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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049691/pdgfr%C3%AE-controls-the-balance-of-stromal-and-adipogenic-cells-during-adipose-tissue-organogenesis
#1
Chengyi Sun, William L Berry, Lorin E Olson
Adipose tissue is distributed in depots throughout the body with specialized roles in energy storage and thermogenesis. PDGFRα is a marker of adipocyte precursors, and increased PDGFRα activity causes adipose tissue fibrosis in adult mice. However, the function of PDGFRα during adipose tissue organogenesis is unknown. Here, by analyzing mice with juxtamembrane or kinase domain point mutations that increase PDGFRα activity (V561D or D842V), we found that PDGFRα activation inhibits embryonic white adipose tissue organogenesis in a tissue-autonomous manner...
January 1, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049156/rutin-ameliorates-obesity-through-brown-fat-activation
#2
Xiaoxue Yuan, Gang Wei, Yilin You, Yuanyuan Huang, Hyuek Jong Lee, Meng Dong, Jun Lin, Tao Hu, Hanlin Zhang, Chuanhai Zhang, Huiqiao Zhou, Rongcai Ye, Xiaolong Qi, Baiqiang Zhai, Weidong Huang, Shunai Liu, Wen Xie, Qingsong Liu, Xiaomeng Liu, Chengbi Cui, Donghao Li, Jicheng Zhan, Jun Cheng, Zengqiang Yuan, Wanzhu Jin
Increasing energy expenditure through activation of brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a critical approach to treating obesity and diabetes. In this study, rutin, a natural compound extracted from mulberry and a drug used as a capillary stabilizer clinically for many years without any side effects, regulated whole-body energy metabolism by enhancing BAT activity. Rutin treatment significantly reduced adiposity, increased energy expenditure, and improved glucose homeostasis in both genetically obese (Db/Db) and diet-induced obesity (DIO) mice...
January 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045125/metabolic-heterogeneity-of-activated-beige-brite-adipocytes-in-inguinal-adipose-tissue
#3
Yun-Hee Lee, Sang-Nam Kim, Hyun-Jung Kwon, James G Granneman
Sustained β3 adrenergic receptor (ADRB3) activation simultaneously upregulates fatty acid synthesis and oxidation in mouse brown, beige, and white adipose tissues; however, the cellular basis of this dual regulation is not known. Treatment of mice with the ADRB3 agonist CL316,243 (CL) increased expression of fatty acid synthase (FASN) and medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) protein within the same cells in classic brown and white adipose tissues. Surprisingly, in inguinal adipose tissue, CL-upregulated FASN and MCAD in distinct cell populations: high MCAD expression occurred in multilocular adipocytes that co-expressed UCP1+, whereas high FASN expression occurred in paucilocular adipocytes lacking detectable UCP1...
January 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028078/ire1%C3%AE-in-pomc-neurons-is-required-for-thermogenesis-and-glycemia
#4
Ting Yao, Zhuo Deng, Yong Gao, Jia Sun, Xingxing Kong, Yiru Huang, Zhenyan He, Yanchao Xu, Yongsheng Chang, Kai-Jiang Yu, Brianna G Findley, Eric D Berglund, Rui-Tao Wang, Hongbo Guo, Hong Chen, Xu Li, Randal J Kaufman, Jianqun Yan, Tiemin Liu, Kevin W Williams
Whether neuronal inositol-requiring enzyme 1(Ire1) is required for the proper regulation of energy balance and glucose homeostasis is unclear. We found that pro-opiomelanocortin (Pomc)-specific deficiency of Ire1α accelerated diet-induced obesity concomitant with a decrease in energy expenditure. This hypometabolic phenotype included deficits in thermogenic responses to diet and cold exposure as well as 'beiging' of white adipose tissue. We also demonstrate that loss of Ire1α in Pomc neurons impaired whole-body glucose and insulin tolerance as well as hepatic insulin sensitivity...
December 27, 2016: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28026903/impaired-adrenergic-agonist-dependent-beige-adipocyte-induction-in-aged-mice
#5
Woongchul Shin, Yuko Okamatsu-Ogura, Ken Machida, Ayumi Tsubota, Junko Nio-Kobayashi, Kazuhiro Kimura
OBJECTIVE: There are two types of thermogenic adipocytes expressing uncoupling protein (UCP)-1: the brown adipocyte activated by adrenergic stimulation and the beige adipocyte that appears within the white adipose tissue (WAT) in response to chronic adrenergic stimulation. This study examined age-related changes in responses of both types of adipocytes to adrenergic stimulation in mice. METHODS: Aged (age 20 months) and young (4 months) mice were injected daily with either saline or β3-adrenergic receptor agonist CL316,243 (CL; 0...
