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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793055/fatty-acid-activation-in-thermogenic-adipose-tissue
#1
REVIEW
Sandra Steensels, Baran A Ersoy
Channeling carbohydrates and fatty acids to thermogenic tissues, including brown and beige adipocytes, have garnered interest as an approach for the management of obesity-related metabolic disorders. Mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation (β-oxidation) is crucial for the maintenance of thermogenesis. Upon cellular fatty acid uptake or following lipolysis from triglycerides (TG), fatty acids are esterified to coenzyme A (CoA) to form active acyl-CoA molecules. This enzymatic reaction is essential for their utilization in β-oxidation and thermogenesis...
May 21, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787512/browning-of-human-subcutaneous-adipose-tissue-after-its-transplantation-in-nude-mice
#2
Lihong Qiu, Zhaoxiang Zhang, Hui Zheng, Shaoheng Xiong, Yingjun Su, Xianjie Ma, Chenggang Yi
BACKGROUND: The clinical unpredictability of autologous fat grafting originates partially from the unique characteristics of adipose tissue. Evidences of adipose remodeling toward browning (developing of brown-like adipocytes in white adipose tissue) in response to trauma are emerging. With regard to fat grafting surgery procedure by which adipose tissue depots are directly and ubiquitously traumatized, whether it affect adipose phenotype change toward browning has not been previously reported...
May 16, 2018: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785025/an-immune-beige-adipocyte-communication-via-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor-signaling
#3
Heejin Jun, Hui Yu, Jianke Gong, Juan Jiang, Xiaona Qiao, Eric Perkey, Dong-Il Kim, Margo P Emont, Alexander G Zestos, Jung-Sun Cho, Jianfeng Liu, Robert T Kennedy, Ivan Maillard, X Z Shawn Xu, Jun Wu
Beige adipocytes have recently been shown to regulate energy dissipation when activated and help organisms defend against hypothermia and obesity. Prior reports indicate that beige-like adipocytes exist in adult humans and that they may present novel opportunities to curb the global epidemic in obesity and metabolic illnesses. In an effort to identify unique features of activated beige adipocytes, we found that expression of the cholinergic receptor nicotinic alpha 2 subunit (Chrna2) was induced in subcutaneous fat during the activation of these cells and that acetylcholine-producing immune cells within this tissue regulated this signaling pathway via paracrine mechanisms...
May 21, 2018: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775611/reduced-adiposity-by-compensatory-wat-browning-upon-ibat-removal-in-mice
#4
Zhengyu Piao, Baiqiang Zhai, Xiaoxiao Jiang, Meng Dong, Changguo Yan, Jun Lin, Wanzhu Jin
The strong effects of classic brown adipose tissue (BAT) and recruited beige adipocytes in treatment of obesity and metabolic syndrome have been attracting increasing research interest. Cold treatment is an effective, convenient approach to stimulate BAT activity and induce white adipose tissue (WAT) browning. Here, we utilized prolonged cold exposure (from 2 h to 2 weeks in a 4° cold chamber) to elucidate dynamic changes in BAT and in WAT browning during acute and chronic cold exposure in mice. BAT mass decreased quickly, with reduced lipid droplet sizes within 8 h of cold exposure owing to the utilization of BAT pre-storage triglycerides, and subsequently increased during prolonged cold exposure...
May 15, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758288/micrornas-in-brown-and-beige-fat
#5
REVIEW
Deborah Goody, Alexander Pfeifer
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) dissipates energy as heat and its activity correlates with leanness in human adults. Understanding the mechanisms behind the activation of BAT and the process of "browning", i.e. the appearance of inducible brown adipocytes called beige or brite (brown-in-white) cells in white adipose tissue (WAT), is of great interest for developing novel therapies to combat obesity. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small transcriptional regulators that control gene expression in a variety of tissues, including WAT and BAT...
