, 2017: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328916/the-neuronal-gene-arc-encodes-a-repurposed-retrotransposon-gag-protein-that-mediates-intercellular-rna-transfer
#18
Elissa D Pastuzyn, Cameron E Day, Rachel B Kearns, Madeleine Kyrke-Smith, Andrew V Taibi, John McCormick, Nathan Yoder, David M Belnap, Simon Erlendsson, Dustin R Morado, John A G Briggs, Cédric Feschotte, Jason D Shepherd
The neuronal gene Arc is essential for long-lasting information storage in the mammalian brain, mediates various forms of synaptic plasticity, and has been implicated in neurodevelopmental disorders. However, little is known about Arc's molecular function and evolutionary origins. Here, we show that Arc self-assembles into virus-like capsids that encapsulate RNA. Endogenous Arc protein is released from neurons in extracellular vesicles that mediate the transfer of Arc mRNA into new target cells, where it can undergo activity-dependent translation...
January 11, 2018: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328915/retrovirus-like-gag-protein-arc1-binds-rna-and-traffics-across-synaptic-boutons
#19
James Ashley, Benjamin Cordy, Diandra Lucia, Lee G Fradkin, Vivian Budnik, Travis Thomson
Arc/Arg3.1 is required for synaptic plasticity and cognition, and mutations in this gene are linked to autism and schizophrenia. Arc bears a domain resembling retroviral/retrotransposon Gag-like proteins, which multimerize into a capsid that packages viral RNA. The significance of such a domain in a plasticity molecule is uncertain. Here, we report that the Drosophila Arc1 protein forms capsid-like structures that bind darc1 mRNA in neurons and is loaded into extracellular vesicles that are transferred from motorneurons to muscles...
January 11, 2018: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328623/mimicking-biological-synaptic-functionality-with-an-indium-phosphide-synaptic-device-on-silicon-for-scalable-neuromorphic-computing
#20
Debarghya Sarkar, Jun Tao, Wei Wang, Qingfeng Lin, Matthew Yeung, Chenhao Ren, Rehan Kapadia
Neuromorphic or "brain-like" computation is a leading candidate for efficient, fault-tolerant processing of large-scale data, as well as real-time sensing and transduction of complex multivariate systems and networks such as self-driving vehicles or Internet of Things applications. In biology, the synapse serves as an active memory unit in the neural system, and is the component responsible for learning and memory. Electronically emulating this element via a compact, scalable technology which can be integrated in a 3-D architecture is critical for future implementations of neuromorphic processors...
January 12, 2018: ACS Nano
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