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Adipose beige

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918936/intermittent-fasting-promotes-white-adipose-browning-and-decreases-obesity-by-shaping-the-gut%C3%A2-microbiota
#1
Guolin Li, Cen Xie, Siyu Lu, Robert G Nichols, Yuan Tian, Licen Li, Daxeshkumar Patel, Yinyan Ma, Chad N Brocker, Tingting Yan, Kristopher W Krausz, Rong Xiang, Oksana Gavrilova, Andrew D Patterson, Frank J Gonzalez
While activation of beige thermogenesis is a promising approach for treatment of obesity-associated diseases, there are currently no known pharmacological means of inducing beiging in humans. Intermittent fasting is an effective and natural strategy for weight control, but the mechanism for its efficacy is poorly understood. Here, we show that an every-other-day fasting (EODF) regimen selectively stimulates beige fat development within white adipose tissue and dramatically ameliorates obesity, insulin resistance, and hepatic steatosis...
September 13, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918935/dense-intra-adipose-sympathetic-arborizations-are-essential-for-cold-induced-beiging-of-mouse-white-adipose-tissue
#2
Haochen Jiang, Xiaofan Ding, Ying Cao, Huanhuan Wang, Wenwen Zeng
Efferent signals from the central nervous system represent a key layer of regulation of white adipose tissue (WAT). However, the mechanism by which efferent neural signals control WAT metabolism remains to be better understood. Here, we exploit the volume fluorescence-imaging technique to visualize the neural arborizations in mouse inguinal WAT at single-fiber resolution. The imaging reveals a dense network of sympathetic arborizations that had been previously undetected by conventional methods, with sympathetic fibers being in close apposition to > 90% of adipocytes...
September 5, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915325/brown-and-beige-adipose-tissues-in-health-and-disease
#3
Liangyou Rui
Brown and beige adipocytes arise from distinct developmental origins. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) develops embryonically from precursors that also give to skeletal muscle. Beige fat develops postnatally and is highly inducible. Beige fat recruitment is mediated by multiple mechanisms, including de novo beige adipogenesis and white-to-brown adipocyte transdifferentiaiton. Beige precursors reside around vasculatures, and proliferate and differentiate into beige adipocytes. PDGFRα+Ebf2+ precursors are restricted to beige lineage cells, while another PDGFRα+ subset gives rise to beige adipocytes, white adipocytes, or fibrogenic cells...
September 12, 2017: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895584/effects-of-lobeglitazone-a-novel-thiazolidinedione-on-adipose-tissue-remodeling-and-brown-and-beige-adipose-tissue-development-in-db-db-mice
#4
G Kim, Y-H Lee, M R Yun, J-Y Lee, E G Shin, B-W Lee, E S Kang, B-S Cha
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: We investigated the effect of long-term treatment with lobeglitazone, a novel thiazolidinedione-based activator of PPARγ, on adipose tissue (AT), focusing on its effects on insulin resistance in obese db/db mice. METHODS: Seven-week-old male db/db mice were assigned to either a vehicle-treated (n=8) or lobeglitazone-treated (n=8) group. Lobeglitazone (1 mg/kg daily) was injected intraperitoneally for 20 weeks. RESULTS: Lobeglitazone treatment for 20 weeks resulted in a remarkably improved glycemic index, including significantly decreased glucose levels, enhanced insulin sensitivity, and preserved pancreatic beta cells...
September 12, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894292/partitioning-of-adipose-lipid-metabolism-by-altered-expression-and-function-of-ppar-isoforms-after-bariatric-surgery
#5
C Jahansouz, H Xu, A V Hertzel, S Kizy, K A Steen, R Foncea, F J Serrot, N Kvalheim, G Luthra, K Ewing, D B Leslie, S Ikramuddin, D A Bernlohr
BACKGROUND: Bariatric surgery remains the most effective treatment for reducing adiposity and eliminating type 2 diabetes; however, the mechanism(s) responsible have remained elusive. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) encompass a family of nuclear hormone receptors that upon activation exert control of lipid metabolism, glucose regulation and inflammation. Their role in adipose tissue following bariatric surgery remains undefined. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Subcutaneous adipose tissue biopsies and serum were obtained and evaluated from time of surgery and on postoperative day 7 in patients randomized to Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (n=13) or matched caloric restriction (n=14), as well as patients undergoing vertical sleeve gastrectomy (n=33)...
