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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538829/maturation-of-long-latency-auditory-evoked-potentials-in-hearing-children-systematic-review
#1
Liliane Aparecida Fagundes Silva, Fernanda Cristina Leite Magliaro, Ana Claudia Martinho de Carvalho, Carla Gentile Matas
Purpose: To analyze how Auditory Long Latency Evoked Potentials (LLAEP) change according to age in children population through a systematic literature review. Research strategies: After formulation of the research question, a bibliographic survey was done in five data bases with the following descriptors: Electrophysiology (Eletrofisiologia), Auditory Evoked Potentials (Potenciais Evocados Auditivos), Child (Criança), Neuronal Plasticity (Plasticidade Neuronal) and Audiology (Audiologia)...
May 15, 2017: CoDAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538168/the-menagerie-of-the-basal-forebrain-how-many-neural-species-are-there-what-do-they-look-like-how-do-they-behave-and-who-talks-to-whom
#2
REVIEW
Chun Yang, Stephen Thankachan, Robert W McCarley, Ritchie E Brown
The diverse cell-types of the basal forebrain control sleep-wake states, cortical activity and reward processing. Large, slow-firing, cholinergic neurons suppress cortical delta activity and promote cortical plasticity in response to reinforcers. Large, fast-firing, cortically-projecting GABAergic neurons promote wakefulness and fast cortical activity. In particular, parvalbumin/GABAergic neurons promote neocortical gamma band activity. Conversely, excitation of slower-firing somatostatin/GABAergic neurons promotes sleep through inhibition of cortically-projecting neurons...
May 21, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535586/an-experimental-infarct-targeting-the-internal-capsule-histopathological-and-ultrastructural-changes
#3
Chang-Woo Han, Kyung-Hwa Lee, Myung Giun Noh, Jin-Myung Kim, Hyung-Seok Kim, Hyung-Sun Kim, Ra Gyung Kim, Jongwook Cho, Hyoung-Ihl Kim, Min-Cheol Lee
BACKGROUND: Stroke involving the cerebral white matter (WM) has increased in prevalence, but most experimental studies have focused on ischemic injury of the gray matter. This study was performed to investigate the WM in a unique rat model of photothrombotic infarct targeting the posterior limb of internal capsule (PLIC), focusing on the identification of the most vulnerable structure in WM by ischemic injury, subsequent glial reaction to the injury, and the fundamental histopathologic feature causing different neurologic outcomes...
May 2017: Journal of Pathology and Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534262/inflammatory-changes-in-paravertebral-sympathetic-ganglia-in-two-rat-pain-models
#4
Ai-Ling Li, Jing-Dong Zhang, Wenrui Xie, Judith A Strong, Jun-Ming Zhang
Injury to peripheral nerves can lead to neuropathic pain, along with well-studied effects on sensory neurons, including hyperexcitability, abnormal spontaneous activity, and neuroinflammation in the sensory ganglia. Neuropathic pain can be enhanced by sympathetic activity. Peripheral nerve injury may also damage sympathetic axons or expose them to an inflammatory environment. In this study, we examined the lumbar sympathetic ganglion responses to two rat pain models: ligation of the L5 spinal nerve, and local inflammation of the L5 dorsal root ganglion (DRG), which does not involve axotomy...
May 22, 2017: Neuroscience Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534043/familiarity-detection-is-an-intrinsic-property-of-cortical-microcircuits-with-bidirectional-synaptic-plasticity
#5
Xiaoyu Zhang, Han Ju, Trevor B Penney, Antonius M J VanDongen
Humans instantly recognize a previously seen face as "familiar." To deepen our understanding of familiarity-novelty detection, we simulated biologically plausible neural network models of generic cortical microcircuits consisting of spiking neurons with random recurrent synaptic connections. NMDA receptor (NMDAR)-dependent synaptic plasticity was implemented to allow for unsupervised learning and bidirectional modifications. Network spiking activity evoked by sensory inputs consisting of face images altered synaptic efficacy, which resulted in the network responding more strongly to a previously seen face than a novel face...
May 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532358/experience-dependent-structural-plasticity-in-the-visual-system
#6
Kalen P Berry, Elly Nedivi
During development, the environment exerts a profound influence on the wiring of brain circuits. Due to the limited resolution of studies in fixed tissue, this experience-dependent structural plasticity was once thought to be restricted to a specific developmental time window. The recent introduction of two-photon microscopy for in vivo imaging has opened the door to repeated monitoring of individual neurons and the study of structural plasticity mechanisms at a very fine scale. In this review, we focus on recent work showing that synaptic structural rearrangements are a key mechanism mediating neural circuit adaptation and behavioral plasticity in the adult brain...
