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Adipose metabolic

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938790/factors-affecting-adipose-tissue-development-in-chickens-a-review
#1
Guoqing Wang, Woo Kyun Kim, Mark A Cline, Elizabeth R Gilbert
The intense genetic selection for rapid growth in broilers has resulted in an increase in voluntary feed intake and growth rate, accompanied by increased fat deposition in adipose tissue depots throughout the body. Adipose tissue expansion is a result of the formation of adipocytes (several processes collectively referred to as adipogenesis) and cellular accumulation of triacylglycerols inside lipid droplets. In mammals, different anatomical depots are metabolically distinct. The molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying adipose tissue development have been characterized in mammalian models, whereas information in avian species is scarce...
October 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938482/microrna-221-3p-regulates-angiopoietin-like-8-angptl8-expression-in-adipocytes
#2
Raghavendra Mysore, Francisco J Ortega, Jèssica Latorre, Maria Ahonen, Hanna Savolainen-Peltonen, Pamela Fischer-Posovszky, Martin Wabitsch, Vesa M Olkkonen, José M Fernández-Real, P A Nidhina Haridas
Context: Angiopoietin-like 8 (ANGPTL8) has been identified as a key regulator of lipid metabolism. Design: We addressed the correlation between ANGPTL8 mRNA with hallmark insulin-regulated and lipogenic genes in human adipose tissue. The regulation of ANGPTL8 expression in adipocytes was studied after inflammatory challenge, and the role of microRNA-221-3p therein was investigated. Results: ANGPTL8 gene expression in subcutaneous (SAT) and visceral (VAT) adipose tissue was highly correlated with SLC2A4/GLUT4 and ADIPOQ/Adiponectin...
August 30, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938471/low-vitamin-b12-in-pregnancy-is-associated-with-adipose-derived-circulating-mirs-targeting-ppar%C3%AE-and-insulin-resistance
#3
Antonysunil Adaikalakoteswari, Manu Vatish, Mohammad Tauqeer Alam, Sascha Ott, Sudhesh Kumar, Ponnusamy Saravanan
Context: Low vitamin B12 (B12) during pregnancy is associated with higher maternal obesity, insulin resistance(IR) and gestational diabetes(GDM). B12 is a key co-factor in 1-carbon metabolism. Objective: We hypothesize that B12 plays a role in epigenetic regulation by altering circulating miRNAs(miRs) during adipocyte differentiation and results in an adverse metabolic phenotype. Design, settings and main-outcome measure: Human pre-adipocyte cell-line(Chub-S7) were differentiated in various B12 concentrations: Control(500nM), LowB12(0...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938469/taming-the-flames-targeting-white-adipose-tissue-browning-in-hypermetabolic-conditions
#4
Abdikarim Abdullahi, Marc G Jeschke
In this era of increased obesity and diabetes prevalence, the browning of white adipose tissue (WAT) has emerged as a promising therapeutic target to induce weight loss and improve insulin sensitivity in this population. The browning process entails a shift in the WAT from primarily storing excess energy to the dissipation of energy as heat. However, this idealistic view of WAT browning being the saviour of the metabolic syndrome has been criticized by studies in burns and cancer patients that have shown browning to be detrimental rather than being beneficial...
August 30, 2017: Endocrine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938461/adipokines-and-their-receptor-are-widely-expressed-and-distinctly-regulated-by-the-metabolic-environment-in-the-prostate-of-male-mice-direct-role-under-normal-and-tumoral-conditions
#5
André Sarmento-Cabral, Fernando L-López, Raúl M Luque
Adipose tissue-derived adipokines (i.e. leptin/adiponectin/resistin) play important roles in the regulation of several pathophysiological processes through the activation of specific receptors. However, although adipokines and their receptors are widely distributed in many tissues and exhibit a clear modulation by the particular metabolic conditions (e.g. obesity and/or fasting), their expression, regulation, and putative action on normal prostate-glands (PGs; a hormone-dependent organ tightly regulated by the endocrine-metabolic milieu) is still to be defined...
