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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727943/the-genetic-background-of-metabolic-trait-clusters-in-children-and-adolescents
#1
Karri Silventoinen, Élvio Gouveia, Aline Jelenkovic, José Maia, António M Antunes, Miguel A A Pinheiro de Carvalho, António M Brehm, Martine Thomis, Johan Lefevre, Jaakko Kaprio, Duarte Freitas
BACKGROUND: It is well known that metabolic risk factors of cardiovascular diseases are correlated, but the background of this clustering in children is more poorly known than in adults. Thus, we studied the contribution of genetic and environmental factors to the clustering of metabolic traits in childhood and adolescence. DATA AND METHODS: Nine metabolic traits were measured in 214 complete twin pairs aged 3-18 years in the Autonomous Region of Madeira, Portugal, in 2007 and 2008...
July 20, 2017: Metabolic Syndrome and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724650/dynamic-relation-of-changes-in-weight-and-indices-of-fat-distribution-with-cardiac-structure-and-function-the-dallas-heart-study
#2
Bryan Wilner, Sonia Garg, Colby R Ayers, Christopher D Maroules, Roderick McColl, Susan A Matulevicius, James A de Lemos, Mark H Drazner, Ronald Peshock, Ian J Neeland
BACKGROUND: Obesity may increase heart failure risk through cardiac remodeling. Cross-sectional associations between adiposity and cardiac structure and function have been elucidated, but the impact of longitudinal changes in adiposity on cardiac remodeling is less well understood. METHODS AND RESULTS: Participants in the Dallas Heart Study without cardiovascular disease or left ventricular dysfunction underwent assessment of body weight, anthropometrics, and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging at baseline and 7 years later...
July 19, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724410/identification-and-characterization-of-long-non-coding-rnas-in-subcutaneous-adipose-tissue-from-castrated-and-intact-full-sib-pair-huainan-male-pigs
#3
Jing Wang, Liushuai Hua, Junfeng Chen, Jiaqing Zhang, Xianxiao Bai, Binwen Gao, Congjun Li, Zhihai Shi, Weidong Sheng, Yuan Gao, Baosong Xing
BACKGROUND: Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) regulate adipose tissue metabolism, however, their function on testosterone deficiency related obesity in humans is less understood. For this research, intact and castrated male pigs are the best model animal because of their similar proportional organ sizes, cardiovascular systems and metabolic features. RESULTS: We identified lncRNAs in subcutaneous adipose tissue by deep RNA-sequencing using the intact and castrated Huainan male pigs...
July 19, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723729/wnt-signaling-in-cardiovascular-disease-opportunities-and-challenges
#4
Austin Gay, Dwight A Towler
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cardiometabolic diseases increasingly afflict our aging, dysmetabolic population. Complex signals regulating low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP) and frizzled protein family members - the plasma membrane receptors for the cadre of Wnt polypeptide morphogens - contribute to the control of cardiovascular homeostasis. RECENT FINDINGS: Both canonical (β-catenin-dependent) and noncanonical (β-catenin-independent) Wnt signaling programs control vascular smooth muscle (VSM) cell phenotypic modulation in cardiometabolic disease...
July 18, 2017: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722798/angptl8-betatrophin-role-in-diabetes-and-metabolic-diseases
#5
REVIEW
Mohamed Abu-Farha, Jehad Abubaker, Jaakko Tuomilehto
Diabetes is a major disease worldwide that is reaching epidemic stage. Its increased prevalence as well as its association with a high number of complications such as cardiovascular diseases, nephropathy and retinopathy makes it an important disease for investigation. ANGPTL8 is a recently identified hormone that has been associated with two functionally important processes in the development of type 2 diabetes, insulin resistance as well as lipid metabolism. Initial work has showed that ANGPTL8 was expressed in liver, white adipose and brown adipose tissues...
