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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545166/childhood-predictors-of-cardiovascular-disease-in-adulthood-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#1
REVIEW
O Ajala, F Mold, C Boughton, D Cooke, M Whyte
Childhood obesity predicts the risk of adult adiposity, which is associated with the earlier onset of cardiovascular disease [adult atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, ACVD: hypertension, increased carotid intima media thickness (CIMT) stroke, ischemic heart disease (IHD)] and dysglycaemia. Because it is not known whether childhood obesity contributes to these diseases, we conducted a systematic review of studies that examine the ability of measures of obesity in childhood to predict dysglycaemia and ACVD...
May 25, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543688/glycated-human-albumin-alters-mitochondrial-respiration-in-preadipocyte-3t3-l1-cells
#2
Pascal Baret, Fanny Le Sage, Cynthia Planesse, Olivier Meilhac, Anne Devin, Emmanuel Bourdon, Philippe Rondeau
Diabetes and obesity are strongly associated with increased levels of circulating advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and reactive oxygen species (ROS). These two molecular phenomena affect the physiology of adipose tissue, a biological driver of the metabolic syndrome, leading to an inflammatory profile and insulin resistance, which could contribute to obesity/diabetes-associated complications, such as cardiovascular diseases. Herein, we investigated the impact of AGEs on mitochondrial bioenergetics in murine preadipocyte cells (3T3-L1) and cellular redox homeostasis...
May 22, 2017: BioFactors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539434/estrogens-in-male-physiology
#3
REVIEW
Paul S Cooke, Manjunatha K Nanjappa, CheMyong Ko, Gail S Prins, Rex A Hess
Estrogens have historically been associated with female reproduction, but work over the last two decades established that estrogens and their main nuclear receptors (ESR1 and ESR2) and G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) also regulate male reproductive and nonreproductive organs. 17β-Estradiol (E2) is measureable in blood of men and males of other species, but in rete testis fluids, E2 reaches concentrations normally found only in females and in some species nanomolar concentrations of estrone sulfate are found in semen...
July 1, 2017: Physiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539232/adipose-angiotensin-ii-type-1-receptor-associated-protein-ameliorates-metabolic-disorders-via-promoting-adipose-tissue-adipogenesis-and-browning
#4
Chengting Luo, Na Lv, Zai Chang, Qiannuo Qu, Jianzhen Huang
Adipose tissue is a complicated organ that not only stores excess energy, but also secrets many adipokines regulating whole-body energy hemostasis. Dysfunction of adipose tissue leads to metabolic disorders such as insulin resistance, hypertension, cardiovascular diseases. In this study, we generated a mouse model with overexpression of Angiotensin II type 1 receptor-associated protein (ATRAP) in adipose tissue specifically. Under a normal diet, ATRAP transgene (TgATRAP) mice showed similar bodyweight, fat mass and insulin sensitivity with wild-type controls (WT)...
May 17, 2017: European Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531568/macronutrient-and-alcohol-intake-is-associated-with-intermuscular-adipose-tissue-in-a-randomly-selected-group-of-younger-and-older-men-and-women
#5
Kajsa Sjöholm, Lena Gripeteg, Ingrid Larsson
BACKGROUND: Alcohol and macronutrient intake have been found to be related to general and central body fat distribution. Intermuscular adipose tissue (IMAT) is a small ectopic fat depot located within the muscle bundles. IMAT is important for muscle function, mobility and energy homeostasis and also associated with cardiovascular- and diabetes-related risk factors. AIM: To test the hypothesis that macronutrient and alcohol intake is associated with IMAT. METHODS: 50 men and 50 women, randomly selected from the general population formed height- and weight-representative age groups of 50 younger (27-31 years) and 50 older (57-61 years) subjects...
June 2016: Clinical Nutrition ESPEN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529328/perivascular-adipose-tissue-epiphenomenon-or-local-risk-factor
#6
REVIEW
K Schäfer, I Drosos, S Konstantinides
Obesity is associated with an increased cardiovascular risk, but the mechanisms underlying the link between increased body weight and vascular disease are incompletely understood. Over the past 15 years, perivascular adipose tissue has emerged as active component of the vessel wall involved in vascular homeostasis. However, perivascular adipose tissue can adopt detrimental properties under the influence of obesity and other factors and contribute actively to the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disease. Conversely, changes of the vessel wall may negatively affect perivascular adipose tissue qualities...
May 22, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529179/mitochondria-and-endoplasmic-reticulum-targets-for-a-better-insulin-sensitivity-in-skeletal-muscle
#7
REVIEW
Alexis Boulinguiez, Bart Staels, Helene Duez, Steve Lancel
Obesity and its associated metabolic disorders represent a major health burden, with economic and social consequences. Although adapted lifestyle and bariatric surgery are effective in reducing body weight, obesity prevalence is still rising. Obese individuals often become insulin-resistant. Obesity impacts on insulin responsive organs, such as the liver, adipose tissue and skeletal muscle, and increases the risk of cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes and cancer. In this review, we discuss the effects of obesity and insulin resistance on skeletal muscle, an important organ for the control of postprandial glucose...