August 14, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882900/adipocyte-liver-kinase-b1-suppresses-beige-adipocyte-renaissance-through-class-iia-histone-deacetylase-4
#6
Yangmeng Wang, Esther Paulo, Dongmei Wu, Yixuan Wu, Wendong Huang, Ajay Chawla, Biao Wang
Uncoupling protein 1(+) (UCP1(+)) beige adipocytes are dynamically regulated by environment in rodents and humans; cold induces formation of beige adipocytes, while warm temperature and nutrient excess lead to their disappearance. Beige adipocytes can form through de novo adipogenesis, however how "beigeing" characteristics are maintained afterwards is largely unknown. Here we show that beige adipocytes formed postnatally in subcutaneous inguinal white adipose tissue (iWAT) lost thermogenic gene expression and multilocular morphology at adult stage, but cold restored their "beigeing" characteristics, a phenomenon termed as beige adipocyte renaissance...
September 7, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879502/role-of-macrophages-in-depot-dependent-browning-of-white-adipose-tissue
#7
Ken Machida, Yuko Okamatsu-Ogura, Woongchul Shin, Shinya Matsuoka, Ayumi Tsubota, Kazuhiro Kimura
Sympathetic stimulation induces beige adipocytes in white adipose tissue (WAT), known as browning of WAT. In this study, exposure of mice to cold ambient temperature (10 °C) for 24 h induced the mRNA expression of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), a marker for beige adipocytes, in inguinal WAT, but not in perigonadal WAT. Thus, we examined the role of macrophages in depot-dependent WAT browning in mice. Flowcytometric analysis showed that total number of macrophages was higher in perigonadal WAT than in inguinal WAT...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872979/bone-marrow-adipocytes
#8
Mark C Horowitz, Ryan Berry, Brandon Holtrup, Zachary Sebo, Tracy Nelson, Jackie A Fretz, Dieter Lindskog, Jennifer L Kaplan, Gene Ables, Matthew S Rodeheffer, Clifford J Rosen
Adipocytes were identified in human bone marrow more than a century ago, yet until recently little has been known about their origin, development, function or interactions with other cells in the bone marrow. Little functional significance has been attributed to these cells, a paradigm that still persists today. However, we now know that marrow adipose tissue increases with age and in response to a variety of physiologic induction signals. Bone marrow adipocytes have recently been shown to influence other cell populations within the marrow and can affect whole body metabolism by the secretion of a defined set of adipokines...
August 24, 2017: Adipocyte
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867720/chronic-rapamycin-treatment-improved-metabolic-phenotype-but-inhibited-adipose-tissue-browning-in-high-fat-diet-fed-c57bl-6j-mice
#9
Yan Wang, Zhi He, Xianhui Li
Rapamycin (Rap) has been demonstrated to affect lipid metabolism through stimulating lipolysis, inhibiting de novo lipogenesis and reducing adiposity. In the present study, we investigated rapamycin exposure's influence on adipose tissue browning in high-fat diet-induced fatty mice. Four-week old C57BL/6J mice were fed normal chow or high-fat diet for a period of 6 weeks and then divided into three groups: (1) Nor group: mice fed with normal chow; (2) high fat diet (HFD) group: fatty mice fed with high-fat diet; (3) Rap group: high-fat diet-fed fatty mice treated intragastrically with rapamycin at a dose of 2...
2017: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28862985/critical-review-of-beige-adipocyte-thermogenic-activation-and-contribution-to-whole-body-energy-expenditure
#10
REVIEW
Érique Castro, Tiago E Oliveira Silva, William T Festuccia
Beige (or brite, "brown in white") adipocytes are uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1)-positive cells residing in white adipose depots that, depending on the conditions, behave either as classic white adipocytes, storing energy as lipids, or as brown adipocytes, dissipating energy from oxidative metabolism as heat through non-shivering thermogenesis. Because of their thermogenic potential and, therefore, possible usage to treat metabolic diseases such as obesity and type 2 diabetes, beige cells have attracted the attention of many scientists worldwide aiming to develop strategies to safely recruit and activate their thermogenic activity...
