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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922125/an-er%C3%AE-agonist-induces-browning-of-subcutaneous-abdominal-fat-pad-in-obese-female-mice
#1
Yi-Fei Miao, Wen Su, Yu-Bing Dai, Wan-Fu Wu, Bo Huang, Rodrigo P A Barros, Hao Nguyen, Laure Maneix, You-Fei Guan, Margaret Warner, Jan-Åke Gustafsson
Estrogen, via estrogen receptor alpha (ERα), exerts several beneficial effects on metabolism and energy homeostasis by controlling size, enzymatic activity and hormonal content of adipose tissue. The actions of estrogen on sympathetic ganglia, which are key players in the browning process, are less well known. In the present study we show that ERβ influences browning of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) via its actions both on sympathetic ganglia and on the SAT itself. A 3-day-treatment with a selective ERβ agonist, LY3201, induced browning of SAT in 1-year-old obese WT and ERα(-/-) female mice...
December 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922100/evaluation-of-candidate-reference-genes-for-rt-qpcr-studies-in-three-metabolism-related-tissues-of-mice-after-caloric-restriction
#2
Huan Gong, Liang Sun, Beidong Chen, Yiwen Han, Jing Pang, Wei Wu, Ruomei Qi, Tie-Mei Zhang
Reverse transcription quantitative-polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) is a routine method for gene expression analysis, and reliable results depend on proper normalization by stable reference genes. Caloric restriction (CR) is a robust lifestyle intervention to slow aging and delay onset of age-associated diseases via inducing global changes in gene expression. Reliable normalization of RT-qPCR data becomes crucial in CR studies. In this study, the expression stability of 12 candidate reference genes were evaluated in inguinal white adipose tissue (iWAT), skeletal muscle (Sk...
December 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921437/-adaptation-of-adipose-tissue-to-weight-reduction-energy-restricted-diet-in-obese-individuals
#3
Vladimír Štich
Obesity is associated with a number of metabolic disorders that lead to the development of type 2 diabetes, hyperlipidemia and ultimately cardiovascular diseases. An important role in the pathogenesis of metabolic disorders accompanying obesity is probably played by the alterations of adipose tissue characteristics: metabolic, endocrine and immune functions. The key component of obesity treatment, the weight-reduction energy-restricted diet, leads not only to the reduction of weight (specifically fat mass), but also to correction of obesity accompanying metabolic disorders...
2016: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921375/visceral-adiposity-and-cancer-survival-a-review-of-imaging-studies
#4
REVIEW
J Xiao, V C Mazurak, T A Olobatuyi, B J Caan, C M Prado
Although obesity is a well-known risk factor for cancer, the association between obesity and cancer survival remains controversial. This is partially due to the inability of conventional obesity measures to directly assess adiposity or adipose tissue distribution. As a metabolic organ, visceral adipose tissue (VAT) secrets a variety of cytokines and cytokine-like factors, potentially affecting cancer survival. The objective of this review was to investigate the influence of imaging-assessed VAT on cancer survival...
December 6, 2016: European Journal of Cancer Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921044/non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-cause-or-effect-of-metabolic-syndrome
#5
REVIEW
Christoph Grander, Felix Grabherr, Alexander R Moschen, Herbert Tilg
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common liver disease throughout the world. Pathophysiological insights into this disease have recently illustrated that various factors such as insulin resistance, innate immunity, metabolic inflammation, and the microbiota are of relevance. NAFLD, metabolic syndrome (MS), and type 2 diabetes (T2D) share many pathophysiological aspects, and inflammatory processes in the adipose tissue, gut, and liver have evolved to be of exceptional importance. Most of NAFLD patients are obese and encounter a high risk of developing MS and T2D...
