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Adipose cardiovascular

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29932770/atglistatin-ameliorates-functional-decline-in-heart-failure-via-adipocyte-specific-inhibition-of-adipose-triglyceride-lipase
#1
Nirmal Parajuli, Shingo Takahara, Nobutoshi Matsumura, Ty T Kim, Mourad Ferdaoussi, Anna K Migglautsch, Rudolf Zechner, Rolf Breinbauer, Erin E Kershaw, Jason R B Dyck
RATIONALE: Despite the advancement in therapies for cardiovascular disease and heart failure (HF), the incidence and prevalence of HF is increasing. Previous work has suggested that inhibiting adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) in adipose tissue during HF development may assist in the treatment of HF. The ability to specifically target the adipocyte as a potential treatment for HF is a novel approach that could significantly influence the management of HF in the future. OBJECTIVES: To assess the cardiac structural and functional effects of pharmacological inhibition of ATGL in mice with HF, to assess if ATGL inhibition works in an adipocyte autonomous manner, and to determine the role that adiposity and glucose homeostasis play in this HF treatment approach...
June 22, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29931482/discrepancies-between-bmi-and-classic-cardiovascular-risk-factors
#2
Stefanie R van Mil, Guy H E J Vijgen, Astrid van Huisstede, Boudewijn Klop, Gert-Jan M van de Geijn, Erwin Birnie, Gert-Jan Braunstahl, Guido H H Mannaerts, L Ulas Biter, Manuel Castro Cabezas
BACKGROUND: Obesity is related to increased cardiovascular risk. It is unknown whether increasing levels of obesity also increase levels of cardiovascular risk factors and systemic inflammation. This study describes the relationship between classic cardiovascular risk factors and inflammatory markers with BMI in a group of obese and non-obese subjects. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Obese subjects (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 ; n = 576; mean ± SD BMI 43.8 ± 7.58 kg/m2 ) scheduled for bariatric surgery were included...
June 21, 2018: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29926667/-effects-and-mechanism-of-hypoxia-exposure-on-related-genes-in-brown-fat-tissue-of-obese-mice-based-on-mrna-expression-profile-microarray
#3
Li-Jing Gong, Peng-Yu Fu, Rong-Xin Zhu, Lei Wang, Yang Hu
OBJECTIVE: This study intended to screen differentially expressed genes and pathways in Brown Adipose Tissue (BAT) of obese mice after the intervention of hypoxia by mRNA expression profile microarray, exploring the mechanism of hypoxia activated BAT. METHODS: Thirty C57BL/6J male mice were divided into the normal diet control group (N, n =8), high-fat diet control group (OB, n =8) and high-fat diet hypoxia group (H, n =8). Group H was intervened by hypoxia exposure in the oxygen concentration of 11...
January 8, 2018: Chinese Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29926348/melatonin-treatment-suppresses-appetite-genes-and-improves-adipose-tissue-plasticity-in-diet-induced-obese-zebrafish
#4
G Montalbano, M Mania, F Abbate, M Navarra, M C Guerrera, R Laura, J A Vega, M Levanti, A Germanà
PURPOSE: Overweight and obesity are important risk factors for diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and premature death in modern society. Recently, numerous natural and synthetic compounds have been tested in diet-induced obese animal models, to counteract obesity. Melatonin is a circadian hormone, produced by pineal gland and extra-pineal sources, involved in processes which have in common a rhythmic expression. In teleost, it can control energy balance by activating or inhibiting appetite-related peptides...
June 20, 2018: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29926074/-research-advance-in-the-effects-of-androgen-and-its-receptor-on-the-development-of-obesity-obesity-related-diseases-and-disorders-of-glucose-and-lipid-metabolism
#5
Li-Jun Yin, Xiao-Hui Wang
Recently, there has been a growing interest in the roles of androgen in the development of obesity and obesity-related diseases such as diabetes, metabolic syndrome, atherosclerosis (AS), hypertension and cardiovascular diseases, as well as in the disorders of glucose and lipid metabolism. Androgen exerts its biological role mainly through binding to the androgen receptor (AR), one of the nuclear receptors widely expressed in multiple tissues such as the skeletal muscle, liver, adipose tissue and brain. Low testosterone and AR deficiency result in obesity, obesity-related diseases and metabolic disorders...