September 1, 2017: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28862984/physiological-regulation-and-metabolic-role-of-browning-in-white-adipose-tissue
#11
REVIEW
Aleksandra Jankovic, Vesna Otasevic, Ana Stancic, Biljana Buzadzic, Aleksandra Korac, Bato Korac
Great progress has been made in our understanding of the browning process in white adipose tissue (WAT) in rodents. The recognition that i) adult humans have physiologically inducible brown adipose tissue (BAT) that may facilitate resistance to obesity and ii) that adult human BAT molecularly and functionally resembles beige adipose tissue in rodents, reignited optimism that obesity and obesity-related diabetes type 2 can be battled by controlling the browning of WAT. In this review the main cellular mechanisms and molecular mediators of browning of WAT in different physiological states are summarized...
September 1, 2017: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854265/zinc-transporter-zip13-suppresses-beige-adipocyte-biogenesis-and-energy-expenditure-by-regulating-c-ebp-%C3%AE-expression
#12
Ayako Fukunaka, Toshiyuki Fukada, Jinhyuk Bhin, Luka Suzuki, Takamasa Tsuzuki, Yuri Takamine, Bum-Ho Bin, Toshinori Yoshihara, Noriko Ichinoseki-Sekine, Hisashi Naito, Takeshi Miyatsuka, Shinzaburo Takamiya, Tsutomu Sasaki, Takeshi Inagaki, Tadahiro Kitamura, Shingo Kajimura, Hirotaka Watada, Yoshio Fujitani
Given the relevance of beige adipocytes in adult humans, a better understanding of the molecular circuits involved in beige adipocyte biogenesis has provided new insight into human brown adipocyte biology. Genetic mutations in SLC39A13/ZIP13, a member of zinc transporter family, are known to reduce adipose tissue mass in humans; however, the underlying mechanisms remains unknown. Here, we demonstrate that the Zip13-deficient mouse shows enhanced beige adipocyte biogenesis and energy expenditure, and shows ameliorated diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance...
August 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844880/the-fgf21-ccl11-axis-mediates-beiging-of-white-adipose-tissues-by-coupling-sympathetic-nervous-system-to-type-2-immunity
#13
Zhe Huang, Ling Zhong, Jimmy Tsz Hang Lee, Jialiang Zhang, Donghai Wu, Leiluo Geng, Yu Wang, Chi-Ming Wong, Aimin Xu
Type 2 cytokines are important signals triggering biogenesis of thermogenic beige adipocytes in white adipose tissue (WAT) during cold acclimation. However, how cold activates type 2 immunity in WAT remains obscure. Here we show that cold-induced type 2 immune responses and beiging in subcutaneous WAT (scWAT) are abrogated in mice with adipose-selective ablation of FGF21 or its co-receptor β-Klotho, whereas such impairments are reversed by replenishment with chemokine CCL11. Mechanistically, FGF21 acts on adipocytes in an autocrine manner to promote the expression and secretion of CCL11 via activation of ERK1/2, which drives recruitment of eosinophils into scWAT, leading to increases in accumulation of M2 macrophages, and proliferation and commitment of adipocyte precursors into beige adipocytes...
September 5, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843495/high-intensity-interval-versus-moderate-intensity-continuous-training-superior-metabolic-benefits-in-diet-induced-obesity-mice
#14
Ningning Wang, Yang Liu, Yanan Ma, Deliang Wen
AIMS: Exercise is beneficial in obesity, however, the debate about the value of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) vs. moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) has been long lasting. Therefore, here we have compared the possible beneficial effects of two different exercise training regimes in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity (DIO). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Following 7wk. on high fat diet (HFD), ten-week-old male ICR mice (n=30) were assigned to HIIT, distance-matched MICT or remained sedentary for the next 8 constitutive weeks while maintaining the dietary treatments...
August 23, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842500/mitochondrial-reactive-oxygen-species-and-adipose-tissue-thermogenesis-bridging-physiology-and-mechanisms
#15
Edward T Chouchani, Lawrence Kazak, Bruce M Spiegelman
Brown and beige adipose tissues can catabolize stored energy to generate heat, relying on the principal effector of thermogenesis: uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1). This unique capability could be leveraged as a therapy for metabolic disease. Numerous animal and cellular models have now demonstrated that mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) signal to support adipocyte thermogenic identity and function. Herein, we contextualize these findings within established principles of redox signaling, and mechanistic studies of UCP1 function...
