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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342901/the-sympathetic-neuro-adipose-connection-and-the-control-of-body-weight
#1
REVIEW
Inês Mahú, Ana I Domingos
In recent decades, obesity has become a global public health crisis irrespective of age or gender [21]. But according to historic records, concerns over appropriate maintenance of body size have been long established. For more than to 2 millennia, the main therapeutic approach to curb excess weight has been to recommend dietary restrictions and regular exercise (Haslam, 2016). Nevertheless, more contemporary studies indicate that the employment of such approaches in the treatment of severely obese patients causes metabolic adaptions which impair their long-term success in weight management [8]...
March 22, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342615/effect-of-increasing-body-condition-on-oxidative-stress-and-mitochondrial-biogenesis-in-subcutaneous-adipose-tissue-depot-of-nonlactating-dairy-cows
#2
L Laubenthal, L Ruda, N Sultana, J Winkler, J Rehage, U Meyer, S Dänicke, H Sauerwein, S Häussler
With the onset of lactation, dairy cows with a body condition score >3.5 are sensitive to oxidative stress and metabolic disorders. Adipose tissue (AT) can adapt to varying metabolic demands and energy requirements by the plasticity of its size during lactation. In AT, angiogenesis is necessary to guarantee sufficient oxygen and nutrient supply for adipocytes. Cellular energy metabolism is reflected mainly by mitochondria, which can be quantified by the mitochondrial DNA copy number per cell. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the effect of overconditioning on angiogenesis and mitochondrial biogenesis in AT of nonlactating cows, irrespective of the physiological influences of lactation and pregnancy...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339957/effects-of-caponization-and-age-on-the-histology-lipid-localization-and-fiber-diameter-in-muscles-from-greenleg-partridge-cockerels
#3
M Gesek, M Zawacka, D Murawska
The preference of modern consumers for high-quality meat has forced breeders to use native breeds to produce capons. Caponization, both chemical and surgical, leads to androgen deficiency and changes in lipid metabolism and results in the accumulation of abdominal, subcutaneous, and intramuscular lipids, which change the sensory values of the meat. The aim of this study was to histologically evaluate selected skeletal muscles from Greenleg Partridge capons and cockerels. We examined lipid localization in the muscular tissue and also assessed both fiber type and fiber diameter in the pectoral muscles...
March 3, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339908/obesity-associated-cardiac-pathogenesis-in-broiler-breeder-hens-pathological-adaption-of-cardiac-hypertrophy1-2
#4
C Y Chen, H Y Lin, Y W Chen, Y J Ko, Y J Liu, Y H Chen, R L Walzem, S E Chen
Broiler hens consuming feed to appetite (ad libitum; AL) show increased mortality. Feed restriction (R) typically improves reproductive performance and livability of hens. Rapidly growing broilers can exhibit increased mortality due to cardiac insufficiency but it is unknown whether the increased mortality of non-R broiler hens is also due to cardiac compromise. To assess cardiac growth and physiology in fully mature birds, 45-week-old hens were either continued on R rations or assigned to AL feeding for 7 or 21 days...
March 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339498/enhancement-of-osteogenic-differentiation-of-rat-adipose-tissue-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-by-zinc-sulphate-under-electromagnetic-field-via-the-pka-erk1-2-and-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling-pathways
#5
Ezzatollah Fathi, Raheleh Farahzadi
Zinc ion as an essential trace element and electromagnetic fields (EMFs) has been reported to be involved in the regulation of bone metabolism. The aim of this study was to elucidate the effects of zinc sulphate (ZnSO4) on the osteogenic differentiation of adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs) in the presence of EMF as a strategy in osteoporosis therapy. Alkaline phophatase (ALP) activity measurement, calcium assay and expression of several osteoblastic marker genes were examined to assess the effect of ZnSO4 on the osteogenic differentiation of ADSCs under EMF...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338809/resveratrol-derivative-btm-0512-mitigates-obesity-by-promoting-beige-remodeling-of-subcutaneous-preadipocytes
#6
Qingqing Li, Kuansong Wang, Yipeng Ma, Chunxiang Qin, Changsheng Dong, Ping Jin, Yan Wu, Xiaoming Xiong, Niansheng Li, Changping Hu, Jun Peng, Zhichun Yang
Recent studies revealed that sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) is involved in the regulation of energy metabolism and its agonist resveratrol showed anti-obesity effect. This study aims to determine whether BTM-0512, a novel derivative of resveratrol, acts as an antagonist of obesity and to explore its possible mechanisms. High-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice were intragastrically administered with BTM-0512 (5, 10, and 20 mg/kg/day) or resveratrol (10 mg/kg/day). It was found that the body weight, Lee's index, ratio of visceral adipose tissue (VAT) to body weight, and blood glucose were significantly reduced in BTM-0512-treated mice when compared with those in mice treated with resveratrol...