June 25, 2018: Sheng Li Xue Bao: [Acta Physiologica Sinica]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29924824/effect-of-adiposity-on-tissue-specific-adiponectin-secretion
#6
James Reneau, Matthew Goldblatt, Jon Gould, Tammy Kindel, Andrew Kastenmeier, Rana Higgins, L Rosemary Rengel, Katherine Schoyer, Roland James, Brittaney Obi, Andrea Moosreiner, Kay Nicholson, Daisy Sahoo, Srividya Kidambi
Circulating adiponectin levels are lower in individuals with increased BMI and central adiposity. However, they are paradoxically higher in those with peripheral adiposity. We hypothesized that adiponectin secretion from central and peripheral adipose tissue depots may be associated with adiposity levels and its distribution. A total of 55 subjects (69% women) undergoing elective abdominal surgery (mean age: 53 ± 13 years) were recruited. Health history, anthropometrics, and cardiovascular disease risk factor measurements were obtained...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29923291/inflammation-of-brown-beige-adipose-tissues-in-obesity-and-metabolic-disease
#7
Francesc Villarroya, Rubén Cereijo, Aleix Gavaldà-Navarro, Joan Villarroya, Marta Giralt
Many of the comorbidities of obesity, including type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases are related to the low-grade chronic inflammation of white adipose tissue. Under white adipocyte stress, local infiltration of immune cells and enhanced production of pro-inflammatory cytokines together reduce metabolic flexibility and lead to insulin resistance in obesity. Whereas white adipocytes act in energy storage, brown and beige adipocytes specialize in energy expenditure. Brown and beige activity protects against obesity and associated metabolic disorders, such as hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29922964/innate-immune-cells-in-the-adipose-tissue
#8
REVIEW
Kyoung-Jin Chung, Marina Nati, Triantafyllos Chavakis, Antonios Chatzigeorgiou
Immune cells are present in the adipose tissue (AT) and regulate its function. Under lean conditions, immune cells predominantly of type 2 immunity, including eosinophils, M2-like anti-inflammatory macrophages and innate lymphoid cells 2, contribute to the maintenance of metabolic homeostasis within the AT. In the course of obesity, pro-inflammatory immune cells, such as M1-like macrophages, prevail in the AT. Inflammation in the obese AT is associated with the development of metabolic complications such as insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease...
June 19, 2018: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29920298/exendin-4-promotes-proliferation-of-adipose-derived-stem-cells-through-pi3k-akt-wnt-signaling-pathways
#9
Xiaolu Ye, Shimeng Cheng, Yabing Dong, Jie Ren, Lina Su, Jianlan Liu, Jing Zhou, Qingmei Liu, Ningwen Zhu
Adipose-derived stem cell (ADSC) transplantation has emerged as a potential tool for the treatment of cardiovascular disease. However, with a limited renewal capacity and the need for mass cells during the engraftment, strategies are needed to enhance ADSC proliferative capacity. In this study, we explored the effects of Exendin-4, a glucagon-like peptide-1 analog, on the growth of ADSCs, focusing in particular on phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-protein kinase B (Akt) and Wnt signaling pathways. Firstly, ADSCs were isolated and cultured in vitro...
June 16, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29916924/how-to-best-assess-abdominal-obesity
#10
Hongjuan Fang, Elizabeth Berg, Xiaoguang Cheng, Wei Shen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Abdominal obesity, especially the increase of visceral adipose tissue (VAT), is closely associated with increased mortality related to cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and fatty liver disease. This review provides an overview of the recent advances for abdominal obesity measurement. RECENT FINDINGS: Compared to simple waist circumference, emerging three-dimensional (3D) body-scanning techniques also measure abdominal volume and shape. Abdominal dimension measures have been implemented in bioelectrical impedance analysis to improve accuracy when estimating VAT...
