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Obesity metabolic

David J Bond, Ana C Andreazza, John Hughes, Taj Dhanoa, Ivan J Torres, Jan-Marie Kozicky, L Trevor Young, Raymond W Lam, Lakshmi N Yatham
OBJECTIVE: There is a bidirectional relationship between obesity and mood disorders, with each increasing the risk of developing the other. This relationship suggests that they have overlapping pathophysiologic mechanisms. Adipose tissue-derived hormones, or adipokines, regulate appetite and metabolism and have activity in limbic brain regions, making them potential shared etiologic factors between elevated body mass index (BMI) and mood disorders. However, the precise relationships between BMI, mood, and adipokines are unknown...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
Michael B Cook, Jennifer Drahos, Shannon Wood, Lindsey Enewold, Ruth Parsons, Neal D Freedman, Philip R Taylor, Winnie Ricker, Christian C Abnet
BACKGROUND: The absolute risk of oesophageal adenocarcinoma (EA) among individuals with Barrett's oesophagus (BE) is low and a majority of EA cases are diagnosed among individuals with no prior BE diagnosis. To ensure that insights from EA case-control studies are transferable to clinical management of BE populations, we conducted a case-case study to compare the clinical presentation, medical history and survival of EA cases with and without a prior BE diagnosis in the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Medicare database...
October 25, 2016: British Journal of Cancer
Yu Wu, Bin Yue, Jia Liu
Obesity is characterized by the abnormal or excessive fat accumulation that may impair health and extensive increase in body mass index (BMI). Childhood obesity may occur due to disturbances in metabolic regulation, which lead to metabolic syndrome and other diseases. Peripheral blood suspended immune cells are responsible for immune surveillance. The aim of the present study was to map the inflammatory cytokine expression pattern of isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) following lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stress in vitro and clinical chemistry parameters in the plasma of subjects...
October 20, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
R E Frye, S Rose, J Chacko, R Wynne, S C Bennuri, J C Slattery, M Tippett, L Delhey, S Melnyk, S G Kahler, D F MacFabe
Propionic acid (PPA) is a ubiquitous short-chain fatty acid, which is a major fermentation product of the enteric microbiome. PPA is a normal intermediate of metabolism and is found in foods, either naturally or as a preservative. PPA and its derivatives have been implicated in both health and disease. Whereas PPA is an energy substrate and has many proposed beneficial effects, it is also associated with human disorders involving mitochondrial dysfunction, including propionic acidemia and autism spectrum disorders (ASDs)...
October 25, 2016: Translational Psychiatry
Heather K Neilson, Megan S Farris, Chelsea R Stone, Marcus M Vaska, Darren R Brenner, Christine M Friedenreich
OBJECTIVE: Physical inactivity increases postmenopausal and possibly premenopausal breast cancer risk, although different biologic mechanisms are proposed. Our primary objective was to estimate breast cancer risk associated with high versus low levels of moderate-vigorous recreational activity, separately for premenopausal and postmenopausal women. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review of literature published to July 2015. Included reports were cohort or case-control studies relating moderate-vigorous recreational physical activity (metabolic equivalent ≥3...
October 24, 2016: Menopause: the Journal of the North American Menopause Society
I Iwan-Zietek, B Ruszkowska-Ciastek, M Michalska, E Overskaug, K Goralczyk, S Dabrowiecki, D Rosc
Adipokines regulate glucose homeostasis, insulin sensitivity, lipids metabolism, reproduction, as well as endothelial and platelets function. The study compares the plasma and adipose tissue concentrations of total adiponectin, leptin, leptin receptor and leptin-to-adiponectin ratio (LAR) in morbidly obese patients. Additionally it evaluates selected adipokines (leptin, adiponectin), endothelial markers and LAR depending on the gender in morbidly obese and non-obese subjects. The study involved 51 patients (31 women aged 21 - 60 (mean age of 39) and 20 men aged 24 to 60 (mean age of 41))...
August 2016: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
L Balazova, K Krskova, M Suski, V Sisovsky, N Hlavacova, R Olszanecki, D Jezova, S Zorad
Increasing evidence indicates a role of oxytocin in controlling energy metabolism. The aim of his study was to investigate oxytocin effects on obese phenotype in leptin-resistant Zucker fatty rats, focusing on glucose and lipid metabolism. Zucker fatty rats and their lean controls were treated with oxytocin (3.6 μg/100g body weight/day) by osmotic minipumps implanted subcutaneously for 2 weeks. Two-hours intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test was performed in fasting rats. Oxytocin decreased food intake in both phenotypes while body weight gain reduced only in obese animals...