December 27, 2016: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012150/at1-receptor-antagonist-induces-thermogenic-beige-adipocytes-in-the-inguinal-white-adipose-tissue-of-obese-mice
#6
Francielle Graus-Nunes, Tamiris Lima Rachid, Felipe de Oliveira Santos, Sandra Barbosa-da-Silva, Vanessa Souza-Mello
PURPOSE: To evaluate whether losartan is able to induce beige adipocytes formation, focusing on the thermogenic gene expression and adipocyte remodeling in the subcutaneous white adipose tissue of diet-induced obese mice. METHODS: Male C57BL/6 mice received a control diet (10% energy as lipids) or a high-fat diet (50% energy as lipids) for 10 weeks, followed by a 5-week treatment with losartan: control group, control-losartan group (10 mg/Kg/day), high-fat group and high-fat-losartan group (10 mg/Kg/day)...
December 23, 2016: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992452/enhancement-of-adipocyte-browning-by-angiotensin-ii-type-1-receptor-blockade
#7
Kana Tsukuda, Masaki Mogi, Jun Iwanami, Harumi Kanno, Hirotomo Nakaoka, Xiao-Li Wang, Hui-Yu Bai, Bao-Shuai Shan, Masayoshi Kukida, Akinori Higaki, Toshifumi Yamauchi, Li-Juan Min, Masatsugu Horiuchi
Browning of white adipose tissue (WAT) has been highlighted as a new possible therapeutic target for obesity, diabetes and lipid metabolic disorders, because WAT browning could increase energy expenditure and reduce adiposity. The new clusters of adipocytes that emerge with WAT browning have been named 'beige' or 'brite' adipocytes. Recent reports have indicated that the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) plays a role in various aspects of adipose tissue physiology and dysfunction. The biological effects of angiotensin II, a major component of RAS, are mediated by two receptor subtypes, angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) and type 2 receptor (AT2R)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986537/meaningful-respirometric-measurements-of-ucp1-mediated-thermogenesis
#8
Yongguo Li, Tobias Fromme, Martin Klingenspor
Regarding the enormous interest in brown and brite/beige adipose tissue in the context of metabolic disease, reliable quantification of thermogenesis in these adipocytes is a central issue. This requires an assay specific for uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) mediated thermogenesis in adherent intact cells. In a recent study we identified a major pitfall associated with established procedures generally applied for this purpose. Meaningful respirometry of UCP1-mediated thermogenesis imperatively requires activation of UCP1 and control over free fatty acid levels...
December 14, 2016: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27982067/brown-adipogenic-potential-of-brown-adipocytes-and-peri-renal-adipocytes-from-human-embryo
#9
Nan-Nan Wu, Chuan-Hai Zhang, Hyuek-Jong Lee, Yan Ma, Xin Wang, Xiao-Juan Ma, Wei Ma, Dong Zhao, Ying-Mei Feng
Both brown adipocytes (BAC) and beige cells hold therapeutic potential for the treatment of metabolic disorders. Unfortunately, the amount and activity of these cells are limited in adults. Although BAC marker expression has been shown in peri-renal adipose tissues in children and adults, functional assessment is lacking. Furthermore, it is entirely unknown whether adipose progenitors are present in human embryo and able to give rise to BAC in situ during evolution. Therefore, adipose tissues in the interscapular and peri-renal regions were dissected from human embryo and subcutaneous white adipose tissues (sWAT) were obtained from an adult...
December 16, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974179/browning-of-white-adipose-tissue-with-roscovitine-induces-a-distinct-population-of-ucp1-adipocytes
#10
Hong Wang, Libin Liu, Jean Z Lin, Tamar R Aprahamian, Stephen R Farmer
Brown-like adipocytes exist in several adipose depots including white (WAT) as well as brown (BAT). Activation of these UCP1(+) cells is a potential therapeutic strategy to combat obesity. Studies have shown that posttranslational modifications of PPARγ regulate select adipocyte programs. Deacetylation of K268 and K293 in the ligand-binding domain of PPARγ by Sirt1 induces browning of WAT. Phosphorylation of S273 of PPARγ by CDK5 or ERK stimulates a diabetogenic program of gene expression in WAT. Here, we report that roscovitine, a CDK inhibitor, prevents S273 phosphorylation and promotes formation of UCP1(+) (brite) adipocytes in WAT...
