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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821853/visceral-adiposity-index-is-strongly-associated-with-hyperuricemia-independently-of-metabolic-health-and-obesity-phenotypes
#1
Huimin Dong, Yang Xu, Xiuzhi Zhang, Simiao Tian
Visceral adiposity index (VAI) is a novel sex-specific index for visceral adipose function; however the association between VAI and hyperuricemia in China is unknown. We aimed to investigate this association, also whether it was independent of metabolic health and obesity phenotypes. 7632 adult subjects from the China Health and Nutrition Survey 2009 were retained. Subjects were categorized into four obesity phenotypes based on a cross-classification of BMI and metabolic health status by two representative criteria...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814614/role-of-inactivity-in-chronic-diseases-evolutionary-insight-and-pathophysiological-mechanisms
#2
REVIEW
Frank W Booth, Christian K Roberts, John P Thyfault, Gregory N Ruegsegger, Ryan G Toedebusch
This review proposes that physical inactivity could be considered a behavior selected by evolution for resting, and also selected to be reinforcing in life-threatening situations in which exercise would be dangerous. Underlying the notion are human twin studies and animal selective breeding studies, both of which provide indirect evidence for the existence of genes for physical inactivity. Approximately 86% of the 325 million in the United States (U.S.) population achieve less than the U.S. Government and World Health Organization guidelines for daily physical activity for health...
October 1, 2017: Physiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814394/dynamics-of-intrapericardial-and-extrapericardial-fat-tissues-during-long-term-dietary-induced-moderate-weight-loss
#3
Gal Tsaban, Arik Wolak, Hila Avni-Hassid, Yftach Gepner, Ilan Shelef, Yaakov Henkin, Dan Schwarzfuchs, Noa Cohen, Nitzan Bril, Michal Rein, Dana Serfaty, Shira Kenigsbuch, Lilac Tene, Hila Zelicha, Anat Yaskolka-Meir, Oded Komy, Avital Bilitzky, Yoash Chassidim, Uta Ceglarek, Michael Stumvoll, Matthias Blüher, Joachim Thiery, Dror Dicker, Assaf Rudich, Meir J Stampfer, Iris Shai
Background: In view of evidence linking pericardial fat accumulation with increased cardiovascular disease risk, strategies to reduce its burden are needed. Data comparing the effects of specific long-term dietary interventions on pericardial fat tissue mobilization are sparse.Objective: We sought to evaluate intrapericardial-fat (IPF) and extrapericardial-fat (EPF) changes during weight-loss interventions by different dietary regimens.Design: During 18 mo of a randomized controlled trial, we compared a Mediterranean/low-carbohydrate (MED/LC) diet plus 28 g walnuts/d with a calorically equal low-fat (LF) diet among randomly assigned participants with moderate abdominal obesity...
August 16, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813611/intrauterine-growth-restricted-yucatan-miniature-pigs-experience-early-catch-up-growth-leading-to-greater-adiposity-and-impaired-lipid-metabolism-as-young-adults
#4
Semone B Myrie, Leslie L McKnight, J Christopher King, John J McGuire, Bruce N Van Vliet, Sukhinder K Cheema, Robert F Bertolo
Early nutrition has critical influences on cardiovascular disease risk in adulthood. The study objectives were to evaluate the impact of low birth weight on fasting and postprandial lipid metabolism and endothelium function in Yucatan miniature pigs. Intrauterine growth-restricted (IUGR) piglets (n = 6, 3 d old, 0.73 ± 0.04 kg) were paired with normal weight (NW) same-sex littermates (n = 6, 1.11 ± 0.05 kg) and fed milk replacer ad libitum for 4 wk. Thereafter, all pigs were fed a standard diet ad libitum for 5 h/d with growth, intakes and blood samples collected for 8 mo...
August 16, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811317/sleep-duration-and-risk-of-type-2-diabetes
#5
Alicja R Rudnicka, Claire M Nightingale, Angela S Donin, Naveed Sattar, Derek G Cook, Peter H Whincup, Christopher G Owen
BACKGROUND: Associations between sleep duration and type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk markers in childhood have been little studied. We examined associations between self-reported sleep duration and T2D risk markers in children. METHODS: Cross-sectional study of 4525 multiethnic UK children aged 9 to 10 years. Sleep time was calculated from self-reported usual time of going to bed and getting up on a school day, validated in a subset using accelerometers. Fasting blood samples provided levels of serum lipids and insulin, plasma glucose, and HbA1c...