August 9, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938459/selective-glucocorticoid-receptor-antagonist-cort125281-activates-brown-adipose-tissue-and-alters-lipid-distribution-in-male-mice
#6
Jan Kroon, Lisa L Koorneef, Jose K van den Heuvel, Cristy R C Verzijl, Nienke M van de Velde, Isabel M Mol, Hetty C M Sips, Hazel Hunt, Patrick C N Rensen, Onno C Meijer
Glucocorticoids influence a wide range of metabolic processes in the human body and excessive glucocorticoid exposure is known to contribute to the development of metabolic disease. We evaluated the utility of the novel glucocorticoid receptor (GR) antagonist CORT125281 for its potential to overcome adiposity, glucose intolerance and dyslipidaemia, and compared this head-to-head with classic GR antagonist RU486 (mifepristone). We show that, while RU486 displays cross-reactivity to the progesterone and androgen receptor, CORT125281 selectively inhibits GR transcriptional activity...
September 18, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938451/antibody-mediated-targeting-of-the-fgfr1c-isoform-increases-glucose-uptake-in-white-and-brown-adipose-tissue-in-male-mice
#7
Jo E Lewis, Ricardo J Samms, Scott Cooper, Jeni C Luckett, Alan C Perkins, James D Dunbar, Dennis P Smith, Paul J Emmerson, Andrew C Adams, Francis J P Ebling, Kostas Tsintzas
The increased prevalence of obesity and its cardiometabolic implications demonstrates the imperative to identify novel therapeutic targets able to effect meaningful metabolic changes in this population. Antibody-mediated targeting of fibroblast growth factor receptor 1c isoform (FGFR1c) has been shown to ameliorate hyperglycaemia and protect from diet- and genetically-induced obesity in rodents and non-human primates. However, it is currently unknown which tissue(s) contribute to this glucose lowering effect...
August 16, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938444/lack-of-lrp5-signaling-in-osteoblasts-sensitizes-male-mice-to-diet-induced-disturbances-in-glucose-metabolism
#8
Soohyun P Kim, Julie L Frey, Zhu Li, Brian C Goh, Ryan C Riddle
Wnt signaling through the Lrp5 co-receptor regulates osteoblast maturation, matrix mineralization, and intermediary metabolism. In the mature osteoblast, signals downstream of Lrp5 are required for normal long-chain fatty acid β-oxidation and mice rendered deficient for this co-receptor in osteoblasts and osteocytes accumulate body fat with elevated serum lipid levels, but retain normal insulin sensitivity. In this study, we challenged Lrp5 mutant mice with a high fat diet to determine if they are more susceptible to diet-induced disturbances in glucose homeostasis...
September 11, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938414/sex-and-tissue-specific-role-of-estrogen-sulfotransferase-in-energy-homeostasis-and-insulin-sensitivity
#9
Wojciech G Garbacz, Mengxi Jiang, Meishu Xu, Jun Yamauchi, H Henry Dong, Wen Xie
Estrogen Sulfotransferase (EST) catalyzes the sulfoconjugation and deactivation of estrogens. Previously we showed that loss of Est in male ob/ob mice, but not in female ob/ob mice, exacerbated the diabetic phenotype, but the underlying mechanism was unclear. Here we show that transgenic reconstitution of Est in the adipose tissue, but not in the liver, attenuated diabetic phenotype in Est deficient ob/ob mice (obe). Mechanistically, adipose reconstitution of Est in obe mice (oae) resulted in reduced local and systemic inflammation, improved insulin sensitivity, and increased energy expenditure...
September 5, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938412/renal-metabolic-programming-is-linked-to-the-dynamic-regulation-of-a-leptin-klf15-axis-and-akt-ampk%C3%AE-signaling-in-male-offspring-of-obese-dams
#10
Philipp Kasper, Christina Vohlen, Katharina Dinger, Jasmine Mohr, Eva Hucklenbruch-Rother, Ruth Janoschek, Jessica Köth, Jan Matthes, Sarah Appel, Jörg Dötsch, Miguel A Alejandre Alcazar
Childhood obesity is associated with renal diseases. Maternal obesity is a risk factor linked to increased adipocytokines and metabolic disorders in the offspring. We therefore studied the impact of maternal obesity on renal-intrinsic insulin and adipocytokine signaling and on renal function and structure. To induce maternal obesity female mice were fed with high-fat diet (HFD) or standard diet (SD, Co) prior to mating, during gestation and throughout lactation. A third group of dams was fed HFD only during lactation (HFD-Lac)...