December 13, 2016: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27967236/pka-riib-deficiency-induces-brown-fat-like-adipocytes-in-inguinal-wat-and-promotes-energy-expenditure-in-male-fvb-nj-mice
#11
Su Jing, Wei Wu, Shan Huang, Ruidan Xue, Yi Wang, Yun Wan, Lv Zhang, Lang Qin, Qiongyue Zhang, Xiaoming Zhu, Zhaoyun Zhang, Hongying Ye, Xiaohui Wu, Yiming Li
Obesity has become the most common metabolic disorder worldwide. Promoting brown adipose tissue (BAT) and beige adipose tissue formation, hence, a functional increase in energy expenditure may counteract obesity. Mice lacking type II-beta regulatory subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA-RIIB) display reduced adiposity and resistance to diet-induced obesity (DIO). PKA-RIIB, encoded by the Prkar2b gene, is most abundant in BAT and white adipose tissue (WAT) and the brain. In this study, we show that mice lacking PKA-RIIB have increased energy expenditure, limited weight gain, and improved glucose metabolism...
December 14, 2016: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935822/adipose-tissue-in-control-of-metabolism
#12
REVIEW
Liping Luo, Meilian Liu
Adipose tissue plays a central role in regulating whole-body energy and glucose homeostasis through its subtle functions at both organ and systemic levels. On one hand, adipose tissue stores energy in the form of lipid and controls the lipid mobilization and distribution in the body. On the other hand, adipose tissue acts as an endocrine organ and produces numerous bioactive factors such as adipokines that communicate with other organs and modulate a range of metabolic pathways. Moreover, brown and beige adipose tissue burn lipid by dissipating energy in the form of heat to maintain euthermia, and have been considered as a new way to counteract obesity...
December 2016: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934865/adipose-tissue-reversing-age-related-decline-in-beiging
#13
Tim Geach
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 9, 2016: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932592/the-role-of-adipose-tissue-in-cancer-associated-cachexia
#14
Janina A Vaitkus, Francesco S Celi
Adipose tissue (fat) is a heterogeneous organ, both in function and histology, distributed throughout the body. White adipose tissue, responsible for energy storage and more recently found to have endocrine and inflammation-modulatory activities, was historically thought to be the only type of fat present in adult humans. The recent demonstration of functional brown adipose tissue in adults, which is highly metabolic, shifted this paradigm. Additionally, recent studies demonstrate the ability of white adipose tissue to be induced toward the brown adipose phenotype - "beige" or "brite" adipose tissue - in a process referred to as "browning...
December 8, 2016: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923808/ucp1-inhibition-in-cidea-overexpressing-mice-is-physiologically-counteracted-by-brown-adipose-tissue-hyperrecruitment
#15
Alexander W Fischer, Irina G Shabalina, Charlotte L Mattsson, Gustavo Abreu-Vieira, Barbara Cannon, Jan Nedergard, Natasa Petrovic
Cidea is a gene highly expressed in thermogenesis-competent (UCP1-containing) adipose cells, both brown and brite/beige. Here we initially demonstrate a remarkable adipose-depot specific regulation of Cidea expression. In classical brown fat, Cidea mRNA is expressed continuously and invariably, irrespective of tissue recruitment. However, Cidea protein levels are regulated posttranscriptionally, being conspicuously induced in the thermogenically recruited state. In contrast, in brite fat, Cidea protein levels are regulated at the transcriptional level, and Cidea mRNA and protein levels are proportional to tissue "briteness"...