October 2016: Visceral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920274/adipose-fatty-acid-binding-protein-promotes-saturated-fatty-acid-induced-macrophage-cell-death-through-enhancing-ceramide-production
#6
Yuwen Zhang, Enyu Rao, Jun Zeng, Jiaqing Hao, Yanwen Sun, Shujun Liu, Edward R Sauter, David A Bernlohr, Margot P Cleary, Jill Suttles, Bing Li
Macrophages play a critical role in obesity-associated chronic inflammation and disorders. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the response of macrophages to elevated fatty acids (FAs) and their contribution to metabolic inflammation in obesity remain to be fully elucidated. In this article, we report a new mechanism by which dietary FAs, in particular, saturated FAs (sFAs), are able to directly trigger macrophage cell death. We demonstrated that excess sFAs, but not unsaturated FAs, induced the production of cytotoxic ceramides (Cers) in macrophage cell lines...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919820/tnf-%C3%AE-and-cancer-cachexia-molecular-insights-and-clinical-implications
#7
REVIEW
Hetal J Patel, Bhoomika M Patel
Cancer cachexia characterized by a chronic wasting syndrome, involves skeletal muscle loss and adipose tissue loss and resistance to conventional nutritional support. Cachexia is responsible for the reduction in quality and length of life of cancer patients. It also decreases the muscle strength of the patients. The pro-inflammatory and pro-cachectic factors produced by the tumor cells have important role in genesis of cachexia. A number of pro-inflammatory cytokines, like interleukin-1 (IL-1), IL-6, tumor necrosis factor- alpha (TNF-α) may have important role in the pathological mechanisms of cachexia in cancer...
December 2, 2016: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919360/association-of-epicardial-fat-volume-and-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-with-metabolic-syndrome-from-the-caesar-study
#8
Byung Jin Kim, Hak Soo Kim, Jung Gyu Kang, Bum Soo Kim, Jin Ho Kang
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Epicardial adipose tissue or nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) can be one of putative risk factors for metabolic syndrome (MetS). However, there are no data assessing the associations of MetS with epicardial fat and NAFLD. The present study was performed to evaluate the combined effect of epicardial fat volume (EFV) and NAFLD on MetS in Korean adults. METHODS AND RESULTS: Computed tomographic EFV and ultrasonographic fatty liver were measured in 1472 individuals (1242 men: mean age, 44 ± 8...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919352/impact-of-a-1-year-lifestyle-modification-program-on-plasma-lipoprotein-and-pcsk9-concentrations-in-patients-with-coronary-artery-disease
#9
Marjorie Boyer, Valérie Lévesque, Paul Poirier, André Marette, Patrick Mathieu, Jean-Pierre Després, Éric Larose, Benoit J Arsenault
BACKGROUND: Patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) are characterized by an impaired cardiometabolic risk profile including high levels of atherogenic apolipoprotein (apo) B-containing lipoprotein levels. Genetic studies have highlighted a critical role for proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) in lipoprotein metabolism and CAD risk. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether improving dietary quality and increasing physical activity levels improve parameters of the cardiometabolic risk profile such as plasma apoB and PCSK9 levels in patients with CAD...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918728/cholesterol-metabolism-in-rabbit-blastocysts-under-maternal-diabetes
#10
S Mareike Pendzialek, Maria Schindler, Torsten Plösch, Jacqueline Gürke, Elisa Haucke, Stefanie Hecht, Bernd Fischer, Anne Navarrete Santos
In the rabbit reproductive model, maternal experimentally induced insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (expIDD) leads to accumulation of lipid droplets in blastocysts. Cholesterol metabolism is a likely candidate to explain such metabolic changes. Therefore, in the present study we analysed maternal and embryonic cholesterol concentrations and expression of related genes in vivo (diabetic model) and in vitro (embryo culture in hyperglycaemic medium). In pregnant expIDD rabbits, the serum composition of lipoprotein subfractions was changed, with a decrease in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and an increase in very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; in uterine fluid, total cholesterol concentrations were elevated...