August 2016: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
Nayely Garibay-Nieto, Gloria Queipo-Garcia, Flor Alvarez-Huerta, Mayra Bustos-Esquivel, Erendira Villanueva-Ortega, Fernando Ramirez, Mireya Leon, Estibalitz Laresgoiti-Servitje, Ravindranath Duggirala, Teresa Macias, Sergio Cuevas, Abel Jalife, Miguel Fonseca-Sanchez, Fabiola Serratos, Juan Carlos Lopez-Alvarenga
CONTEXT: Insulin resistance precedes metabolic syndrome abnormalities and may promote cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes in children with obesity. Results of lifestyle modification programs have been discouraging, and the use of adjuvant strategies has been necessary. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the effects of metformin and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on insulin sensitivity, measured via euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp technique and insulin pathway expression molecules in muscle biopsies of children with obesity...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Shao-Hua Xie, Jesper Lagergren
The Chinese famine in 1958-1962 was one of the worst in human history, but its potential influence on cancer risks is uncertain. Using cancer incidence data in Shanghai, China, during 1983-2007, we calculated age-specific incidence rates of gastrointestinal cancers in birth cohorts exposed to the Chinese famine in different periods of life and a non-exposed reference cohort. Age-period-cohort regressions estimated the overall relative risks of gastrointestinal cancers in each birth cohort. A total of 212,098 new cases of gastrointestinal cancer were identified during the study period (129,233 males and 82,865 females), among whom 18,146 had esophageal cancer, 71,011 gastric cancer, 55,864 colorectal cancer, 42,751 liver cancer, 9,382 gallbladder cancer, and 14,944 had pancreatic cancer...
October 25, 2016: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Abdoulaye Diane, W David Pierce, Sandra E Kelly, Sharon Sokolik, Faye Borthwick, Miriam Jacome-Sosa, Rabban Mangat, Jesus Miguel Pradillo, Stuart McRae Allan, Megan R Ruth, Catherine J Field, Rebecca Hutcheson, Petra Rocic, James C Russell, Donna F Vine, Spencer D Proctor
Obesity and its metabolic complications have emerged as the epidemic of the new millennia. The use of obese rodent models continues to be a productive component of efforts to understand the concomitant metabolic complications of this disease. In 1978, the JCR:LA-cp rat model was developed with an autosomal recessive corpulent (cp) trait resulting from a premature stop codon in the extracellular domain of the leptin receptor. Rats that are heterozygous for the cp trait are lean-prone, while those that are homozygous (cp/cp) spontaneously display the pathophysiology of obesity as well as a metabolic syndrome (MetS)-like phenotype...
2016: Frontiers in Nutrition
Jordan J Nostedt, Noah J Switzer, Richdeep S Gill, Jerry Dang, Daniel W Birch, Christopher de Gara, Robert J Bailey, Shahzeer Karmali
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is becoming one of the most common causes of liver disease in the western world. The most significant risk factors are obesity and the metabolic syndrome for which bariatric surgery has been shown to be an effective treatment. However, the effects of bariatric surgery on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, specifically liver fibrosis and cirrhosis, are not well established. We review published bariatric surgery outcomes with respect to nonalcoholic liver disease. On the basis of this review we suggest that bariatric surgery may provide a viable treatment option for the treatment of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, including patients with fibrosis and compensated cirrhosis, and that this topic should be a target of future investigation...
2016: Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Longhua Liu, Zhipeng Tao, Louise D Zheng, Joseph P Brooke, Cayleen M Smith, Dongmin Liu, Yun Chau Long, Zhiyong Cheng
Mitochondrial uncoupling proteins (UCPs) are inducible and play an important role in metabolic and redox homeostasis. Recent studies have suggested that FoxO1 controls mitochondrial biogenesis and morphology, but it remains largely unknown how FoxO1 may regulate mitochondrial UCPs. Here we show that FoxO1 interacted with transcription factor EB (Tfeb), a key regulator of autophagosome and lysosome, and mediated the expression of UCP1, UCP2 and UCP3 differentially via autophagy in adipocytes. UCP1 was down-regulated but UCP2 and UCP3 were upregulated during adipocyte differentiation, which was associated with increased Tfeb and autophagy activity...
2016: Cell Death Discovery
Allison C Sylvetsky, Rebecca J Brown, Jenny E Blau, Mary Walter, Kristina I Rother
BACKGROUND: Non-nutritive sweeteners (NNS), especially in form of diet soda, have been linked to metabolic derangements (e.g. obesity and diabetes) in epidemiologic studies. We aimed to test acute metabolic effects of NNS in isolation (water or seltzer) and in diet sodas. METHODS: We conducted a four-period, cross-over study at the National Institutes of Health Clinical Center (Bethesda, Maryland). Thirty healthy adults consumed 355 mL water with 0 mg, 68 mg, 170 mg, and 250 mg sucralose, and 31 individuals consumed 355 mL caffeine-free Diet Rite Cola™, Diet Mountain Dew™ (18 mg sucralose, 18 mg acesulfame-potassium, 57 mg aspartame), and seltzer water with NNS (68 mg sucralose and 41 mg acesulfame-potassium, equivalent to Diet Rite Cola™) in randomized order, prior to oral glucose tolerance tests...