May 18, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526997/nafld-as-a-sexual-dimorphic-disease-role-of-gender-and-reproductive-status-in-the-development-and-progression-of-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-and-inherent-cardiovascular-risk
#8
REVIEW
Stefano Ballestri, Fabio Nascimbeni, Enrica Baldelli, Alessandra Marrazzo, Dante Romagnoli, Amedeo Lonardo
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) spans steatosis through nonalcoholic steatohepatis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) associated with striking systemic features and excess cardiovascular and liver-related mortality. The pathogenesis of NAFLD is complex and multifactorial. Endocrine derangements are closely linked with dysmetabolic traits. For example, in animal and human studies, female sex is protected from dysmetabolism thanks to young individuals' ability to partition fatty acids towards ketone body production rather than very low density lipoprotein (VLDL)-triacylglycerol, and to sex-specific browning of white adipose tissue...
May 19, 2017: Advances in Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526388/serum-vitamin-d-and-change-in-lipid-levels-over-5%C3%A2-y-the-atherosclerosis-risk-in-communities-study
#9
Kamil F Faridi, Di Zhao, Seth S Martin, Joshua R Lupton, Steven R Jones, Eliseo Guallar, Christie M Ballantyne, Pamela L Lutsey, Erin D Michos
OBJECTIVES: Deficiency of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) is associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease, perhaps mediated through dyslipidemia. Deficient 25(OH)D is cross-sectionally associated with dyslipidemia, but little is known about longitudinal lipid changes. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship of 25(OH)D deficiency to longitudinal lipid changes and risk for incident dyslipidemia. METHODS: This was a longitudinal community-based study of 13 039 participants from the ARIC (Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities) study who had 25(OH)D and lipids measured at baseline (1990-1992) and lipids remeasured in 1993 to 1994 and 1996 to 1998...
June 2017: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522646/mr-spectroscopy-of-hepatic-fat-and-adiponectin-and-leptin-levels-during-testosterone-therapy-in-type-2-diabetes-a-randomized-double-blinded-placebo-controlled-trial
#10
Line Velling Magnussen, Poul Erik Andersen, Anabel Diaz, Jelena Markovic Ostojic, Kurt Højlund, David M Hougaard, Anders Nymark Christensen, Torben Leo Nielsen, Marianne Skovsager Andersen
BACKGROUND: Men with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) often have lowered testosterone levels and an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Ectopic fat increases the risk of CVD, whereas subcutaneous gluteofemoral fat protects against CVD and has a beneficial adipokine secreting profile. HYPOTHESIS: Testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) may reduce the content of ectopic fat and improve the adipokine profile in men with T2D. DESIGN AND METHODS: A randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study in 39 men aged 50-70 years with T2D and bioavailable testosterone levels <7...
May 18, 2017: European Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521681/effects-of-diets-on-adipose-tissue
#11
Silvia Ezquerro, Amaia Rodríguez, Piero Portincasa, Gema Frühbeck
Obesity is a major health problem that has become a global epidemic. Overweight and obesity are commonly associated with the development of several pathologies, such as insulin resistance, cardiovascular diseases, sleep apnea and several types of cancer, which can lead to further morbidity and mortality. An increased abdominal adiposity renders overweight and obese individuals more prone to metabolic and cardiovascular problems. In this sense, excess adiposity leads to several changes in the biology, morphology and function of the adipose tissue, such as adipocyte hypertrophy and hyperplasia, adipose tissue inflammation and fibrosis and an impaired secretion of adipokines, contributing to the onset of obesity-related co-morbidities...
May 17, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521185/association-of-aortic-perivascular-adipose-tissue-density-with-aortic-calcification-in-women-with-systemic-lupus-erythematosus
#12
Kelly J Shields, Samar R El Khoudary, Joseph M Ahearn, Susan Manzi
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Women with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) surrounds the vascular wall, is associated with CVD risk factors, and may contribute to premature CVD in SLE. We previously found greater volumes of aortic PVAT associated with aortic calcification (AC) in female SLE patients. There is recent evidence that not only volume but adipose density may also be indicative of inflammation...