February 24, 2017: Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338181/gene-expression-of-inflammatory-markers-in-adipose-tissue-between-obese-women-with-polycystic-ovary-and-normal-obese-women
#7
G Alshammari, R Khan, J Brameld, S Amer, M A Lomax
OBJECTIVE: The pathogenesis of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), a common endocrine disease and metabolic disturbance, is still unknown. The aim of the study was to investigate whether patients with PCOS display increased expression of inflammatory markers in adipose tissue. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Two groups of women were investigated, those diagnosed with PCOS (n = 8) and age and BMI-matched normal women (n = 12). Their age was between 20-45 years and all subjects were apparently healthy and did not take any medications...
March 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338072/a-post-weaning-obesogenic-diet-exacerbates-the-detrimental-effects-of-maternal-obesity-on-offspring-insulin-signaling-in-adipose-tissue
#8
Juliana de Almeida Faria, Daniella Duque-Guimarães, Asha A M Carpenter, Elena Loche, Susan E Ozanne
Previous studies have shown that maternal diet-induced obesity leads to increased risk of type 2 diabetes in offspring. The current study investigated if weaning onto an obesogenic diet exaggerated the detrimental effects of maternal diet-induced obesity in adipose tissue. Maternal obesity and offspring obesity led to reduced expression of key insulin signalling proteins, including insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1). The effects of maternal obesity and offspring obesity were, generally, independent and additive...
March 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337718/sex-dependent-effects-of-neonatal-maternal-deprivation-on-endocannabinoid-levels-in-the-adipose-tissue-influence-of-diet
#9
Virginia Mela, Fabiana Piscitelli, Alvaro Llorente Berzal, Julie Chowen, Cristoforo Silvestri, Maria Paz Viveros, Vincenzo Di Marzo
Maternal deprivation (MD) during neonatal life has diverse long-term effects, including modification of metabolism. We have previously reported that MD modifies the metabolic response to high-fat diet (HFD) intake, with this response being different between males and females, while previous studies indicate that in mice with HFD-induced obesity, endocannabinoid (EC) levels are markedly altered in various brown and white adipose tissue depots. Here, we analyzed the effects of MD (24 h at postnatal day 9), alone or in combination with a HFD from weaning until the end of the experiment in Wistar rats of both sexes...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337713/the-potential-role-of-fibroblast-growth-factor-21-in-lipid-metabolism-and-hypertension
#10
REVIEW
Zhe Huang, Aimin Xu, Bernard M Y Cheung
Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 21 belongs to the FGF superfamily that is involved in cell proliferation and differentiation, neural development, angiogenesis, and metabolism. FGF21 requires β-Klotho as a co-receptor. Tissues involved in metabolism such as the liver, adipose tissues, skeletal muscle, and pancreas express FGF21. Starvation increases hepatic expression of FGF21, which then acts centrally to increase hepatic gluconeogenesis. FGF21 also increases fatty acid oxidation. This may be relevant in cold exposure, when expression of FGF21 is induced...
April 2017: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337029/the-impact-of-protein-quantity-during-energy-restriction-on-genome-wide-gene-expression-analysis-in-adipose-tissue-of-obese-humans
#11
I P G Van Bussel, E M P Backx, C P G M De Groot, M Tieland, M Müller, L A Afman
BACKGROUND: Overweight and obesity is a growing health problem worldwide. The most effective strategy to reduce weight is energy restriction (ER). ER has been shown to be beneficial in disease prevention and it reduces chronic inflammation. Recent studies suggest that reducing the protein quantity of a diet contributes to the beneficial effects by ER. The organ most extensively affected during ER is white adipose tissue (WAT). OBJECTIVE: The first objective was to assess changes in gene expression between a high protein diet and a normal protein diet during ER...