July 27, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937873/effect-of-parathyroidectomy-on-osteopontin-and-undercarboxylated-osteocalcin-in-patients-with-primary-hyperparathyroidism
#11
Raelene E Maser, M James Lenhard, Ryan T Pohlig, P Babu Balagopal, Raafat Abdel-Misih
PURPOSE: Surgical treatment for primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) improves bone metabolism. Osteocalcin (OC) and its undercarboxylated form (ucOC) are associated with bone and energy metabolism. Osteopontin (OPN), a multifunctional protein expressed in bone, is involved in resorption, along with β-carboxyl-terminal cross-linking telopeptide of type 1 collagen (β-CTX), and osteoprotegerin (OPG). Our aim was to investigate these biomarkers of bone metabolism in patients with PHPT. METHODS: We examined 30 individuals with PHPT, in a clinical research facility, before and 1 month following parathyroidectomy...
September 22, 2017: Endocrine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936896/fat-fraction-mapping-using-magnetic-resonance-imaging-insight-into-pathophysiology
#12
Timothy J P Bray, Manil D Chouhan, Shonit Punwani, Alan Bainbridge, Margaret A Hall-Craggs
Adipose cells have traditionally been viewed as a simple, passive energy storage depot for triglycerides. However, in recent years it has become clear that adipose cells are highly physiologically active and have a multitude of endocrine, metabolic, haematological and immune functions. Changes in the number or size of adipose cells may be directly implicated in disease (for example, in the metabolic syndrome), but may also be linked to other pathological processes such as inflammation, malignant infiltration or infarction...
September 22, 2017: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936585/understanding-intestinal-glucose-transporter-expression-in-obese-compared-to-non-obese-subjects
#13
Rebecca A Deal, Yueming Tang, Reid Fletcher, Alfonso Torquati, Philip Omotosho
INTRODUCTION: The impact of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) on weight loss and co-morbid disease resolution is well established. However, the mechanisms underlying the procedure remain incompletely understood. Intestinal remodeling involving glucose transporters (GLUTs) may play a crucial role. Rat studies have demonstrated morphological adaptation of GLUTs within adipose and intestinal cells in association with the reprogramming of glucose metabolism. There is a limited understanding of the variations in expression amongst GLUT family receptors in the human intestine...
September 21, 2017: Surgical Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936403/non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-lean-subjects-characteristics-and-implications
#14
REVIEW
Ramesh Kumar, Shantam Mohan
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is commonly diagnosed in obese subjects; however, it is not rare among lean individuals. Given the absence of traditional risk factors, it tends to remain under-recognised. The metabolic profiles of lean NAFLD patients are frequently comparable to those of obese NAFLD patients. Though results from several studies have been mixed, it has been generally revealed that lean subjects with NAFLD have minor insulin resistance compared to that in obese NAFLD. Several genetic variants are associated with NAFLD without insulin resistance...
September 28, 2017: Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935898/pd-l1-is-an-activation-independent-marker-of-brown-adipocytes
#15
Jessica R Ingram, Michael Dougan, Mohammad Rashidian, Marko Knoll, Edmund J Keliher, Sarah Garrett, Scott Garforth, Olga S Blomberg, Camilo Espinosa, Atul Bhan, Steven C Almo, Ralph Weissleder, Harvey Lodish, Stephanie K Dougan, Hidde L Ploegh
Programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) is expressed on a number of immune and cancer cells, where it can downregulate antitumor immune responses. Its expression has been linked to metabolic changes in these cells. Here we develop a radiolabeled camelid single-domain antibody (anti-PD-L1 VHH) to track PD-L1 expression by immuno-positron emission tomography (PET). PET-CT imaging shows a robust and specific PD-L1 signal in brown adipose tissue (BAT). We confirm expression of PD-L1 on brown adipocytes and demonstrate that signal intensity does not change in response to cold exposure or β-adrenergic activation...