July 19, 2017: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721155/clinical-importance-of-epicardial-adipose-tissue
#6
Eszter Nagy, Adam L Jermendy, Bela Merkely, Pal Maurovich-Horvat
Different visceral fat compartments have several systemic effects and may play a role in the development of both insulin resistance and cardiovascular diseases. In the last couple of years special attention has been paid to the epicardial adipose tissue (EAT), which can be quantified by non-invasive cardiac imaging techniques. The epicardial fat is a unique fat compartment between the myocardium and the visceral pericardium sharing a common embryologic origin with the visceral fat depot. Epicardial adipose tissue has several specific roles, and its local effects on cardiac function are incorporated in the complex pathomechanism of coronary artery disease...
June 2017: Archives of Medical Science: AMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721154/obesity-and-inflammation-the-linking-mechanism-and-the-complications
#7
Mohammed S Ellulu, Ismail Patimah, Huzwah Khaza'ai, Asmah Rahmat, Yehia Abed
Obesity is the accumulation of abnormal or excessive fat that may interfere with the maintenance of an optimal state of health. The excess of macronutrients in the adipose tissues stimulates them to release inflammatory mediators such as tumor necrosis factor α and interleukin 6, and reduces production of adiponectin, predisposing to a pro-inflammatory state and oxidative stress. The increased level of interleukin 6 stimulates the liver to synthesize and secrete C-reactive protein. As a risk factor, inflammation is an imbedded mechanism of developed cardiovascular diseases including coagulation, atherosclerosis, metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance, and diabetes mellitus...
June 2017: Archives of Medical Science: AMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721147/the-importance-of-two-metabolic-syndrome-diagnostic-criteria-and-body-fat-distribution-in-predicting-clinical-severity-and-prognosis-of-acute-myocardial-infarction
#8
Marko Mornar Jelavic, Zdravko Babic, Hrvoje Pintaric
INTRODUCTION: The interrelation between metabolic syndrome (MetS) (the revised National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATP III) and International Diabetes Federation (IDF)) and obesity indices in predicting clinical severity and prognosis of acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is insufficiently known. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This prospective study included 250 acute STEMI patients treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention...
June 2017: Archives of Medical Science: AMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718178/body-composition-is-different-after-surgical-or-pharmacological-remission-of-cushing-s-syndrome-a-prospective-dxa-study
#9
Filippo Ceccato, Michela Boccato, Marialuisa Zilio, Mattia Barbot, Anna Chiara Frigo, Giovanni Luisetto, Marco Boscaro, Carla Scaroni, Valentina Camozzi
Patients with active Cushing's syndrome (CS) exhibit an increase of the visceral adipose tissue, increasing the risk of cardiovascular events. Until now, it is not yet clear whether remission of CS leads to a normalization of body composition, or if different strategies to control hypercortisolism could result in a different clinical outcome concerning adipose tissue distribution. Therefore, we analyzed body composition changes using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in patients with CS in a prospective and controlled study...
July 17, 2017: Hormone and Metabolic Research, Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung, Hormones et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716822/dock2-deficiency-mitigates-high-fat-diet-induced-obesity-by-reducing-adipose-tissue-inflammation-and-increasing-energy-expenditure
#10
Xia Guo, Feifei Li, Zaiyan Xu, Amelia Yin, Hang Yin, Chenxiao Li, Shi-You Chen
Obesity is the major risk factor for type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disorders, and many other diseases. Adipose tissue inflammation is frequently associated with obesity and contributes to the morbidity and mortality. Dedicator of cytokinesis 2 (DOCK2) is involved in several inflammatory diseases, but its role in obesity remain unknown. To explore the function of DOCK2 in obesity and insulin resistance, wild-type (WT) and DOCK2 deficient (DOCK2-/-) mice were given chow or high-fat diet (HFD) for 12 weeks followed by metabolic, biochemical and histologic analyses...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715395/expansion-and-adipogenesis-induction-of-adipocyte-progenitors-from-perivascular-adipose-tissue-isolated-by-magnetic-activated-cell-sorting
#11
Kyan Thelen, Nadia Ayala-Lopez, Stephanie W Watts, G Andres Contreras
Expansion of Perivascular Adipose Tissue (PVAT), a major regulator of vascular function through paracrine signaling, is directly related to the development of hypertension during obesity. The extent of hypertrophy and hyperplasia depends on depot location, sex, and the type of Adipocyte Progenitor Cell (APC) phenotypes present. Techniques used for APC and preadipocytes isolation in the last 10 years have drastically improved the accuracy at which individual cells can be identified based on specific cell surface markers...