March 24, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336819/fundamental-hemodynamic-mechanisms-mediating-the-response-to-myocardial-ischemia-in-conscious-paraplegic-mice-cardiac-output-versus-peripheral-resistance
#12
Heidi L Lujan, Stephen E DiCarlo
Autonomic dysfunction, a relative sedentary lifestyle, a reduced muscle mass and increased adiposity leads to metabolic abnormalities that accelerate the development of coronary artery disease (CAD) in individuals living with spinal cord injury (SCI). An untoward cardiac incident is related to the degree of CAD, suggesting that the occurrence of a significant cardiac event is significantly higher for individuals with SCI Thus, understanding the fundamental hemodynamic mechanisms mediating the response to myocardial ischemia has the potential to positively impact individuals and families living with SCI Accordingly, we systematically investigated if thoracic level 5 spinal cord transection (T5X; paraplegia) alters the arterial blood pressure response to coronary artery occlusion and if the different arterial blood pressure responses to coronary artery occlusion between intact and paraplegic mice are mediated by changes in cardiac output and or systemic peripheral resistance and whether differences in cardiac output are caused by changes in heart rate and or stroke volume...
March 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336399/synthetic-matrix-of-polyether-polyurethane-as-a-biological-platform-for-pancreatic-regeneration
#13
Luciana Xavier Pereira, Celso Tarso Rodrigues Viana, Laura Alejandra Ariza Orellano, Simone Aparecida de Almeida, Anilton Cesar Vasconcelos, Alfredo de Miranda Goes, Alexander Birbrair, Silvia Passos Andrade, Paula Peixoto Campos
AIMS: Several alternative cellular approaches using biomaterials to host insulin-producing cells derived from stem cells have been developed to overcome the limitations of type 1 diabetes treatment (exogenous insulin injection). However, none seem to fulfill all requirements needed to induce pancreatic cells successful colonization of the scaffolds. Here, we report a polymeric platform adherent to the native mice pancreas filled with human adipose stem cells (hASCs) that was able to induce growth of pancreatic parenchyma...
March 20, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335697/investigation-of-a-lifestyle-intervention-in-women-at-high-risk-of-breast-cancer
#14
Claire J Han, Larissa A Korde, Scott Reding, Kristen Allott, Matt Van Doren, Yvonne Schwarz, Catalina Vaughan, Kerryn W Reding
One fourth of breast cancer can be attributed to sedentary lifestyles and being overweight or obese. This pilot study was conducted to explore whether a 6-month lifestyle intervention affected body composition and obesity-related biomarkers among women at high risk of breast cancer. Overweight/obese women at high risk of breast cancer were randomized to the control group or to the intervention. The intervention was an individually tailored, cognitive-behavioral therapy program that assists women in identifying strategies to improve their nutrition and physical activity habits with the goal of reduced adiposity...
March 1, 2017: Western Journal of Nursing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335584/atrap-expression-in-brown-adipose-tissue-does-not-influence-the-development-of-diet-induced-metabolic-disorders-in-mice
#15
Kohji Ohki, Hiromichi Wakui, Kengo Azushima, Kazushi Uneda, Sona Haku, Ryu Kobayashi, Kotaro Haruhara, Sho Kinguchi, Miyuki Matsuda, Masato Ohsawa, Akinobu Maeda, Shintaro Minegishi, Tomoaki Ishigami, Yoshiyuki Toya, Akio Yamashita, Satoshi Umemura, Kouichi Tamura
Activation of tissue renin-angiotensin system (RAS), mainly mediated by an angiotensin II (Ang II) type 1 receptor (AT1R), plays an important role in the development of obesity-related metabolic disorders. We have shown that AT1R-associated protein (ATRAP), a specific binding protein of AT1R, functions as an endogenous inhibitor to prevent excessive activation of tissue RAS. In the present study, we newly generated ATRAP/Agtrap-floxed (ATRAP(fl/fl)) mice and adipose tissue-specific ATRAP downregulated (ATRAP(adipoq)) mice by the Cre/loxP system using Adipoq-Cre...
