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Adipose beige

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229360/thyroid-hormone-acting-via-tr%C3%AE-induces-expression-of-browning-genes-in-mouse-bone-marrow-adipose-tissue
#1
Richard C Lindsey, Subburaman Mohan
PURPOSE: Mutant hypothyroid mouse models have recently shown that thyroid hormone is critical for skeletal development during an important prepubertal growth period. Additionally, thyroid hormone negatively regulates total body fat, consistent with the well-established effects of thyroid hormone on energy and fat metabolism. Since bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells differentiate into both adipocytes and osteoblasts and a relationship between bone marrow adipogenesis and osteogenesis has been predicted, we hypothesized thyroid hormone deficiency during the postnatal growth period increases marrow adiposity in mice...
February 22, 2017: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223294/the-%C3%AE-3-adrenergic-receptor-is-dispensable-for-browning-of-adipose-tissues
#2
Jasper M A de Jong, René T F Wouters, Nathalie Boulet, Barbara Cannon, Jan Nedergaard, Natasa Petrovic
Brown and brite/beige adipocytes are attractive therapeutic targets to treat metabolic diseases. To maximally utilize their functional potential, further understanding is required about their identities and their functional differences. Recent studies with β3-adrenergic receptor knockout mice reported that brite/beige adipocytes, but not classical brown adipocytes, require the β3-adrenergic receptor for cold-induced transcriptional activation of thermogenic genes. We aimed to further characterize this requirement of the β3-adrenergic receptor as a functional distinction between classical brown and brite/beige adipocytes...
February 21, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220393/common-and-distinct-regulation-of-human-and-mouse-brown-and-beige-adipose-tissues-a-promising-therapeutic-target-for-obesity
#3
REVIEW
Xuejiao Liu, Christopher Cervantes, Feng Liu
Obesity, which underlies various metabolic and cardiovascular diseases, is a growing public health challenge for which established therapies are inadequate. Given the current obesity epidemic, there is a pressing need for more novel therapeutic strategies that will help adult individuals to manage their weight. One promising therapeutic intervention for reducing obesity is to enhance energy expenditure. Investigations into human brown fat and the recently discovered beige/brite fat have galvanized intense research efforts during the past decade because of their pivotal roles in energy dissipation...
February 20, 2017: Protein & Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214707/shortcuts-to-a-functional-adipose-tissue-the-role-of-small-non-coding-rnas
#4
REVIEW
Bruna B Brandão, Beatriz A Guerra, Marcelo A Mori
Metabolic diseases such as type 2 diabetes are a major public health issue worldwide. These diseases are often linked to a dysfunctional adipose tissue. Fat is a large, heterogenic, pleiotropic and rather complex tissue. It is found in virtually all cavities of the human body, shows unique plasticity among tissues, and harbors many cell types in addition to its main functional unit - the adipocyte. Adipose tissue function varies depending on the localization of the fat depot, the cell composition of the tissue and the energy status of the organism...
February 7, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154348/promoting-effect-of-%C3%AE-tocopherol-on-beige-adipocyte-differentiation-in-3t3-l1-cells-and-rat-white-adipose-tissue
#5
Rieko Tanaka-Yachi, Chie Takahashi-Muto, Kazuya Adachi, Yukina Tanimura, Yoshinori Aoki, Taisuke Koike, Chikako Kiyose
Thermogenic adipocytes that are distinct from classical brown adipocytes (beige adipocytes) were identified in 2012. Beige adipocytes are also called inducible brown adipocytes because their differentiation is induced by a number of physiological stimuli, including adrenaline or myokines. PPARγ is the master regulator of adipogenesis and promotes thermogenic adipocyte differentiation. A PPARγ agonist also promotes thermogenic adipocyte differentiation in mouse white adipose tissues. The vitamin E analog α-tocopherol promotes PPARγ expression and induces mRNA expression of target genes...