May 11, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757434/hdac3-selective-inhibition-activates-brown-and-beige-fat-through-prdm16
#6
Jiling Liao, Juan Jiang, Heejin Jun, Xiaona Qiao, Margo P Emont, Dong-Il Kim, Jun Wu
It has been reported that class I histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibition increases thermogenesis in fat, but adipocyte specific Hdac3 deletions have presented inconsistent results. In this study, we observed that HDAC3 protein levels were lower in brown fat compared to that of inguinal subcutaneous adipose tissue, and were decreased in both fat depots upon cold exposure. PRDM16 physically interacted with HDAC3, and treatment with HDAC3-selective inhibitor RGFP966 induced thermogenic gene expression in murine and human fat cultures...
May 10, 2018: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757365/multifaceted-roles-of-beige-fat-in-energy-homeostasis-beyond-ucp1
#7
Carlos Henrique Sponton, Shingo Kajimura
Beige adipocytes are an inducible form of thermogenic adipose cells that emerge within the white adipose tissue in response to a variety of environmental stimuli, such as chronic cold acclimation. Similar to brown adipocytes that reside in brown adipose tissue (BAT) depots, beige adipocytes are also thermogenic; however beige adipocytes possess unique, distinguishing characteristics in their developmental regulation and biological function. This review highlights recent advances in our understanding of beige adipocytes, focusing on the diverse roles of beige fat in the regulation of energy homeostasis that are independent of the canonical thermogenic pathway via uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1)...
May 10, 2018: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750781/metabolic-benefits-of-inhibition-of-p38%C3%AE-in-white-adipose-tissue-in-obesity
#8
Shengjie Zhang, Hongchao Cao, Yan Li, Yanyan Jing, Shengnan Liu, Cheng Ye, Hui Wang, Shuxian Yu, Chengyuan Peng, Lijian Hui, Yu-Cheng Wang, Haibing Zhang, Feifan Guo, Qiwei Zhai, Hui Wang, Ruimin Huang, Ling Zhang, Jingjing Jiang, Wei Liu, Hao Ying
p38 has long been known as a central mediator of protein kinase A (PKA) signaling in brown adipocytes, which positively regulate the transcription of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP-1). However, the physiological role of p38 in adipose tissues, especially the white adipose tissue (WAT), is largely unknown. Here, we show that mice lacking p38α in adipose tissues display a lean phenotype, improved metabolism, and resistance to diet-induced obesity. Surprisingly, ablation of p38α causes minimal effects on brown adipose tissue (BAT) in adult mice, as evident from undetectable changes in UCP-1 expression, mitochondrial function, body temperature (BT), and energy expenditure...
May 11, 2018: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730295/ifi27-is-indispensable-for-mitochondrial-function-and-browning-in-adipocytes
#9
Weiwei Jin, Wenfang Jin, Dongning Pan
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is specialized for energy expenditure, but the signaling pathways that regulate BAT metabolism and activity are incompletely understood. Interferon (IFN) signaling is a sophisticated defense mechanism to counteract viral infection. IFNs and interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) are reported to exert profound effects on adipocytes. IFN-α inducible protein 27 (Ifi27/ISG12a) is a BAT-enriched gene, yet no any studies on its roles in BAT have been reported. Here, we show that Ifi27 protein localizes to mitochondria and the expression of Ifi27 can be induced by β3-adrenergic activation in adipose tissues...
May 3, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719233/toward-an-understanding-of-how-immune-cells-control-brown-and-beige-adipobiology
#10
REVIEW
Francesc Villarroya, Rubén Cereijo, Joan Villarroya, Aleix Gavaldà-Navarro, Marta Giralt
Immune cells were recently found to have an unexpected involvement in controlling the thermogenic activity of brown and beige adipose tissue. Here, we review how macrophages, eosinophils, type 2 innate lymphoid cells, and T lymphocytes are linked to this process. In particular, the recruitment of alternatively activated macrophages and eosinophils is associated with brown fat activation and white fat browning. Conversely, pro-inflammatory immune cell recruitment represses the thermogenic activity of brown and beige adipose tissues via cytokines that inhibit noradrenergic signaling...