October 14, 2016: Annual Review of Vision Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528122/probdnf-inhibits-proliferation-migration-and-differentiation-of-mouse-neural-stem-cells
#7
Jia-Yi Li, Jia Liu, Nimshitha Pavathuparambil Abdul Manaph, Larisa Bobrovskaya, Xin-Fu Zhou
ProBDNF, a precursor of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), is an important regulator of neurodegeneration, hippocampal long-term depression, and synaptic plasticity. ProBDNF and its receptors pan-neurotrophin receptor p75 (p75NTR), vps10p domain-containing receptor Sortilin and tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB) are expressed in neuronal and glial cells. The role of proBDNF in regulation of neurogenesis is not fully defined. This study aims to uncover the function of proBDNF in regulating the differentiation, migration and proliferation of mouse neural stem cells (NSCs) in vitro...
May 17, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525560/activity-dependent-gene-expression-in-the-mammalian-olfactory-epithelium
#8
Qiang Wang, William B Titlow, Declan A McClintock, Arnold J Stromberg, Timothy S McClintock
Activity-dependent processes are important to olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) in several ways, such as cell survival and the specificity of axonal convergence. The identification of activity-dependent mRNAs has contributed to our understanding of OSN axon convergence, but has revealed surprisingly little about other processes. Published studies of activity-dependent mRNAs in olfactory mucosae overlap poorly, but by combining these agreements with meta-analysis of existing data we identify 443 mRNAs that respond to methods that alter OSN activity...
May 19, 2017: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524628/myenteric-neuroprotective-role-of-aspirin-in-acute-and-chronic-experimental-infections-with-trypanosoma-cruzi
#9
J Y Oda, M O Belém, T M Carlos, R Gouveia, B F C Luchetti, N M Moreira, C L Massocatto, S M Araújo, D M G Sant Ana, N C Buttow, P Pinge-Filho, E J A Araújo
BACKGROUND: Experimental and clinical studies have shown that myenteric neuron cell death during infection with Trypanosoma cruzi mainly occurs in the esophagus and colon, resulting in megaesophagus and megacolon, respectively. Evidence suggests that the cyclooxygenase enzyme (COX) is involved in the T. cruzi invasion process. The use of low-dose aspirin (ASA), a COX-1/COX-2 inhibitor, has been shown to reduce infection with T. cruzi. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated the effects of treatment with low-dose ASA on myenteric colonic neurons during murine infection with T...
May 19, 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524074/neurotrauma-the-crosstalk-between-neurotrophins-and-inflammation-in-the-acutely-injured-brain
#10
REVIEW
Lindolfo da Silva Meirelles, Daniel Simon, Andrea Regner
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality among young individuals worldwide. Understanding the pathophysiology of neurotrauma is crucial for the development of more effective therapeutic strategies. After the trauma occurs, immediate neurologic damage is produced by the traumatic forces; this primary injury triggers a secondary wave of biochemical cascades together with metabolic and cellular changes, called secondary neural injury. In the scenario of the acutely injured brain, the ongoing secondary injury results in ischemia and edema culminating in an uncontrollable increase in intracranial pressure...
May 18, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523544/drug-addiction-and-histone-code-alterations
#11
Hee-Dae Kim, Tanessa Call, Samantha Magazu, Deveroux Ferguson
Acute and prolonged exposure to drugs of abuse induces changes in gene expression, synaptic function, and neural plasticity in brain regions involved in reward. Numerous genes are involved in this process, and persistent changes in gene expression coincide with epigenetic histone modifications and DNA methylation. Histone modifications are attractive regulatory mechanisms, which can encode complex environmental signals in the genome of postmitotic cells, like neurons. Recently, it has been demonstrated that specific histone modifications are involved in addiction-related gene regulatory mechanisms, by a diverse set of histone-modifying enzymes and readers...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523529/s-nitrosylation-regulates-cell-survival-and-death-in-the-central-nervous-system
#12
Yoshiki Koriyama, Ayako Furukawa
Nitric oxide (NO), which is produced from nitric oxide synthase, is an important cell signaling molecule that is crucial for many physiological functions such as neuronal death, neuronal survival, synaptic plasticity, and vascular homeostasis. This diffusible gaseous compound functions as an effector or second messenger in many intercellular communications and/or cell signaling pathways. Protein S-nitrosylation is a posttranslational modification that involves the covalent attachment of an NO group to the thiol side chain of select cysteine residues on target proteins...
May 18, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523233/a-new-method-allowing-long-term-potentiation-recordings-in-hippocampal-organotypic-slices
#13
Paula Paci, Sylvain Gabriele, Laurence Ris
BACKGROUND: Hippocampal organotypic slices are used to improve the understanding of synaptic plasticity mechanisms because they allow longer term studies compared to acute slices. However, it is more delicate to keep cultures alive in the recording system outside in vitro conditions. Experiments from the organotypic cultures are common but the handling of slices is rarely described in the literature, even though tissue preservation is crucial. Instruments are sometimes required to extract the slices from the culture inserts but this approach is delicate and can lead to damage, given how strongly the slices are attached to the insert...