September 21, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935140/d-allulose-enhances-postprandial-fat-oxidation-in-healthy-humans
#16
Tomonori Kimura, Akane Kanasaki, Noriko Hayashi, Takako Yamada, Tetsuo Iida, Yasuo Nagata, Kazuhiro Okuma
OBJECTIVE: d-Allulose, a C-3 epimer of d-fructose, has been reported to decrease body weight and adipose tissue weight in animal studies and is expected to be a potent antiobese sweetener. Our animal study suggested that one of the mechanisms of d-allulose's antiobesity function is an increase in energy expenditure. However, a few studies have thus far explored the underlying mechanism in humans. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of a single ingestion of d-allulose on postprandial energy metabolism in healthy participants...
November 2017: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934818/effects-of-zinc-alpha2-glycoprotein-on-lipid-metabolism-of-liver-in-high-fat-diet-induced-obese-mice
#17
Guoqiang Fan, Yu Qiao, Shixing Gao, Jun Guo, Ruqian Zhao, Xiaojing Yang
Zinc alpha2 glycoprotein (ZAG) is a new type of adipokine involved in adipose tissue mobilization, however, little is known about its lipid metabolism effect in liver. Therefore, we investigated the effects of ZAG in the regulation of hepatic lipid accumulation. Mice were randomly divided into two groups; one was fed a normal diet and another was fed a high-fat diet for eight weeks to establish obesity model. After that, the normal diet group was divided into ND (injection of pcDNA3.1) and NDZ (injection of ZAG recombinant plasmid) and the high-fat diet group was divided into HF (injection of pcDNA3...
September 21, 2017: Hormone and Metabolic Research, Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung, Hormones et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934139/phyllodulcin-a-natural-sweetener-regulates-obesity-related-metabolic-changes-and-fat-browning-related-genes-of-subcutaneous-white-adipose-tissue-in-high-fat-diet-induced-obese-mice
#18
Eunju Kim, Soo-Min Lim, Min-Soo Kim, Sang-Ho Yoo, Yuri Kim
Phyllodulcin is a natural sweetener found in Hydrangea macrophylla var. thunbergii. This study investigated whether phyllodulcin could improve metabolic abnormalities in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice. Animals were fed a 60% HFD for 6 weeks to induce obesity, followed by 7 weeks of supplementation with phyllodulcin (20 or 40 mg/kg body weight (b.w.)/day). Stevioside (40 mg/kg b.w./day) was used as a positive control. Phyllodulcin supplementation reduced subcutaneous fat mass, levels of plasma lipids, triglycerides, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and improved the levels of leptin, adiponectin, and fasting blood glucose...
September 21, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933734/growth-hormone-s-effect-on-adipose-tissue-quality-versus-quantity
#19
REVIEW
Darlene E Berryman, Edward O List
Obesity is an excessive accumulation or expansion of adipose tissue (AT) due to an increase in either the size and/or number of its characteristic cell type, the adipocyte. As one of the most significant public health problems of our time, obesity and its associated metabolic complications have demanded that attention be given to finding effective therapeutic options aimed at reducing adiposity or the metabolic dysfunction associated with its accumulation. Growth hormone (GH) has therapeutic potential due to its potent lipolytic effect and resultant ability to reduce AT mass while preserving lean body mass...
July 26, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933132/effects-of-secukinumab-on-serum-adipocytokines-preliminary-data
#20
A Fassio, D Gatti, P Gisondi, G Girolomoni, O Viapiana, A Giollo, M Zamboni, M Rossini, L Idolazzi
Psoriatic arthritis (PsA) is a chronic inflammatory disease that affects joints, connective tissues and the axial skeleton. Metabolic syndrome is an independent risk factor for psoriasis (Pso) development and is associated with more severe forms of Pso. Adipocytokines are secreted by white adipose tissue and are thought to link obesity with the development of metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. Secukinumab is a new monoclonal antibody with a different mechanism of action. This antibody selectively binds to and neutralizes interleukin-17 (IL-17) and it has shown efficacy in the treatment of PsA...
September 21, 2017: Reumatismo
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