June 18, 2018: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29914623/efficacy-of-tea-catechin-rich-beverages-to-reduce-abdominal-adiposity-and-metabolic-syndrome-risks-in-obese-and-overweight-subjects-a-pooled-analysis-of-6-human-trials
#11
REVIEW
Masanobu Hibi, Hideto Takase, Masaki Iwasaki, Noriko Osaki, Yoshihisa Katsuragi
This post hoc pooled analysis assessed the effectiveness of green tea catechins (GTC) to reduce the risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS) associated with abdominal fat reduction, because previous findings are unclear. Data were pooled from six human trials (n=921, 505 men) comparing the effects of GTC-containing beverages (540-588 mg GTC/beverage) and a placebo beverage. Outcome measures were abdominal fat [total fat area (TFA), visceral fat area (VFA), subcutaneous fat area (SFA)], and MetS risk. We estimated mean changes from baseline and calculated confidence intervals (CI) to assess reductions in abdominal fat accumulation and MetS improvement...
July 2018: Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29914151/quercetin-lowers-plasma-triglycerides-accompanied-by-white-adipose-tissue-browning-in-diet-induced-obese-mice
#12
Eline N Kuipers, Andrea D van Dam, Ntsiki M Held, Isabel M Mol, Riekelt H Houtkooper, Patrick C N Rensen, Mariëtte R Boon
Obesity and dyslipidemia are major risk factors for the development of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Quercetin, a natural flavonoid, lowers plasma triglycerides (TG) in human intervention studies, and its intake is associated with lower CVD risk. The aim of this study was to elucidate the mechanism by which quercetin lowers plasma TG levels in diet-induced obesity. C57Bl/6J mice received a high-fat diet (45% of calories derived from fat) with or without quercetin (0.1% w / w ) for 12 weeks. Quercetin decreased plasma TG levels from nine weeks onwards (&minus;19%, p < 0...
June 16, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29910818/potential-immunological-links-between-psoriasis-and-cardiovascular-disease
#13
REVIEW
Aparna P Sajja, Aditya A Joshi, Heather L Teague, Amit K Dey, Nehal N Mehta
Preclinical and clinical research provide strong evidence that chronic, systemic inflammation plays a key role in development and progression of atherosclerosis. Indeed, chronic inflammatory diseases, such as psoriasis, are associated with accelerated atherosclerosis and increased risk of cardiovascular events. Contemporary research has demonstrated plausible mechanistic links between immune cell dysfunction and cardiometabolic disease in psoriasis. In this review, we describe the role of potential common immunological mechanisms underlying both psoriasis and atherogenesis...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909574/the-possible-antidiabetic-effects-of-vitamin-d-receptors-agonist-in-rat-model-of-type-2-diabetes
#14
Wafaa M Abdel-Rehim, Rasha A El-Tahan, Mennatullah A El-Tarawy, Rowaida R Shehata, Maher A Kamel
Vitamin D3 deficiency was found to be tightly linked to many health problems including metabolic syndrome, cancer, cardiovascular diseases, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. In our study, we tested the possible antidiabetic effects of one of vitamin D3 analogs, alfacalcidol, solely or in a combination with metformin on type 2 diabetic rats. Type 2 diabetic model rats were induced by feeding high-fat diet for 4 weeks followed by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin. In addition to the control group, the diabetic rats were divided into four groups: untreated, metformin-treated, alfacalcidol-treated, and combination-treated group (metformin + alfacalcidol) for 4 weeks...
June 16, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908372/association-of-fibrotic-remodeling-and-cytokines-chemokines-content-in-epicardial-adipose-tissue-with-atrial-myocardial-fibrosis-in-patients-with-atrial-fibrillation
#15
Ichitaro Abe, Yasushi Teshima, Hidekazu Kondo, Haruka Kaku, Shintaro Kira, Yuki Ikebe, Shotaro Saito, Akira Fukui, Tetsuji Shinohara, Kunio Yufu, Mikiko Nakagawa, Naoki Hijiya, Masatsugu Moriyama, Tatsuo Shimada, Shinji Miyamoto, Naohiko Takahashi
BACKGROUND: Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) is associated with atrial fibrillation (AF), but the underlying mechanisms remain to be fully elucidated. OBJECTIVE: Using human left atrial appendage (LAA) samples, we examined the interactive relationship between the EAT profile and atrial myocardial fibrosis through histological and biochemical analyses. METHODS: LAA samples were obtained from 59 consecutive AF patients during cardiovascular surgery...