2016: Nutrition & Metabolism
Tarek K Motawi, Olfat G Shaker, Nancy N Shahin, Nancy M Ahmed
BACKGROUND: According to the WHO report in 2015, obesity is the fifth leading cause of death worldwide, and the prevalence of Egyptian female obesity is 37.5 %. Since obesity is highly influenced by genetics, and adipose tissue renin-angiotensin system is over-activated in obesity, the effect of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism on obesity and related disorders was studied in several populations, because of its effect on ACE activity. Our objective was to study the association of ACE I/D polymorphism with obesity and certain related disorders, namely hypertension, insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome, in Egyptian females...
2016: Nutrition & Metabolism
Mashael K Alshaikh, Filippos T Filippidis, Juren P Baldove, Azeem Majeed, Salman Rawaf
Background. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is one of the leading causes of death in Saudi Arabia. Saudi women in particular are more susceptible as there are sociocultural restrictions on female physical activities that may lead to high prevalence of CVD risks, especially obesity, and physical inactivity. This study aims to systematically review the published articles related to the prevalence of CVD risk among women in Saudi Arabia. The search strategy covers all published articles that assess the risk factor of CVD in Saudi Arabia from January 2000 to December 2015, using the following sources: Medline, Embase, and PsycINFO...
2016: Journal of Environmental and Public Health
Shuaihua Pu, Hamidreza Khazanehei, Peter J Jones, Ehsan Khafipour
Long-term dietary fatty acid intake is believed to induce changes in the human gut microbiome which might be associated with human health or obesity status; however, considerable debate remains regarding the most favorable ratios of fatty acids to optimize these processes. The objective of this sub-study of a double-blinded randomized crossover clinical study, the canola oil multi-center intervention trial, was to investigate effects of five different novel oil blends fed for 30 days each on the intestinal microbiota in 25 volunteers with risk of metabolic syndrome...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Lucia Russo, Hilda E Ghadieh, Simona S Ghanem, Qusai Y Al-Share, Zachary N Smiley, Cara Gatto-Weis, Emily L Esakov, Marcia F McInerney, Garrett Heinrich, Xin Tong, Lei Yin, Sonia M Najjar
Carcinoembryonic-related cell adhesion molecule 1 (CEACAM1) regulates insulin sensitivity by promoting hepatic insulin clearance and mediating suppression of fatty acid synthase activity. Feeding C57BL/6J male mice with a high-fat diet for 3-4 weeks triggered a >60% decrease in hepatic CEACAM1 levels to subsequently impair insulin clearance and cause systemic insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis. This study aimed at investigating whether lipolysis drives reduction in hepatic CEACAM1 and whether this constitutes a key mechanism leading to diet-induced metabolic abnormalities...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Lipid Research
Xiaoli Wang, Xiangyun Chang, Yurong Zhu, Huan Wang, Kan Sun
BACKGROUND: Vitamin D status is related to obesity-related metabolic disorders. We investigated the risk of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] deficiency among different metabolic phenotypes. METHODS: This prospective cross-sectional study evaluated 1,292 individuals who were ≥40 years old. Participants were classified as metabolically healthy and normal weight (MHNW), metabolically obese but normal weight (MONW), metabolically healthy but obese (MHO) or metabolically unhealthy and obese (MUO)...
October 2016: American Journal of the Medical Sciences
Mehrnaz Riazian, Elnaz Khorrami, Elham Alipoor, Sina Moradmand, Mehdi Yaseri, Mohammad Javad Hosseinzadeh-Attar
BACKGROUND: Apelin, the endogenous ligand of orphan receptor APJ (gene symbol APLNR), is an adipokine that was suggested to have a direct correlation with obesity. This peptide might play a role in obesity-related disorders, especially in the cardiovascular system. Currently, few data are available on levels and potential metabolic functions of apelin in different cardiac diseases including atrial fibrillation (AF) and coronary artery disease (CAD), which have common underlying pathophysiological mechanisms...
October 2016: American Journal of the Medical Sciences
Lihui Men, Zifeng Pi, Yuan Zhou, Mengying Wei, Yuanyuan Liu, Fengrui Song, Zhongying Liu
Obesity has become a global epidemic and public health challenge which associates with serious health issues including diabetes, cardiovascular disease, stroke, arthritis, and some types of cancer. To better understand obesity and obesity-related dysfunction, a high-fat diet (HFD) induced obese model was developed on Sprague-Dawley rats. Metabolomics based on ultra high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS) was untilized to identify and analyze obesity related metabolites in rat urine samples...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
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