May 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522408/multipotency-and-therapeutic-potential-of-ng2-cells
#14
REVIEW
Martin Valny, Pavel Honsa, Jan Kriska, Miroslava Anderova
NG2 cells represent one of the most proliferative glial cell populations in the intact mammalian central nervous system (CNS). They are well-known for their ability to renew themselves or to generate new oligodendrocytes during development as well as in adulthood, therefore also being termed oligodendrocyte progenitor cells. Following CNS injuries, such as demyelination, trauma or ischemia, the proliferative capacity of NG2 cells rapidly increases and moreover, their differentiation potential broadens, as documented by numerous reports also describing their differentiation into astrocytes or even neurons...
May 15, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522222/neurochemical-correlates-of-functional-plasticity-in-the-mature-cortex-of-the-brain-of-rodents
#15
REVIEW
Ewa Siucinska
It is commonly accepted that increase of input to sensory structures in mammals is known to produce marked changes in cortical recipient areas. This paper reviews the data concerning manifestations of changes in primary somatosensory cortex of adult animals caused by classical conditioning with reinforcement: aversive (whisker-shock) and appetitive (whisker-water) trainings. These include: anatomical, electrophysiological responses, receptor autoradiography, expression of GABA, GAD at mRNA and protein levels, expression of neuronal and astroglial GAT-1 puncta and inhibitory synaptogenesis in the hollows of "trained" barrels of the adult mouse...
May 15, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522119/neural-changes-in-alzheimer-s-disease-from-circuit-to-molecule-perspective-of-optogenetics
#16
REVIEW
Qinghu Yang, Da Song, Hong Qing
Alzheimer's disease (AD), as a crucial neurodegenerative disorder, affects neural activities at many levels. Synaptic plasticity and neural circuits are most susceptible in AD, but the detailed mechanism is unclear. Optogenetic tools provide unprecedented spatio-temporal specificity to stimulate specific neural circuits or synaptic molecules to reveal the precise function of normal brain and mechanism of deficits in AD models. Furthermore, using optogenetics to stimulate neurons can rescue learning and memory loss caused by AD...
May 15, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522036/transient-receptor-potential-trp-channel-function-in-the-reproductive-axis
#17
REVIEW
Viktoria Götz, Sen Qiao, Andreas Beck, Ulrich Boehm
Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels play important functional roles in the signal transduction machinery of hormone-secreting cells and have recently been implicated in reproductive physiology. While expression studies have demonstrated TRP channel expression at all levels of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (hpg) axis, functional details about TRP channel action at the level of the individual cells controlling reproduction are just beginning to emerge. Canonical TRP (TRPC) channels are prominently expressed in the reproductive center of the neuroendocrine brain, i...
May 3, 2017: Cell Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521127/synaptic-plasticity-engrams-and-network-oscillations-in-amygdala-circuits-for-storage-and-retrieval-of-emotional-memories
#18
REVIEW
Marco Bocchio, Sadegh Nabavi, Marco Capogna
The neuronal circuits of the basolateral amygdala (BLA) are crucial for acquisition, consolidation, retrieval, and extinction of associative emotional memories. Synaptic plasticity in BLA neurons is essential for associative emotional learning and is a candidate mechanism through which subsets of BLA neurons (commonly termed "engram") are recruited during learning and reactivated during memory retrieval. In parallel, synchronous oscillations in the theta and gamma bands between the BLA and interconnected structures have been shown to occur during consolidation and retrieval of emotional memories...
May 17, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520784/presynaptic-a%C3%AE-40-prevents-synapse-addition-in-the-adult-drosophila-neuromuscular-junction
#19
Begoña López-Arias, Enrique Turiégano, Ignacio Monedero, Inmaculada Canal, Laura Torroja
Complexity in the processing of the Amyloid Precursor Protein, which generates a mixture of βamyloid peptides, lies beneath the difficulty in understanding the etiology of Alzheimer's disease. Moreover, whether Aβ peptides have any physiological role in neurons is an unresolved question. By expressing single, defined Aβ peptides in Drosophila, specific effects can be discriminated in vivo. Here, we show that in the adult neuromuscular junction (NMJ), presynaptic expression of Aβ40 hinders the synaptic addition that normally occurs in adults, yielding NMJs with an invariable number of active zones at all ages tested...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516108/what-is-car-doing-in-the-middle-of-the-adult-neurogenic-road
#20
COMMENT
Sara Salinas, Felix Junyent, Nathalie Coré, Harold Cremer, Eric J Kremer
The molecular and cellular basis of adult neurogenesis has attracted considerable attention for fundamental and clinical applications because neural stem cells and newborn neurons may, one day, be harnessed to replace neurons and allow cognitive improvement in the diseased brain. In rodents, neural progenitors are located in the dentate gyrus and the sub/periventricular zone. In the dentate gyrus the generation of newborn neurons is associated with plasticity, including regulation of memory. The role of subventricular zone neural precursors that migrate to the olfactory bulb is less characterized...
2017: Neurogenesis (Austin, Tex.)
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