April 29, 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520813/pancreatic-fat-content-by-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-subjects-with-prediabetes-diabetes-and-controls-from-a-general-population-without-cardiovascular-disease
#13
Sophia D Heber, Holger Hetterich, Roberto Lorbeer, Christian Bayerl, Jürgen Machann, Sigrid Auweter, Corinna Storz, Christopher L Schlett, Konstantin Nikolaou, Maximilian Reiser, Annette Peters, Fabian Bamberg
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Despite the relevance of pancreatic fat content in the development of metabolic diseases, its association with impaired glucose metabolism, diabetes, and other adipose tissue compartments remains unclear. Thus, we determined differences in pancreatic fat content by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) between subjects with prediabetes, diabetes, and normal controls in a cohort from the general population. METHODS: Subjects without history of cardiovascular disease with established diabetes or prediabetes as well as normal controls were included and underwent whole-body MRI on a 3T scanner...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518147/survivin-a-key-player-in-cancer-progression-increases-in-obesity-and-protects-adipose-tissue-stem-cells-from-apoptosis
#14
Miriam Ejarque, Victòria Ceperuelo-Mallafré, Carolina Serena, Gisela Pachón, Yaiza Núñez-Álvarez, Margarida Terrón-Puig, Enrique Calvo, Catalina Núñez-Roa, Wilfredo Oliva-Olivera, Francisco J Tinahones, Miguel Angel Peinado, Joan Vendrell, Sonia Fernández-Veledo
Adipose tissue (AT) has a central role in obesity-related metabolic imbalance through the dysregulated production of cytokines and adipokines. In addition to its known risk for cardiovascular disease and diabetes, obesity is also a major risk for cancer. We investigated the impact of obesity for the expression of survivin, an antiapoptotic protein upregulated by adipokines and a diagnostic biomarker of tumor onset and recurrence. In a cross-sectional study of 111 subjects classified by body mass index, circulating levels of survivin and gene expression in subcutaneous AT were significantly higher in obese patients and positively correlated with leptin...
May 18, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514806/human-epicardial-fat-expresses-glucagon-like-peptide-1-and-2-receptors-genes
#15
Gianluca Iacobellis, Vladimir Camarena, David W Sant, Gaofeng Wang
Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) is an easily measurable visceral fat of the heart with unique anatomy, functionality, and transcriptome. EAT can serve as a therapeutic target for pharmaceutical agents targeting the fat. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and GLP-2 analogues are newer drugs showing beneficial cardiovascular and metabolic effects. Whether EAT expresses GLP- 1 and 2 receptors (GLP-1R and GLP-2R) is unknown. RNA-seq analysis and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) were performed to evaluate the presence of GLP-1R and GLP-2R in EAT and subcutaneous fat (SAT) obtained from 8 subjects with coronary artery disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus undergoing elective cardiac surgery...
May 17, 2017: Hormone and Metabolic Research, Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung, Hormones et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512764/maternal-fructose-consumption-can-affect-offspring-metabolic-outcomes
#16
Alejandro Gugliucci
High sugar consumption is associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and excess visceral adipose tissue (VAT) which are in turn linked to type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), dyslipidemia, and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in adults and children. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
May 17, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509408/insulin-associated-weight-gain-in-obese-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-patients-what-can-be-done
#17
REVIEW
Adrian Brown, Nicola Guess, Anne Dornhorst, Shahrad Taheri, Gary Frost
Insulin therapy (IT) is initiated for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus when glycaemic targets are not met with diet and other hypoglycaemic agents. The initiation of IT improves glycaemic control and reduces the risk of microvascular complications. There is, however, an associated weight gain following IT, which may adversely affect diabetic and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. A 3 to 9 kg insulin associated weight gain (IAWG) is reported to occur in the first year of initiating IT, consisting predominantly of adipose tissue...
May 16, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508457/effects-of-canagliflozin-on-cardiovascular-risk-factors-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#18
REVIEW
Matthew J Budoff, John P H Wilding
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Cardiovascular disease is the most common cause of morbidity and mortality among people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The main contributors to cardiovascular risk in T2DM are chronic hyperglycaemia, reduced insulin sensitivity, hypertension and dyslipidaemia. Other cardiovascular risk factors include obesity and visceral adiposity, increased arterial stiffness and renal dysfunction. Results from clinical trials, including a long-term cardiovascular outcome study, have shown that sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors can provide multiple cardiometabolic benefits beyond glycaemic control including inducing mild osmotic diuresis, natriuresis and weight loss...
May 2017: International Journal of Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508445/adult-height-and-glucose-tolerance-a-re-appraisal-of-the-importance-of-body-mass-index
#19
S K J Rehunen, H Kautiainen, J G Eriksson, P E Korhonen
AIM: To study both the association between adult height and glucose regulation based on findings from a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test, and the combined effect of height and adiposity on glucose values. METHODS: We conducted a population-based, cross-sectional study among apparently healthy people with high cardiovascular risk living in south-western Finland. The study included 2659 participants aged 45-70 years, who had at least one cardiovascular risk factor but no previously diagnosed diabetes or manifested cardiovascular disease...
May 16, 2017: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505257/micrornas-in-dysfunctional-adipose-tissue-cardiovascular-implications
#20
Basak Icli, Mark W Feinberg
In this review, we focus on the emerging role of microRNAs, non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression and signaling pathways, in dysfunctional adipose tissue. We highlight current paradigms of microRNAs involved in adipose differentiation and function in depots such as white, brown, and beige adipose tissues and potential implications of microRNA dysregulation in human disease such as obesity, inflammation, microvasculature dysfunction, and related cardiovascular diseases. We highlight accumulating studies indicating that adipocyte-derived microRNAs may not only serve as biomarkers of cardiometabolic disease, but also may directly regulate gene expression of other tissues...
May 15, 2017: Cardiovascular Research
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