August 24, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821457/spontaneous-mutation-of-dock7-results-in-lower-trabecular-bone-mass-and-impaired-periosteal-expansion-in-aged-female-misty-mice
#16
Phuong T Le, Kathleen A Bishop, David E Maridas, Katherine J Motyl, Daniel J Brooks, Kenichi Nagano, Roland Baron, Mary L Bouxsein, Clifford J Rosen
Misty mice (m/m) have a loss of function mutation in Dock7 gene, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor, resulting in low bone mineral density, uncoupled bone remodeling and reduced bone formation. Dock7 has been identified as a modulator of osteoblast number and in vitro osteogenic differentiation in calvarial osteoblast culture. In addition, m/m exhibit reduced preformed brown adipose tissue innervation and temperature as well as compensatory increase in beige adipocyte markers. While the low bone mineral density phenotype is in part due to higher sympathetic nervous system (SNS) drive in young mice, it is unclear what effect aging would have in mice homozygous for the mutation in the Dock7 gene...
August 15, 2017: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807877/cryptotanshinone-promotes-commitment-to-the-brown-adipocyte-lineage-and-mitochondrial-biogenesis-in-c3h10t1-2-mesenchymal-stem-cells-via-ampk-and-p38-mapk-signaling
#17
Khan Mohammad Imran, Naimur Rahman, Dahyeon Yoon, Miso Jeon, Byong-Taek Lee, Yong-Sik Kim
Although white adipose tissue (WAT) stores triglycerides and contributes to obesity, brown adipose tissue (BAT) dissipates energy as heat. Therefore, browning of WAT is regarded as an attractive way to counteract obesity. Our previous studies have revealed that treatment with cryptotanshinone (CT) during adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 cells inhibits their differentiation. Here, we found that pretreatment of C3H10T1/2 mesenchymal stem cells with CT before exposure to adipogenic hormonal stimuli promotes the commitment of these mesenchymal stem cells to the adipocyte lineage as confirmed by increased triglyceride accumulation...
October 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804438/green-tea-extract-induces-genes-related-to-browning-of-white-adipose-tissue-and-limits-weight-gain-in-high-energy-diet-fed-rat
#18
Li-Han Chen, Yi-Wen Chien, Chung-Tiang Liang, Ching-Hung Chan, Meng-Han Fan, Hui-Yu Huang
Background: A wealth of research has reported on the anti-obesity effects of green tea extract (GTE). Although browning of white adipose tissue (WAT) has been reported to attenuate obesity, no study has disclosed the effects of GTE on browning in Sprague Dawley rats. Objectives: The aims of the study were to investigate the effects of GTE on anti-obesity and browning, and their underlying mechanisms. Methods: Four groups of rats (n=10/group) were used including a normal diet with vehicle treatment, and a high-energy diet (HED) with vehicle or GTE by oral gavage at 77...
2017: Food & Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801784/prior-repeated-stress-attenuates-cold-induced-immunomodulation-associated-with-browning-in-mesenteric-fat-of-rats
#19
P Vargovic, M Laukova, J Ukropec, G Manz, R Kvetnansky
Continuous exposure to cold leads to activation of adaptive thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue but also to induction of brown/beige cell phenotype in white adipose tissue. The aim of this work was to investigate whether prior exposure to immobilization (IMO) stress may affect immune response associated with adipocyte "browning" in mesenteric adipose tissue (mWAT). In the first experiment, Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to acute (3 h) or prolonged (7 days) cold exposure (4 ± 1 °C). 7-day cold stimulated gene expression of uncoupling protein 1 and other "browning"-associated factors...
August 11, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798153/characterization-of-the-central-neural-projections-to-brown-white-and-beige-adipose-tissue
#20
Nicole M Wiedmann, Aneta Stefanidis, Brian J Oldfield
The functional recruitment of classic brown adipose tissue (BAT) and inducible brown-like or beige fat is, to a large extent, dependent on intact sympathetic neural input. Whereas the central neural circuits directed specifically to BAT or white adipose tissue (WAT) are well established, there is only a developing insight into the nature of neural inputs common to both fat types. Moreover, there is no clear view of the specific central and peripheral innervation of the browned component of WAT: beige fat. The objective of the present study is to examine the neural input to both BAT and WAT in the same animal and, by exposing different cohorts of rats to either thermoneutral or cold conditions, define changes in central neural organization that will ensure that beige fat is appropriately recruited and modulated after browning of inguinal WAT (iWAT)...
August 10, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
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