June 13, 2018: Heart Rhythm: the Official Journal of the Heart Rhythm Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904911/metabolic-syndrome-and-risk-of-incident-psoriasis-prospective-data-from-the-hunt-study-norway
#16
I Snekvik, T I L Nilsen, P R Romundstad, M Saunes
BACKGROUND: Metabolic syndrome has been associated with psoriasis in cross-sectional studies, but data from prospective studies are sparse. OBJECTIVES: To prospectively examine whether metabolic syndrome and its components are associated with risk of incident psoriasis in a large population-based study using objective measurements of cardiovascular disease risk factors. METHODS: We used data from two consecutive surveys of the HUNT Study, Norway (HUNT2, 1995-1997, and HUNT3, 2006-08)...
June 14, 2018: British Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904777/science-behind-the-cardio-metabolic-benefits-of-omega-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-biochemical-effects-vs-clinical-outcomes
#17
REVIEW
Rohith N Thota, Jessica J A Ferguson, Kylie A Abbott, Cintia B Dias, Manohar L Garg
Lower incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the Greenland Inuit, Northern Canada and Japan has been attributed to their consumption of seafood rich in long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCn-3PUFA). While a large majority of pre-clinical and intervention trials have demonstrated heart health benefits of LCn-3PUFA, some studies have shown no effects or even negative effects. LCn-3PUFA have been shown to favourably modulate blood lipid levels, particularly a reduction in circulating levels of triglycerides...
June 15, 2018: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904053/naoxintong-capsules-inhibit-the-development-of-diabetic-nephropathy-in-db-db-mice
#18
Shu Yang, Mengyang Liu, Yuanli Chen, Chuanrui Ma, Lipei Liu, Buchang Zhao, Yong Wang, Xiaoju Li, Yan Zhu, Xiumei Gao, Deling Kong, Yajun Duan, Jihong Han, Xiaoxiao Yang
NaoXinTong Capsule (NXT), a Chinese medicine, is currently used to treat patients with cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Clinical observations indicate its anti-diabetic functions with unclear mechanisms. Herein, we report the effect of NXT on diabetic nephropathy (DN). Type 2 diabetic db/db mice were treated with NXT for 14 weeks. In the course of treatment, NXT reduced diabetes-increased glucose levels and improved renal functions. At the end of treatment, we found that NXT ameliorated serum lipid profiles and other biochemical parameters...
June 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29903689/interplay-between-epicardial-adipose-tissue-metabolic-and-cardiovascular-diseases
#19
Olga Bornachea, Angela Vea, Vicenta Llorente-Cortes
Cardiovascular disease is the primary cause of death in obese and diabetic patients. In these groups of patients, the alterations of epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) contribute to both vascular and myocardial dysfunction. Therefore, it is of clinical interest to determine the mechanisms by which EAT influences cardiovascular disease. Two key factors contribute to the tight intercommunication among EAT, coronary arteries and myocardium. One is the close anatomical proximity between these tissues. The other is the capacity of EAT to secrete cytokines and other molecules with paracrine and vasocrine effects on the cardiovascular system...
June 11, 2018: Clínica e Investigación en Arteriosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29899496/transcriptional-control-of-intestinal-cholesterol-absorption-adipose-energy-expenditure-and-lipid-handling-by-sortilin
#20
Sumihiko Hagita, Maximillian A Rogers, Tan Pham, Jennifer R Wen, Andrew K Mlynarchik, Masanori Aikawa, Elena Aikawa
The sorting receptor Sortilin functions in the regulation of glucose and lipid metabolism. Dysfunctional lipid uptake, storage, and metabolism contribute to several major human diseases including atherosclerosis and obesity. Sortilin associates with cardiovascular disease; however, the role of Sortilin in adipose tissue and lipid metabolism remains unclear. Here we show that in the low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient (Ldlr-/- ) atherosclerosis model, Sortilin deficiency (Sort1-/- ) in female mice suppresses Niemann-Pick type C1-Like 1 (Npc1l1) mRNA levels, reduces body and white adipose tissue weight, and improves brown adipose tissue function partially via transcriptional downregulation of Krüppel-like factor 4 and Liver X receptor...
June 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
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