August 15, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799164/preconception-care-for-diabetic-women-for-improving-maternal-and-infant-health
#6
REVIEW
Joanna Tieu, Philippa Middleton, Caroline A Crowther, Emily Shepherd
BACKGROUND: Infants born to mothers with pre-existing type 1 or type 2 diabetes mellitus are at greater risk of congenital anomalies, perinatal mortality and significant morbidity in the short and long term. Pregnant women with pre-existing diabetes are at greater risk of perinatal morbidity and diabetic complications. The relationship between glycaemic control and health outcomes for both mothers and infants indicates the potential for preconception care for these women to be of benefit...
August 11, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796027/heart-fat-in-hiv-marker-or-mediator-of-risk
#7
Jonathan Buggey, Chris T Longenecker
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The review aims to summarize the literature describing the clinical impact of cardiac fat depots in patients with HIV infection. RECENT FINDINGS: People living with HIV (PLHIV) have accelerated rates of cardiovascular disease, and are prone to the development of ectopic fat deposition. Specifically, PLHIV have higher volumes of epicardial and intracardiac fat quantified by noninvasive imaging. Higher volumes of epicardial fat may be related to antiretroviral therapy duration and chronic inflammation, independently of other measures of body adiposity such as BMI...
August 8, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793990/independent-and-joint-associations-of-grip-strength-and-adiposity-with-all-cause-and-cardiovascular-disease-mortality-in-403-199-adults-the-uk-biobank-study
#8
Youngwon Kim, Katrien Wijndaele, Duck-Chul Lee, Stephen J Sharp, Nick Wareham, Soren Brage
Background: Higher grip strength (GS) is associated with lower mortality risk. However, whether this association is independent of adiposity is uncertain.Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between GS, adiposity, and mortality.Design: The UK Biobank study is an ongoing prospective cohort of >0.5 million UK adults aged 40-69 y. Baseline data collection (2006-2010) included measurements of GS and adiposity indicators, including body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)). Age- and sex-specific GS quintiles were used...
August 9, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792859/elucidating-the-role-of-plexin-d1-in-body-fat-distribution-and-susceptibility-to-metabolic-disease-using-a-zebrafish-model-system
#9
James E N Minchin, John F Rawls
Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes and cancer were responsible for 68% of all deaths worldwide in 2012. The regional distribution of lipid deposited within adipose tissue (AT) - so called body fat distribution (BFD) - is a strong risk factor for NCDs. BFD is highly heritable; however, the genetic basis of BFD is almost entirely unknown. Genome-wide association studies have identified several loci associated with BFD, including at Plexin D1 (PLXND1) - a gene known to modulate angiogenesis...
July 27, 2017: Adipocyte
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791287/bidirectional-mast-cell-eosinophil-interactions-in-inflammatory-disorders-and-cancer
#10
REVIEW
Maria Rosaria Galdiero, Gilda Varricchi, Mansour Seaf, Giancarlo Marone, Francesca Levi-Schaffer, Gianni Marone
Human mast cells (MCs) and eosinophils were first described and named by Paul Ehrlich. These cells have distinct myeloid progenitors and differ morphologically, ultrastructurally, immunologically, biochemically, and pharmacologically. However, MCs and eosinophils play a pivotal role in several allergic disorders. In addition, these cells are involved in autoimmune disorders, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer. MCs are distributed throughout all normal human tissues, whereas eosinophils are present only in gastrointestinal tract, secondary lymphoid tissues, and adipose tissue, thymus, mammary gland, and uterus...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780562/rationale-and-design-of-a-multicentre-prospective-randomised-controlled-clinical-trial-to-evaluate-the-efficacy-of-the-adipose-graft-transposition-procedure-in-patients-with-a-myocardial-scar-the-agtp-ii-trial
#11
Paloma Gastelurrutia, Carolina Gálvez-Montón, Maria Luisa Cámara, Juan Bustamante-Munguira, Pablo García-Pavia, Pablo Avanzas, J Alberto San Román, Domingo Pascual-Figal, Eduardo de Teresa, Maria G Crespo-Leiro, Nicolás Manito, Julio Núñez, Francisco Fernández-Avilés, Ángel Caballero, Albert Teis, Josep Lupón, Ramón Brugada, Carlos Martín, Jacobo Silva, Ana Revilla-Orodea, Sergio J Cánovas, Jose M Melero, Jose J Cuenca-Castillo, Angel Gonzalez-Pinto, Antoni Bayes-Genis
INTRODUCTION: Cardiac adipose tissue is a source of progenitor cells with regenerative capacity. Studies in rodents demonstrated that the intramyocardial delivery of cells derived from this tissue improves cardiac function after myocardial infarction (MI). We developed a new reparative approach for damaged myocardium that integrates the regenerative properties of cardiac adipose tissue with tissue engineering. In the adipose graft transposition procedure (AGTP), we dissect a vascularised flap of autologous pericardial adipose tissue and position it over the myocardial scarred area...