2017: Journal of Oleo Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145475/diffuse-optical-spectroscopy-and-imaging-to-detect-and-quantify-adipose-tissue-browning
#6
U S Dinish, Chi Lok Wong, Sandhya Sriram, Wee Kiat Ong, Ghayathri Balasundaram, Shigeki Sugii, Malini Olivo
Adipose (fat) tissue is a complex metabolic organ that is highly active and essential. In contrast to white adipose tissue (WAT), brown adipose tissue (BAT) is deemed metabolically beneficial because of its ability to burn calories through heat production. The conversion of WAT-resident adipocytes to "beige" or "brown-like" adipocytes has recently attracted attention. However, it typically takes a few days to analyze and confirm this browning of WAT through conventional molecular, biochemical, or histological methods...
February 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128075/under-the-surface-of-subcutaneous-adipose-tissue-biology
#7
REVIEW
Vlatka Pandžić Jakšić, Danijela Grizelj
The global obesity epidemic enhanced contemporary interest in adipose tissue biology. Two structurally and functionally distinct depots, subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT), are spread throughout the body. Their distribution was recognized to be a major determinant of metabolic risk. Unlike VAT, SAT showed some protective endocrine and inflammatory features that might explain the occurrence of obese but metabolically healthy persons. The unique developmental gene expression signature, angiogenesis, and adipogenic potential of SAT determines its growth ability under the positive energy balance...
December 2016: Acta Dermatovenerologica Croatica: ADC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123942/fetal-development-of-subcutaneous-white-adipose-tissue-is-dependent-on-zfp423
#8
Mengle Shao, Chelsea Hepler, Lavanya Vishvanath, Karen A MacPherson, Napoleon C Busbuso, Rana K Gupta
OBJECTIVE: Zfp423 is a multi zinc-finger transcription factor expressed in preadipocytes and mature adipocytes in vivo. Our recent work has revealed a critical role for Zfp423 in maintaining the fate of white adipocytes in adult mice through suppression of the beige cell thermogenic gene program; loss of Zfp423 in mature adipocytes of adult mice results in a white-to-beige phenotypic switch. However, the exact requirements of Zfp423 in the fetal stages of early adipose development in vivo have not been clarified...
January 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123139/remodeling-of-rat-stromal-vascular-cells-to-brite-beige-adipocytes-by-prolyl-hydroxyproline
#9
Jun A Minaguchi, Sakino Ogata, Naoki Takahashi, Takuya Hirose, Hiromi Ueda, Kazushige Takehana
The aim of this study was to determine the effects of prolyl-hydroxyproline (Pro-Hyp) on the proliferation and differentiation of rat stromal-vascular cells (SVCs) being cultured in a medium with (Pro-Hyp group) or without Pro-Hyp (control group). The results showed that there was no significant difference in proliferation rate of SVCs, lipid droplet (LD) diameter or intracellular concentration of triglycerides between two groups. However, the diameter range of LDs in the Pro-Hyp group tended to be smaller than that in the control group...
January 26, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109720/ucp1-in-adipose-tissues-two-steps-to-full-browning
#10
Anastasia V Kalinovich, Jasper M A de Jong, Barbara Cannon, Jan Nedergaard
The possibility that brown adipose tissue thermogenesis can be recruited in order to combat the development of obesity has led to a high interest in the identification of "browning agents", i.e. agents that increase the amount and activity of UCP1 in brown and brite/beige adipose tissues. However, functional analysis of the browning process yields confusingly different results when the analysis is performed in one of two alternative steps. Thus, in one of the steps, using cold acclimation as a potent model browning agent, we find that if the browning process is followed in mice initially housed at 21 °C (the most common procedure), there is only weak molecular evidence for increases in UCP1 gene expression or UCP1 protein abundance in classical brown adipose tissue; however, in brite/beige adipose depots, there are large increases, apparently associating functional browning with events only in the brite/beige tissues...