December 6, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913603/the-tumor-suppressor-flcn-mediates-an-alternate-mtor-pathway-to-regulate-browning-of-adipose-tissue
#16
Shogo Wada, Michael Neinast, Cholsoon Jang, Yasir H Ibrahim, Gina Lee, Apoorva Babu, Jian Li, Atsushi Hoshino, Glenn C Rowe, James Rhee, José A Martina, Rosa Puertollano, John Blenis, Michael Morley, Joseph A Baur, Patrick Seale, Zoltan Arany
Noncanonical mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathways remain poorly understood. Mutations in the tumor suppressor folliculin (FLCN) cause Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome, a hamartomatous disease marked by mitochondria-rich kidney tumors. FLCN functionally interacts with mTOR and is expressed in most tissues, but its role in fat has not been explored. We show here that FLCN regulates adipose tissue browning via mTOR and the transcription factor TFE3. Adipose-specific deletion of FLCN relieves mTOR-dependent cytoplasmic retention of TFE3, leading to direct induction of the PGC-1 transcriptional coactivators, drivers of mitochondrial biogenesis and the browning program...
November 15, 2016: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911319/autotaxin-is-related-to-metabolic-dysfunction-and-predicts-alzheimer-s-disease-outcomes
#17
Kelsey E McLimans, Auriel A Willette
BACKGROUND: Obesity and insulin resistance are associated with neuropathology and cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease (AD). OBJECTIVE: Ecto-nucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 2, also called autotaxin, is produced by beige adipose tissue, regulates metabolism, and is higher in AD prefrontal cortex (PFC). Autotaxin may be a novel biomarker of dysmetabolism and AD. METHODS: We studied Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative participants who were cognitively normal (CN; n = 86) or had mild cognitive impairment (MCI; n = 135) or AD (n = 66)...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900258/adipocyte-specific-hypoxia-inducible-gene-2-promotes-fat-deposition-and-diet-induced-insulin-resistance
#18
Marina T DiStefano, Rachel J Roth Flach, Ozlem Senol-Cosar, Laura V Danai, Joseph V Virbasius, Sarah M Nicoloro, Juerg Straubhaar, Sezin Dagdeviren, Martin Wabitsch, Olga T Gupta, Jason K Kim, Michael P Czech
OBJECTIVE: Adipose tissue relies on lipid droplet (LD) proteins in its role as a lipid-storing endocrine organ that controls whole body metabolism. Hypoxia-inducible Gene 2 (Hig2) is a recently identified LD-associated protein in hepatocytes that promotes hepatic lipid storage, but its role in the adipocyte had not been investigated. Here we tested the hypothesis that Hig2 localization to LDs in adipocytes promotes adipose tissue lipid deposition and systemic glucose homeostasis. METHOD: White and brown adipocyte-deficient (Hig2(fl/fl) × Adiponection cre+) and selective brown/beige adipocyte-deficient (Hig2(fl/fl) × Ucp1 cre+) mice were generated to investigate the role of Hig2 in adipose depots...
December 2016: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895388/acetate-alters-expression-of-genes-involved-in-beige-adipogenesis-in-3t3-l1-cells-and-obese-kk-ay-mice
#19
Satoko Hanatani, Hiroyuki Motoshima, Yuki Takaki, Shuji Kawasaki, Motoyuki Igata, Takeshi Matsumura, Tatsuya Kondo, Takafumi Senokuchi, Norio Ishii, Junji Kawashima, Daisuke Kukidome, Seiya Shimoda, Takeshi Nishikawa, Eiichi Araki
The induction of beige adipogenesis within white adipose tissue, known as "browning", has received attention as a novel potential anti-obesity strategy. The expression of some characteristic genes including PR domain containing 16 is induced during the browning process. Although acetate has been reported to suppress weight gain in both rodents and humans, its potential effects on beige adipogenesis in white adipose tissue have not been fully characterized. We examined the effects of acetate treatment on 3T3-L1 cells and in obese diabetic KK-Ay mice...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892486/short-chain-fatty-acids-prevent-high-fat-diet-induced-obesity-in-mice-by-regulating-g-protein-coupled-receptors-and-gut-microbiota
#20
Yuanyuan Lu, Chaonan Fan, Ping Li, Yanfei Lu, Xuelian Chang, Kemin Qi
Elucidating the mechanisms by which short chain fatty acids (SCFA) reduce body weight may assist in the development of an effective weight control strategy. Dietary supplementation of acetate, propionate, butyrate or their admixture was shown to significantly inhibit the body weight gain induced by high-fat diet feeding. Supplementation of SCFAs caused significant changes in the expressions of G-protein coupled receptor 43 (GPR43) and GPR41 characterized by increases in the adipose tissue and reductions in the colon...
November 28, 2016: Scientific Reports
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