December 6, 2016: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918534/multiethnic-genome-wide-meta-analysis-of-ectopic-fat-depots-identifies-loci-associated-with-adipocyte-development-and-differentiation
#11
Audrey Y Chu, Xuan Deng, Virginia A Fisher, Alexander Drong, Yang Zhang, Mary F Feitosa, Ching-Ti Liu, Olivia Weeks, Audrey C Choh, Qing Duan, Thomas D Dyer, John D Eicher, Xiuqing Guo, Nancy L Heard-Costa, Tim Kacprowski, Jack W Kent, Leslie A Lange, Xinggang Liu, Kurt Lohman, Lingyi Lu, Anubha Mahajan, Jeffrey R O'Connell, Ankita Parihar, Juan M Peralta, Albert V Smith, Yi Zhang, Georg Homuth, Ahmed H Kissebah, Joel Kullberg, René Laqua, Lenore J Launer, Matthias Nauck, Michael Olivier, Patricia A Peyser, James G Terry, Mary K Wojczynski, Jie Yao, Lawrence F Bielak, John Blangero, Ingrid B Borecki, Donald W Bowden, John Jeffrey Carr, Stefan A Czerwinski, Jingzhong Ding, Nele Friedrich, Vilmunder Gudnason, Tamara B Harris, Erik Ingelsson, Andrew D Johnson, Sharon L R Kardia, Carl D Langefeld, Lars Lind, Yongmei Liu, Braxton D Mitchell, Andrew P Morris, Thomas H Mosley, Jerome I Rotter, Alan R Shuldiner, Bradford Towne, Henry Völzke, Henri Wallaschofski, James G Wilson, Matthew Allison, Cecilia M Lindgren, Wolfram Goessling, L Adrienne Cupples, Matthew L Steinhauser, Caroline S Fox
Variation in body fat distribution contributes to the metabolic sequelae of obesity. The genetic determinants of body fat distribution are poorly understood. The goal of this study was to gain new insights into the underlying genetics of body fat distribution by conducting sample-size-weighted fixed-effects genome-wide association meta-analyses in up to 9,594 women and 8,738 men of European, African, Hispanic and Chinese ancestry, with and without sex stratification, for six traits associated with ectopic fat (hereinafter referred to as ectopic-fat traits)...
December 5, 2016: Nature Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918207/gemigliptin-ameliorates-western-diet-induced-metabolic-syndrome-in-mice
#12
Seung Hee Choi, Jaechan Leem, Sungmi Park, Chong-Kee Lee, Keun-Gyu Park, In-Kyu Lee
Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibitors are widely used antihyperglycemic agents for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Recently, increasing attention has been focused on the pleiotropic actions of DPP-4 inhibitors. The aim of the present study was to examine whether gemigliptin, a recently developed DPP-4 inhibitor, could ameliorate features of metabolic syndrome. Mice were fed a Western diet (WD) for 12 weeks and were subsequently divided into 2 groups: mice fed a WD diet alone or mice fed a WD diet supplemented with gemigliptin for an additional 4 weeks...
September 4, 2016: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917940/ubiquitin-ligase-nedd4-regulates-ppar%C3%AE-stability-and-adipocyte-differentiation-in-3t3-l1-cells
#13
Jing Jing Li, Ruishan Wang, Rati Lama, Xinjiang Wang, Z Elizabeth Floyd, Edwards A Park, Francesca-Fang Liao
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) is a ligand-activated nuclear receptor which controls lipid and glucose metabolism. It is also the master regulator of adipogenesis. In adipocytes, ligand-dependent PPARγ activation is associated with proteasomal degradation; therefore, regulation of PPARγ degradation may modulate its transcriptional activity. Here, we show that neural precursor cell expressed developmentally down-regulated protein 4 (NEDD4), an E3 ubiquitin ligase, interacts with the hinge and ligand binding domains of PPARγ and is a bona fide E3 ligase for PPARγ...
December 5, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917585/the-preventive-effect-of-sustained-physical-activity-on-incident-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#14
Min-Sun Kwak, Donghee Kim, Goh Eun Chung, Won Kim, Joo Sung Kim
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Physical activity (PA) is inversely associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) prevalence. However, few studies evaluated the effect of PA on NAFLD incidence in regard to visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and insulin resistance (IR). We investigated whether PA at baseline and change in PA during follow-up have any effect on incident NAFLD. METHODS: We enrolled subjects who underwent health screenings between 2007 and 2008 and participated in voluntary follow-up between 2011 and 2013 (median 4...
December 5, 2016: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917316/quantitative-analysis-of-rat-adipose-tissue-cell-recovery-and-non-fat-cell-volume-in-primary-cell-cultures
#15
Floriana Rotondo, María Del Mar Romero, Ana Cecilia Ho-Palma, Xavier Remesar, José Antonio Fernández-López, Marià Alemany
BACKGROUND: White adipose tissue (WAT) is a complex, diffuse, multifunctional organ which contains adipocytes, and a large proportion of fat, but also other cell types, active in defense, regeneration and signalling functions. Studies with adipocytes often require their isolation from WAT by breaking up the matrix of collagen fibres; however, it is unclear to what extent adipocyte number in primary cultures correlates with their number in intact WAT, since recovery and viability are often unknown...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916986/pharmacological-modulation-of-lmna-srsf1-dependent-splicing-abrogates-diet-induced-obesity-in-mice
#16
J Santo, C Lopez-Herrera, C Apolit, Y Bareche, L Lapasset, C Chavey, S Capozi, F Mahuteau, R Najman, P Fornarelli, I C Lopez-Mejía, G Béranger, F Casas, E-Z Amri, B Pau, D Scherrer, J Tazi
BAKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Intense drug discovery efforts in the metabolic field highlight the need for novel strategies for the treatment of obesity. Alternative splicing (AS) and/or polyadenylation enable the LMNA gene to express distinct protein isoforms that exert opposing effects on energy metabolism and lifespan. Here we aimed to use the splicing factor SRSF1 that contribute to the production of these different isoforms as a target to uncover new anti-obesity drug. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Small molecules modulating SR protein activity and splicing, were tested for their abilities to interact with SRSF1 and to modulate LMNA (AS)...