March 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108609/visualization-and-quantification-of-browning-using-a-ucp1-2a-luciferase-knock-in-mouse-model
#11
Liufeng Mao, Baoming Nie, Tao Nie, Xiaoyan Hui, Xuefei Gao, Xiaoliang Lin, Xin Liu, Yong Xu, Xiaofeng Tang, Ran Yuan, Kuai Li, Peng Li, Ke Ding, Yu Wang, Aimin Xu, Jian Fei, Weiping Han, Pentao Liu, Lise Madsen, Karsten Kristiansen, Zhiguang Zhou, Sheng Ding, Donghai Wu
Both mammals and adult humans possess classic brown adipocytes and beige adipocytes, and the amount and activity of these adipocytes are considered key factors in combating obesity and its associated metabolic diseases. Uncoupling protein 1 (Ucp1) is the functional marker of both brown and beige adipocytes. To facilitate a reliable, easy, and sensitive measurement of Ucp1 expression both in vivo and in vitro, we generated a Ucp1-2A-luciferase knock-in mouse by deleting the stop codon for the mouse Ucp1 gene and replacing it with a 2A peptide...
February 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108330/pleiotropic-responses-to-methionine-restriction
#12
Gene P Ables, Jay E Johnson
Methionine restriction (MR) extends lifespan across different species. The main responses of rodent models to MR are well-documented in adipose tissue (AT) and liver, which have reduced mass and improved insulin sensitivity, respectively. Recently, molecular mechanisms that improve healthspan have been identified in both organs during MR. In fat, MR induced a futile lipid cycle concomitant with beige AT accumulation, producing elevated energy expenditure. In liver, MR upregulated fibroblast growth factor 21 and improved glucose metabolism in aged mice and in response to a high-fat diet...
January 17, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107769/the-transcriptional-modulator-ifrd1-controls-pgc-1%C3%AE-expression-under-short-term-adrenergic-stimulation-in-brown-adipocytes
#13
Gyujin Park, Tetsuhiro Horie, Takashi Kanayama, Kazuya Fukasawa, Takashi Iezaki, Yuki Onishi, Kakeru Ozaki, Yukari Nakamura, Yukio Yoneda, Takeshi Takarada, Eiichi Hinoi
Sympathetic tone activates the function of classical brown adipocytes, which constitutively exist in the brown adipose tissue, and inducible brown adipocytes (so-called beige adipocytes), which sporadically reside within the white adipose tissue. Here we identified the transcriptional modulator interferon-related developmental regulator 1 (Ifrd1) as a negative regulator of thermogenic and mitochondrial gene expression in brown adipocytes. Ifrd1 expression was markedly induced by cold exposure and administration of CL-316243 (a β3 adrenergic agonist) in interscapular brown adipose and inguinal subcutaneous white adipose tissues, but not in epididymal visceral white adipose tissue, in vivo...
January 20, 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107636/visceral-white-adipose-tissue-following-chronic-intermittent-and-sustained-hypoxia-in-mice
#14
David Gozal, Alex Gileles-Hillel, Rene Cortese, Yan Li, Isaac Almendros, Zhuanhong Qiao, Ahamed A Khalyfa, Jorge Andrade, Abdelnaby Khalyfa
BACKGROUND: Angiogenesis, a process induced by hypoxia in visceral white adipose tissue (vWAT) in the context of obesity, mediates obesity-induced metabolic dysfunction and insulin resistance. Chronic intermittent hypoxia (IH) and sustained hypoxia (SH) induce body weight reductions and insulin resistance of differing magnitude, suggesting different HIF-1α-related activity. METHODS: 8-week old male C57BL/6J mice (n=10-12/group) were exposed to either IH, SH,or room air (RA)...
January 20, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099842/brown-adipogenic-reprogramming-induced-by-a-small-molecule
#15
Baoming Nie, Tao Nie, Xiaoyan Hui, Ping Gu, Liufeng Mao, Kuai Li, Ran Yuan, Jiashun Zheng, Haixia Wang, Ke Li, Shibing Tang, Yu Zhang, Tao Xu, Aimin Xu, Donghai Wu, Sheng Ding
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) has attracted considerable research interest because of its therapeutic potential to treat obesity and associated metabolic diseases. Augmentation of brown fat mass and/or its function may represent an attractive strategy to enhance energy expenditure. Using high-throughput phenotypic screening to induce brown adipocyte reprogramming in committed myoblasts, we identified a retinoid X receptor (RXR) agonist, bexarotene (Bex), that efficiently converted myoblasts into brown adipocyte-like cells...