March 21, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335560/serum-amyloid-a-production-is-triggered-by-sleep-deprivation-in-mice-and-humans-is-that-the-link-between-sleep-loss-and-associated-comorbidities
#16
Edson M de Oliveira, Bruna Visniauskas, Sergio Tufik, Monica L Andersen, Jair R Chagas, Ana Campa
Serum amyloid A (SAA) was recently associated with metabolic endotoxemia, obesity and insulin resistance. Concurrently, insufficient sleep adversely affects metabolic health and is an independent predisposing factor for obesity and insulin resistance. In this study we investigated whether sleep loss modulates SAA production. The serum SAA concentration increased in C57BL/6 mice subjected to sleep restriction (SR) for 15 days or to paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD) for 72 h. Sleep restriction also induced the upregulation of Saa1...
March 21, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335527/metabolic-disorder-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-copd-patients-towards-a-personalized-approach-using-marine-drug-derivatives
#17
REVIEW
Palma Lamonaca, Giulia Prinzi, Aliaksei Kisiliaou, Vittorio Cardaci, Massimo Fini, Patrizia Russo
Metabolic disorder has been frequently observed in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. However, the exact correlation between obesity, which is a complex metabolic disorder, and COPD remains controversial. The current study summarizes a variety of drugs from marine sources that have anti-obesity effects and proposed potential mechanisms by which lung function can be modulated with the anti-obesity activity. Considering the similar mechanism, such as inflammation, shared between obesity and COPD, the study suggests that marine derivatives that act on the adipose tissues to reduce inflammation may provide beneficial therapeutic effects in COPD subjects with high body mass index (BMI)...
March 20, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335507/hydroxytyrosol-in-the-prevention-of-the-metabolic-syndrome-and-related-disorders
#18
REVIEW
Julien Peyrol, Catherine Riva, Marie Josèphe Amiot
Virgin olive oil (VOO) constitutes the main source of fat in the Mediterranean diet. VOO is rich in oleic acid, displaying health-promoting properties, but also contains minor bioactive components, especially phenolic compounds. Hydroxytyrosol (HT), the main polyphenol of olive oil, has been reported to be the most bioactive component. This review aims to compile the results of clinical, animal and cell culture studies evaluating the effects of HT on the features of Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) (body weight/adiposity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and hyperglycemia/insulin resistance) and associated complications (oxidative stress and inflammation)...
March 20, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335087/ursolic-acid-and-mechanisms-of-actions-on-adipose-and-muscle-tissue-a-systematic-review
#19
REVIEW
Carlos K Katashima, Vagner R Silva, Tatyanne L Gomes, Claude Pichard, Gustavo D Pimentel
This systematic review aimed at addressing the ursolic acid actions as an adjunctive treatment of the obesity-mediated metabolic abnormalities. To explore our aims, we used the literature search including clinical and animal studies using the Medline and Google Scholar (up to December 2015). Out of 63 screened studies, 17 presented eligibility criteria, such as the use of ursolic acid on adiposity, energy expenditure and skeletal muscle mass in mice and humans. In the literature, we found that several physiological and molecular mechanisms are implicated in the effects of ursolic acid on obesity, energy expenditure, hepatic steatosis, skeletal muscle mass loss and physical fitness, such as (1) increase of thermogenesis by modulation adipocyte transcription factors, activation of 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase and overexpression of the uncoupling protein 1 thermogenic marker; (2) enhancement of skeletal muscle mass by activation in bloodstream growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1 concentrations secretion, as well as in the activation of mammalian target of rapamycin and inhibition of ring-finger protein-1; and (3) improvement of physical fitness by skeletal muscle proliferator-activated receptor gamma co-activator alpha and sirtuin 1 expression...
March 23, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335075/breastmilk-with-a-high-omega-6-to-omega-3-fatty-acid-ratio-induced-cellular-events-similar-to-insulin-resistance-and-obesity-in-3t3-l1-adipocytes
#20
H Vaidya, S K Cheema
BACKGROUND: An imbalance of omega (n)-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) during critical periods of development may have adverse effects on the health of the newborn in later life. OBJECTIVES: We hypothesized that breastmilk with higher n-6 to n-3 PUFA ratio will have higher inflammatory cytokines and initiate cellular events similar to insulin resistance and obesity. METHODS: Breastmilk was collected from healthy women who gave natural birth at full term...
March 23, 2017: Pediatric Obesity
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