May 1, 2018: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719227/a-strategy-for-discovery-of-endocrine-interactions-with-application-to-whole-body-metabolism
#11
Marcus M Seldin, Simon Koplev, Prashant Rajbhandari, Laurent Vergnes, Gregory M Rosenberg, Yonghong Meng, Calvin Pan, Thuy M N Phuong, Raffi Gharakhanian, Nam Che, Selina Mäkinen, Diana M Shih, Mete Civelek, Brian W Parks, Eric D Kim, Frode Norheim, Karthickeyan Chella Krishnan, Yehudit Hasin-Brumshtein, Margarete Mehrabian, Markku Laakso, Christian A Drevon, Heikki A Koistinen, Peter Tontonoz, Karen Reue, Rita M Cantor, Johan L M Björkegren, Aldons J Lusis
Inter-tissue communication via secreted proteins has been established as a vital mechanism for proper physiologic homeostasis. Here, we report a bioinformatics framework using a mouse reference population, the Hybrid Mouse Diversity Panel (HMDP), which integrates global multi-tissue expression data and publicly available resources to identify and functionally annotate novel circuits of tissue-tissue communication. We validate this method by showing that we can identify known as well as novel endocrine factors responsible for communication between tissues...
May 1, 2018: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29715464/spermidine-spermine-n1-acetyltransferase-mediated-polyamine-catabolism-regulates-beige-adipocyte-biogenesis
#12
Fang Yuan, Lin Zhang, Yang Cao, Wei Gao, Can Zhao, Yuan Fang, Kamyar Zahedi, Manoocher Soleimani, Xiang Lu, Zhuyuan Fang, Qin Yang
OBJECTIVE: Cold and β3-adrenergic receptor (AR) agonists activate beige adipocyte biogenesis in white adipose tissue (WAT). The two stimuli also induce expression of inflammatory cytokines in WAT. The low-grade inflammation may further promote WAT browning. However, the mechanisms to reconcile these two biological processes remain to be elucidated. In this study, we aim to investigate the roles of the rate-limiting polyamine catabolic enzyme spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase (SAT1) in regulating beige adipocyte biogenesis and inflammation...
April 28, 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29712668/tcptp-regulates-insulin-signalling-in-agrp-neurons-to-coordinate-glucose-metabolism-with-feeding
#13
Garron T Dodd, Robert S Lee-Young, Jens C Brüning, Tony Tiganis
Insulin regulates glucose metabolism by eliciting effects on peripheral tissues as well as the brain. Insulin receptor (IR) signalling inhibits AgRP-expressing neurons in the hypothalamus to contribute to the suppression of hepatic glucose production (HGP) by insulin, whereas AgRP neuronal activation attenuates brown adipose tissue (BAT) glucose uptake. The tyrosine phosphatase TCPTP suppresses IR signalling in AgRP neurons. Hypothalamic TCPTP is induced by fasting and degraded after feeding. Here we assessed the influence of TCPTP in AgRP neurons in the control of glucose metabolism...
April 30, 2018: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704660/genetic-and-epigenetic-control-of-adipose-development
#14
REVIEW
Olga Gulyaeva, Jon Dempersmier, Hei Sook Sul
White adipose tissue (WAT) is the primary energy storage organ and its excess contributes to obesity, while brown adipose tissue (BAT) and inducible thermogenic (beige/brite) adipocytes in WAT dissipate energy via Ucp1 to maintain body temperature. BAT and subcutaneous WAT develop perinatally while visceral WAT forms after birth from precursors expressing distinct markers, such as Myf5, Pref-1, Wt1, and Prx1, depending on the anatomical location. In addition to the embryonic adipose precursors, a pool of endothelial cells or mural cells expressing Pparγ, Pdgfrβ, Sma and Zfp423 may become adipocytes during WAT expansion in adults...
April 25, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29703782/adipose-and-skeletal-muscle-thermogenesis-studies-from-large-animals
#15
REVIEW
John-Paul Fuller-Jackson, Belinda A Henry
The balance between energy intake and energy expenditure establishes and preserves a 'set-point' body weight. The latter is comprised of three major components including metabolic rate, physical activity and thermogenesis. Thermogenesis is defined as the cellular dissipation of energy via heat production. This process has been extensively characterised in brown adipose tissue (BAT), wherein uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) creates a proton leak across the inner mitochondrial membrane, diverting protons away from ATP synthesis and resulting in heat dissipation...