December 5, 2016: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916644/targeted-mitochondrial-uncoupling-beyond-ucp1-the-fine-line-between-death-and-metabolic-health
#17
REVIEW
Mario Ost, Susanne Keipert, Susanne Klaus
In the early 1930s, the chemical uncoupling agent 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP) was promoted for the very first time as a powerful and effective weight loss pill but quickly withdrawn from the market due to its lack of tissue-selectivity with resulting dangerous side effects, including hyperthermia and death. Today, novel mitochondria- or tissue-targeted chemical uncouplers with higher safety and therapeutic values are under investigation in order to tackle obesity, diabetes and fatty liver disease. Moreover, in the past 20 years, transgenic mouse models were generated to understand the molecular and metabolic consequences of targeted uncoupling, expressing functional uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) ectopically in white adipose tissue or skeletal muscle...
December 1, 2016: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914707/adiponectin-alters-renal-calcium-and-phosphate-excretion-through-regulation-of-klotho-expression
#18
Joseph M Rutkowski, Johanne Pastor, Kai Sun, Sun K Park, I Alexandru Bobulescu, Christopher T Chen, Orson W Moe, Philipp E Scherer
The kidney controls systemic calcium and phosphate levels and disturbances of its control mechanisms can lead to a variety of diseases. The insulin-sensitizing adipokine adiponectin is renoprotective and accelerates functional recovery following renal injury. However, unlike other adipokines, adiponectin is reduced in obesity. High adiponectin levels are also correlated with bone loss, suggestive of an additional action in mineral metabolism. Using knockout, wild-type, and adiponectin-overexpressing transgenic mice, we sought to identify the mechanistic basis for adiponectin's ability to regulate calcium and phosphate balance at the level of the kidney...
November 30, 2016: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913612/mechanisms-in-endocrinology-skeletal-muscle-lipotoxicity-in-insulin-resistance-and-type-2-diabetes-a-causal-mechanism-or-an-innocent-bystander
#19
REVIEW
Charlotte Brøns, Louise Groth Grunnet
Dysfunctional adipose tissue is associated with an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes (T2D). One characteristic of a dysfunctional adipose tissue is the reduced expandability of the subcutaneous adipose tissue leading to ectopic storage of fat in organs and/or tissues involved in the pathogenesis of T2D that can cause lipotoxicity. Accumulation of lipids in the skeletal muscle is associated with insulin resistance, but the majority of previous studies do not prove any causality. Most studies agree that it is not the intramuscular lipids per se that causes insulin resistance, but rather lipid intermediates such as diacylglycerols, fatty acyl-CoAs and ceramides and that it is the localization, composition and turnover of these intermediates that play an important role in the development of insulin resistance and T2D...
February 2017: European Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913605/non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-is-associated-with-early-left-ventricular-dysfunction-in-childhood-acute-lymphoblastic-leukaemia-survivors
#20
Maurizio Delvecchio, Paola Muggeo, Mariantonietta Monteduro, Giuseppe Lassandro, Chiara Novielli, Federica Valente, Emanuela Salinaro, Annapaola Zito, Marco Matteo Ciccone, Vito Leonardo Miniello, Nicola Santoro, Paola Giordano, Maria Felicia Faienza
BACKGROUND: Childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) survivors have an increased risk of metabolic and cardiovascular disease. We aimed to assess the presence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in childhood ALL and if it is associated with early cardiovascular dysfunction. METHODS: In total, 53 childhood ALL survivors and 34 controls underwent auxological evaluation, biochemical assay, liver, heart and vascular ultrasound study. RESULTS: NAFLD was more frequent in ALL patients than in controls (39...
February 2017: European Journal of Endocrinology
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