August 4, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28775374/relation-between-adiposity-and-vascular-events-malignancy-and-mortality-in-patients-with-stable-cerebrovascular-disease
#12
N E M Jaspers, J A N Dorresteijn, Y van der Graaf, J Westerink, L J Kappelle, H M Nathoe, A Algra, F L J Visseren
BACKGROUND: Abdominal adiposity is associated with various risk factors including hypertension, and is therefore particularly relevant in patients with stable cerebrovascular disease (CeVD). A U-shaped relation between body-mass index (BMI, kg/m(2)) and cardiovascular events is often described. Whether this U-shape persists for abdominal adiposity, and consequently which reference values should guide clinical practice, is unclear. We described the relation between multiple adiposity measurements and risk of vascular events, vascular mortality, malignancy, and all-cause mortality in patients with clinically stable CeVD...
August 4, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770230/effects-of-exercise-training-and-weight-loss-on-plasma-fetuin-a-levels-and-insulin-sensitivity-in-overweight-older-men
#13
Jacob B Blumenthal, Anna Gitterman, Alice S Ryan, Steven J Prior
Aerobic exercise training and weight loss (AEX+WL) improves insulin sensitivity in overweight adults; however, the underlying pathways are incompletely understood. Fetuin-A, a hepatokine that inhibits insulin signaling, may be involved in the salutary effects of AEX+WL. Therefore, we examined the effects of 6-month AEX+WL on plasma fetuin-A levels (36-48 hours after the last bout of exercise), aerobic capacity (VO2max), body composition, glucose tolerance, and insulin sensitivity (M) in 16 sedentary, overweight-obese older men (age = 60 ± 2 years, BMI = 31 ± 1 kg/m(2)) with no history of cardiovascular disease or diabetes...
2017: Journal of Diabetes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768170/causes-characteristics-and-consequences-of-metabolically-unhealthy-normal-weight-in-humans
#14
REVIEW
Norbert Stefan, Fritz Schick, Hans-Ulrich Häring
A BMI in the normal range associates with a decreased risk of cardiometabolic disease and all-cause mortality. However, not all subjects in this BMI range have this low risk. Compared to people who are of normal weight and metabolically healthy, subjects who are of normal weight but metabolically unhealthy (∼20% of the normal weight adult population) have a greater than 3-fold higher risk of all-cause mortality and/or cardiovascular events. Here we address to what extent major risk phenotypes determine metabolic health in lean compared to overweight and obese people and provide support for the existence of a lipodystrophy-like phenotype in the general population...
August 1, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766048/association-of-epicardial-adipose-tissue-with-coronary-spasm-and-coronary-atherosclerosis-in-patients-with-chest-pain-analysis-of-data-collated-by-the-korean-women-s-chest-pain-registry-korose
#15
Mi-Na Kim, Hack-Lyoung Kim, Seong-Mi Park, Mi Seung Shin, Cheol Woong Yu, Myung-A Kim, Kyung-Soon Hong, Wan-Joo Shim
Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) represents a cardio-metabolic risk factor; it secretes several adipokines related to coronary atherosclerosis. However, the precise relationship between EAT and coronary vasospasm is unknown. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between EAT and coronary vasospasm using data from the KoRean wOmen'S chest pain rEgistry (koROSE). This study included 551 patients (female/male = 366/185; mean age = 60.2 ± 10.2 years) who presented with chest pain at an outpatient clinic, and who subsequently underwent echocardiography and coronary angiography...