June 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692363/jak-tgf%C3%AE-cross-talk-links-transient-adipose-tissue-inflammation-to-beige-adipogenesis
#16
Rohollah Babaei, Maximilian Schuster, Irina Meln, Sarah Lerch, Rayane A Ghandour, Didier F Pisani, Irem Bayindir-Buchhalter, Julia Marx, Shuang Wu, Gabriele Schoiswohl, Adrian T Billeter, Damir Krunic, Jan Mauer, Yun-Hee Lee, James G Granneman, Lars Fischer, Beat P Müller-Stich, Ez-Zoubir Amri, Erin E Kershaw, Mathias Heikenwälder, Stephan Herzig, Alexandros Vegiopoulos
The transient activation of inflammatory networks is required for adipose tissue remodeling including the "browning" of white fat in response to stimuli such as β3-adrenergic receptor activation. In this process, white adipose tissue acquires thermogenic characteristics through the recruitment of so-called beige adipocytes. We investigated the downstream signaling pathways impinging on adipocyte progenitors that promote de novo formation of adipocytes. We showed that the Jak family of kinases controlled TGFβ signaling in the adipose tissue microenvironment through Stat3 and thereby adipogenic commitment, a function that was required for beige adipocyte differentiation of murine and human progenitors...
April 24, 2018: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692362/transient-inflammatory-signaling-promotes-beige-adipogenesis
#17
REVIEW
Kai Sun, Zhanguo Gao, Mikhail G Kolonin
Inflammatory signaling has been implicated in adipose tissue remodeling and metabolism. In this issue of Science Signaling , Babaei et al report that lipolysis induced by β3-adrenergic signaling triggers transient inflammation that directs progenitor cells toward beige adipogenesis.
April 24, 2018: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687396/isolation-and-differentiation-of-murine-primary-brown-beige-preadipocytes
#18
Hui Yu, Margo Emont, Heejin Jun, Jun Wu
Studies on thermogenic adipose cells (brown and beige fat) hold promise to treat obesity and its associated metabolic disorders due to the ability of these cells to dissipate energy in the form of heat. Although immortalized adipose cell lines have been widely used to investigate cell autonomous regulations, many physiological functions of thermogenic fat need to be studied with primary fat cells. Here, we present a detailed protocol of the isolation, culture, and differentiation of primary brown and beige preadipocytes from the stromal vascular fraction of murine interscapular and inguinal adipose depots...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684558/effects-of-exercise-on-brown-and-beige-adipocytes
#19
REVIEW
Revati S Dewal, Kristin I Stanford
Physical exercise leads to beneficial effects in numerous tissues and organ systems and offers protection against obesity and type 2 diabetes. Recent studies have investigated the role of exercise on brown adipose tissue (BAT) and white adipose tissue (WAT), and have indicated marked adaptations to each tissue with exercise. Studies investigating the effects of exercise on BAT have produced conflicting results, with some showing an increase in the thermogenic activity of BAT and some demonstrating a decrease in the thermogenic activity of BAT...
April 20, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678576/aging-impairs-beige-adipocyte-differentiation-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-via-the-reduced-expression-of-sirtuin-1
#20
Vuong Cat Khanh, Amin Firman Zulkifli, Chiho Tokunaga, Toshiharu Yamashita, Yuji Hiramatsu, Osamu Ohneda
In the body, different types of adipose tissue perform different functions, with brown and beige adipose tissues playing unique roles in dissipating energy. Throughout life, adipocytes are regenerated from progenitors, and this process is impaired by aging. One of the progenitors of adipocytes are mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which have recently become a promising tool for stem cell therapy. However, whether or not aging impairs the brown/beige adipocyte differentiation of adipose tissue-derived MSCs (AT-MSCs) remains unclear...
April 17, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
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