June 30, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714796/effect-of-bariatric-surgery-on-heart-failure
#12
Marcela Rodriguez Flores, Carlos Aguilar Salinas, Marie-Eve Piché, Audrey Auclair, Paul Poirier
Obesity increases the risk of heart failure (HF), which continues to be a significant proportion of all cardiovascular diseases and affects increasingly younger populations. The cross-talk between adipose and the heart involves insulin resistance, adipokine signaling and inflammation, with the capacity of adipose tissue to mediate hemodynamic signals, promoting progressive cardiomyopathy. Areas covered: From a therapeutic perspective, there is not yet a single obesity-related pathway that when addressed, can ameliorate cardiomyopathy in obese patients and this is a matter of ongoing research...
July 17, 2017: Expert Review of Cardiovascular Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711515/longitudinal-changes-in-visceral-and-subcutaneous-adipose-tissue-and-metabolic-syndrome-results-from-the-multicultural-community-health-assessment-trial-m-chat
#13
Andrew W Tu, Karin H Humphries, Scott A Lear
AIM: Few studies have examined whether longitudinal changes in visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), independent of each other, are associated with the risk of developing metabolic syndrome (MetS). The objective of this study was to examine the longitudinal effects of VAT and SAT on MetS and metabolic risk factors in a multi-ethnic sample of Canadians followed for 5-years. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In total, 598 adults of the Multicultural Community Health Assessment Trial (M-CHAT) were included in this study...
July 8, 2017: Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708046/analysis-of-mtnr1b-gene-polymorphisms-in-relationship-with-irs2-gene-variants-epicardial-fat-thickness-glucose-homeostasis-and-cognitive-performance-in-the-elderly
#14
Gianluigi Mazzoccoli, Mariangela Pia Dagostino, Giulia Paroni, Davide Seripa, Filomena Ciccone, Filomena Addante, Giovanni Favuzzi, Elvira Grandone, Roberto Avola, Tommaso Mazza, Caterina Fusilli, Antonio Greco, Salvatore De Cosmo
ABSTARCT Genome-wide association studies pinpointed common variants in or near the MTNR1B gene encoding MT2 melatonin receptor to be strongly associated with fasting glucose levels. IRS2 gene polymorphisms impact insulin resistance and epicardial fat (EF) thickness, which in turn is correlated with visceral adiposity, cognitive ability and risk for metabolic plus cardiovascular disease. We aimed to discover the interactions between MTNR1B and IRS2 gene polymorphisms, insulin sensitivity, EF thickness and cognitive performance in the elderly...
July 14, 2017: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705812/molecular-mechanisms-underlying-metabolic-syndrome-the-expanding-role-of-the-adipocyte
#15
REVIEW
Andrea Armani, Alessandra Berry, Francesca Cirulli, Massimiliano Caprio
The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is defined as a cluster of 3 or more metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors and represents a serious problem for public health. Altered function of adipose tissue has a significant impact on whole-body metabolism and represents a key driver for the development of these metabolic derangements, collectively referred as to MetS. In particular, increased visceral and ectopic fat deposition play a major role in the development of insulin resistance and MetS. A large body of evidence demonstrates that aging and MetS share several metabolic alterations...
July 13, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699503/metabolic-syndrome-sex-related-cardiovascular-risk-and-therapeutic-approach
#16
Francesca Santilli, Damiano D'Ardes, Maria Teresa Guagnano, Giovanni Davi
The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of risk factors for the development of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and type 2 diabetes (T2DM). According to several meta-analyses, it has been shown that the cardiovascular (CV) risk conferred by the MetS is higher in women in comparison with men . There are many possible reasons to explain a higher CV risk in women with MetS: the most important differences can be attributed to distribution of central adiposity, lipid profile and hormones, but also differences in platelet biology and biochemistry play an important role...