January 17, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099124/browning-of-white-adipose-tissue-lessons-from-experimental-models
#16
Thereza Cristina Lonzetti Bargut, Vanessa Souza-Mello, Marcia Barbosa Aguila, Carlos Alberto Mandarim-de-Lacerda
Beige or brite (brown-in-white) adipocytes are present in white adipose tissue (WAT) and have a white fat-like phenotype that when stimulated acquires a brown fat-like phenotype, leading to increased thermogenesis. This phenomenon is known as browning and is more likely to occur in subcutaneous fat depots. Browning involves the expression of many transcription factors, such as PR domain containing 16 (PRDM16) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ, and of uncoupling protein (UCP)-1, which is the hallmark of thermogenesis...
January 18, 2017: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090143/acute-exercise-regulates-adipogenic-gene-expression-in-white-adipose-tissue
#17
Y Shen, H Zhou, W Jin, H J Lee
White adipose tissue expansion is associated with both hypertrophy and hyperplasia of adipocytes. Exercise training results in adipocyte hypotrophy by activating lipolysis, but it is poorly understood whether exercise regulates adipogenesis by altering adipogenic gene expression. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of a single bout of swimming exercise on adipogenic gene expression in white adipose tissue (WAT). Male C57BL/6J mice were divided into two groups: a sedentary control group and a 120-minute swimming exercise group...
December 2016: Biology of Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049691/pdgfr%C3%AE-controls-the-balance-of-stromal-and-adipogenic-cells-during-adipose-tissue-organogenesis
#18
Chengyi Sun, William L Berry, Lorin E Olson
Adipose tissue is distributed in depots throughout the body with specialized roles in energy storage and thermogenesis. PDGFRα is a marker of adipocyte precursors, and increased PDGFRα activity causes adipose tissue fibrosis in adult mice. However, the function of PDGFRα during adipose tissue organogenesis is unknown. Here, by analyzing mice with juxtamembrane or kinase domain point mutations that increase PDGFRα activity (V561D or D842V), we found that PDGFRα activation inhibits embryonic white adipose tissue organogenesis in a tissue-autonomous manner...
January 1, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049156/rutin-ameliorates-obesity-through-brown-fat-activation
#19
Xiaoxue Yuan, Gang Wei, Yilin You, Yuanyuan Huang, Hyuek Jong Lee, Meng Dong, Jun Lin, Tao Hu, Hanlin Zhang, Chuanhai Zhang, Huiqiao Zhou, Rongcai Ye, Xiaolong Qi, Baiqiang Zhai, Weidong Huang, Shunai Liu, Wen Xie, Qingsong Liu, Xiaomeng Liu, Chengbi Cui, Donghao Li, Jicheng Zhan, Jun Cheng, Zengqiang Yuan, Wanzhu Jin
Increasing energy expenditure through activation of brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a critical approach to treating obesity and diabetes. In this study, rutin, a natural compound extracted from mulberry and a drug used as a capillary stabilizer clinically for many years without any side effects, regulated whole-body energy metabolism by enhancing BAT activity. Rutin treatment significantly reduced adiposity, increased energy expenditure, and improved glucose homeostasis in both genetically obese (Db/Db) and diet-induced obesity (DIO) mice...
January 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045125/metabolic-heterogeneity-of-activated-beige-brite-adipocytes-in-inguinal-adipose-tissue
#20
Yun-Hee Lee, Sang-Nam Kim, Hyun-Jung Kwon, James G Granneman
Sustained β3 adrenergic receptor (ADRB3) activation simultaneously upregulates fatty acid synthesis and oxidation in mouse brown, beige, and white adipose tissues; however, the cellular basis of this dual regulation is not known. Treatment of mice with the ADRB3 agonist CL316,243 (CL) increased expression of fatty acid synthase (FASN) and medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) protein within the same cells in classic brown and white adipose tissues. Surprisingly, in inguinal adipose tissue, CL-upregulated FASN and MCAD in distinct cell populations: high MCAD expression occurred in multilocular adipocytes that co-expressed UCP1+, whereas high FASN expression occurred in paucilocular adipocytes lacking detectable UCP1...
January 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
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