August 1, 2017: Heart and Vessels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763398/cardiovascular-fat-in-women-at-midlife-effects-of-race-overall-adiposity-and-central-adiposity-the-swan-cardiovascular-fat-study
#16
Carrie Hanley, Karen A Matthews, Maria M Brooks, Imke Janssen, Matthew J Budoff, Akira Sekikawa, Suresh Mulukutla, Samar R El Khoudary
OBJECTIVES: Cardiovascular fat (CF) is associated with greater coronary heart disease (CHD) risk. Postmenopausal women have greater CF volumes than premenopausal women, and the association between specific CF depot volumes and CHD risk is more pronounced after menopause. Race, central adiposity, and visceral adiposity are important factors that could impact CF volumes. Whether racial differences in CF volumes and in their associations with central (visceral fat [VAT]) and general adiposity (body mass index [BMI]) exist in midlife women have not been addressed before...
July 31, 2017: Menopause: the Journal of the North American Menopause Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762474/adipokines-psoriasis-systemic-inflammation-and-endothelial-dysfunction
#17
REVIEW
Maeve Lynch, Tomas Ahern, Cheryl M Sweeney, Anna Malara, Anne-Marie Tobin, Donal O'Shea, Brian Kirby
Adipokines are secreted by white adipose tissue, an active endocrine organ, and play a role in the regulation of metabolic functions such as lipid metabolism, inflammation, and vascular homeostasis. Adipokines are secreted in excess in obesity and contribute to the development of associated comorbidities such as metabolic syndrome and atherosclerosis. Psoriasis, a chronic immune-mediated skin disease, is associated with obesity and increased cardiovascular risk. Understanding the role of adipokines in psoriasis may in part explain the association between psoriasis and cardiovascular disease...
August 1, 2017: International Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762019/epicardial-adipose-tissue-as-a-metabolic-transducer-role-in-heart-failure-and-coronary-artery-disease
#18
REVIEW
Vaibhav B Patel, Saumya Shah, Subodh Verma, Gavin Y Oudit
Obesity and diabetes are strongly associated with metabolic and cardiovascular disorders including dyslipidemia, coronary artery disease, hypertension, and heart failure. Adipose tissue is identified as a complex endocrine organ, which by exerting a wide array of regulatory functions at the cellular, tissue and systemic levels can have profound effects on the cardiovascular system. Different terms including "epicardial," "pericardial," and "paracardial" have been used to describe adipose tissue deposits surrounding the heart...
July 31, 2017: Heart Failure Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761018/dynamic-thiol-disulphide-homeostasis-as-a-novel-indicator-of-oxidative-stress-in-obese-children-and-its-relationship-with-inflammatory-cardiovascular-markers
#19
Bahri Elmas, Mehmet Karacan, Pınar Dervişoğlu, Mustafa Kösecik, Şükriye Pınar İşgüven, Ceylan Bal
OBJECTIVE: Childhood obesity is an important cause of cardiovascular risk with chronic inflammation. Oxidative stress may contribute to the pathogenesis of obesity-related cardiovascular pathologies. We aimed to evaluate thiol/disulphide homeostasis as a novel and sensitive marker of oxidative stress and to evaluate its relationship with some inflammatory and cardiovascular markers in obese children. METHODS: In this case-controlled study, 65 children with exogenous obesity and 64 healthy children, as a control group, were included...
July 25, 2017: Anatolian Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760424/anthocyanins-in-chokeberry-and-purple-maize-attenuate-diet-induced-metabolic-syndrome-in-rats
#20
Maharshi Bhaswant, Siti Raihanah Shafie, Michael L Mathai, Peter Mouatt, Lindsay Brown
OBJECTIVE: Increased consumption of fruits and vegetables as functional foods leads to the reduction of signs of metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study was to measure and compare cardiovascular, liver, and metabolic parameters following chronic administration of the same dose of anthocyanins either from chokeberry (CB) or purple maize (PM) in rats with diet-induced metabolic syndrome. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were fed a maize starch (C) or high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet (H) and divided into six groups for 16 wk...
September 2017: Nutrition
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