July 10, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697993/dipeptidyl-peptidase-iv-inhibitors-as-novel-regulators-of-vascular-disease
#17
REVIEW
Ioannis Akoumianakis, Charalambos Antoniades
Dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) has been revealed as an adipokine with potential relevance in cardiovascular disease (CVD), while clinically used DPP-IV inhibitors have demonstrated beneficial cardiovascular effects in several experimental studies. Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) is a unique adipose tissue depot in close anatomical proximity and bidirectional functional interaction with the vascular wall, which is a source of DPP-IV and its biology may be influenced by DPP-IV inhibition. Recently, DPP-IV inhibition has been associated with decreased local inflammation and oxidative stress both in the vascular wall and the PVAT, potentially regulating atherogenesis progression in vivo...
July 8, 2017: Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697260/behavioral-counseling-to-promote-a-healthful-diet-and-physical-activity-for-cardiovascular-disease-prevention-in-adults-without-cardiovascular-risk-factors-us-preventive-services-task-force-recommendation-statement
#18
David C Grossman, Kirsten Bibbins-Domingo, Susan J Curry, Michael J Barry, Karina W Davidson, Chyke A Doubeni, John W Epling, Alex R Kemper, Alex H Krist, Ann E Kurth, C Seth Landefeld, Carol M Mangione, Maureen G Phipps, Michael Silverstein, Melissa A Simon, Chien-Wen Tseng
Importance: Adults who adhere to national guidelines for a healthful diet and physical activity have lower rates of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality than those who do not. All persons, regardless of their risk status for cardiovascular disease (CVD), can gain health benefits from healthy eating behaviors and appropriate physical activity. Objective: To update the 2012 US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommendation on behavioral counseling to promote a healthful diet and physical activity for cardiovascular disease prevention among adults without obesity who do not have cardiovascular risk factors (hypertension, dyslipidemia, abnormal blood glucose levels, or diabetes)...
July 11, 2017: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697259/behavioral-counseling-to-promote-a-healthful-diet-and-physical-activity-for-cardiovascular-disease-prevention-in-adults-without-known-cardiovascular-disease-risk-factors-updated-evidence-report-and-systematic-review-for-the-us-preventive-services-task-force
#19
REVIEW
Carrie D Patnode, Corrine V Evans, Caitlyn A Senger, Nadia Redmond, Jennifer S Lin
Importance: Unhealthful dietary patterns, low levels of physical activity, and high sedentary time increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. Objective: To systematically review the evidence on the benefits and harms of behavioral counseling for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease in adults without known cardiovascular risk factors to inform the US Preventive Services Task Force. Data Sources: MEDLINE, PubMed, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and PsycINFO for studies published in the English language between January 1, 2013, and May 25, 2016, and ongoing surveillance in targeted publications through March 24, 2017...
July 11, 2017: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690194/examining-a-role-for-pkg-i%C3%AE-oxidation-in-the-pathogenesis-of-cardiovascular-dysfunction-during-diet-induced-obesity
#20
Olena Rudyk, Philip Eaton
BACKGROUND: Protein kinase G (PKG) Iα is the end-effector kinase that mediates nitric oxide (NO)-dependent and oxidant-dependent vasorelaxation to maintain blood pressure during health. A hallmark of cardiovascular disease is attenuated NO production, which in part is caused by NO Synthase (NOS) uncoupling, which in turn increases oxidative stress because of superoxide generation. NOS uncoupling promotes PKG Iα oxidation to the interprotein disulfide state, likely mediated by superoxide-derived hydrogen peroxide, and because the NO-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) pathway otherwise negatively regulates oxidation of the kinase to its active disulfide dimeric state...
July 6, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
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