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Obesity metabolic

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911357/characterization-of-metabolic-status-in-nonhuman-primates-with-the-intravenous-glucose-tolerance-test
#1
Michael Staup, George Aoyagi, TeQuana Bayless, Yixin Wang, Keefe Chng
The intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) plays a key role in the characterization of glucose homeostasis. When taken together with serum biochemical profiles, inclusive of blood glucose levels in both the fed and fasted state, HbA1c, insulin levels, clinical history of diet, body composition, and body weight status, an assessment of normal and abnormal glycemic control can be made. Interpretation of an IVGTT is done through measurement of changes in glucose and insulin levels over time in relation to the dextrose challenge...
November 13, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911319/autotaxin-is-related-to-metabolic-dysfunction-and-predicts-alzheimer-s-disease-outcomes
#2
Kelsey E McLimans, Auriel A Willette
BACKGROUND: Obesity and insulin resistance are associated with neuropathology and cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease (AD). OBJECTIVE: Ecto-nucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 2, also called autotaxin, is produced by beige adipose tissue, regulates metabolism, and is higher in AD prefrontal cortex (PFC). Autotaxin may be a novel biomarker of dysmetabolism and AD. METHODS: We studied Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative participants who were cognitively normal (CN; n = 86) or had mild cognitive impairment (MCI; n = 135) or AD (n = 66)...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911129/socioeconomic-position-and-mortality-among-patients-with-prostate-cancer-influence-of-mediating-factors
#3
Signe Benzon Larsen, Klaus Brasso, Jane Christensen, Christoffer Johansen, Anne Tjønneland, Søren Friis, Peter Iversen, Susanne Oksbjerg Dalton
INTRODUCTION: Men with low socioeconomic position experience higher mortality after a prostate cancer diagnosis compared to men with a higher socioeconomic position, however, the specific mediators of this association are unclear. We therefore evaluated the influence of potential mediators on the association between socioeconomic position, and prostate cancer-specific and all-cause death in prostate cancer patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a cohort study of prostate cancer patients in the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health study...
December 2, 2016: Acta Oncologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910718/substituting-poly-and-mono-unsaturated-fat-for-dietary-carbohydrate-reduces-hyperinsulinemia-in-women-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#4
Dalia Perelman, Nicole Coghlan, Cindy Lamendola, Susan Carter, Fahim Abbasi, Tracey McLaughlin
OBJECTIVE: Hyperinsulinemia is a prevalent feature of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), contributing to metabolic and reproductive manifestations of the syndrome. Weight loss reduces hyperinsulinemia but weight regain is the norm, thus preventing long-term benefits. In the absence of weight loss, replacement of dietary carbohydrate (CHO) with mono/polyunsaturated fat reduces ambient insulin concentrations in non-PCOS subjects. The current study evaluated whether this dietary intervention could ameliorate hyperinsulinemia in women with PCOS...
December 2, 2016: Gynecological Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910063/epidemiology-of-endometrial-carcinoma-etiologic-importance-of-hormonal-and-metabolic-influences
#5
Ashley S Felix, Hannah P Yang, Daphne W Bell, Mark E Sherman
Endometrial carcinoma is the most common gynecologic cancer in developed nations, and the annual incidence is projected to increase, secondary to the high prevalence of obesity, a strong endometrial carcinoma risk factor. Although endometrial carcinomas are etiologically, biologically, and clinically diverse, hormonal and metabolic mechanisms are particularly strongly implicated in the pathogenesis of endometrioid carcinoma, the numerically predominant subtype. The centrality of hormonal and metabolic disturbances in the pathogenesis of endometrial carcinoma, combined with its slow development from well-characterized precursors in most cases, offers a substantial opportunity to reduce endometrial carcinoma mortality through early detection, lifestyle modification, and chemoprevention...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909992/roles-for-orexin-hypocretin-in-the-control-of-energy-balance-and-metabolism
#6
Paulette B Goforth, Martin G Myers
The neuropeptide hypocretin is also commonly referred to as orexin, since its orexigenic action was recognized early. Orexin/hypocretin (OX) neurons project widely throughout the brain and the physiologic and behavioral functions of OX are much more complex than initially conceived based upon the stimulation of feeding. OX most notably controls functions relevant to attention, alertness, and motivation. OX also plays multiple crucial roles in the control of food intake, metabolism, and overall energy balance in mammals...
December 2, 2016: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909910/biological-mechanisms-for-the-effect-of-obesity-on-cancer-risk-experimental-evidence
#7
Mauricio Berriel Diaz, Stephan Herzig, Tobias Schafmeier
Multiple epidemiological studies demonstrated that overweight and obesity significantly increase the risk of several types of cancer. As the prevalence of obesity is dramatically rising, it is expected that it will represent one of the major lifestyle-associated risk factors for cancer development in the near future. Numerous recent studies expanded knowledge about key players and pathways, which are deregulated in the obese state and potentially promote cancer initiation, progression and aggressiveness via remote and local effects...
2016: Recent Results in Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909909/obesity-biomarkers-metabolism-and-risk-of-cancer-an-epidemiological-perspective
#8
Katharina Nimptsch, Tobias Pischon
Obesity is associated with metabolic alterations that may pose a biological link between body fatness and risk of cancer. Elucidating the role of obesity-related biomarkers in cancer development is essential for developing targeted strategies aiming at obesity-associated cancer prevention. Molecular epidemiological studies of the past decades have provided evidence that major hormonal pathways linking obesity and cancer risk include the insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) axis, sex-steroid hormones, adipokines and chronic low-grade inflammation...
2016: Recent Results in Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909908/obesity-and-liver-cancer
#9
Krasimira Aleksandrova, Marta Stelmach-Mardas, Sabrina Schlesinger
Obesity and related metabolic disorders have become globally prevalent posing a challenge for the chronically damaged liver and predisposing the development and progression of cancer. The rising phenomenon of "obesity epidemic" may provide means for understanding why liver cancer is one of the few malignancies with rising incidence in developed countries over the last decades. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease associated with obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes is an increasingly recognized trigger for liver cancer in Western populations characterized by low prevalence of established risk factors for liver cancer such as viral hepatitis and hepatotoxin exposure...
2016: Recent Results in Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909906/obesity-and-prostate-cancer
#10
Yin Cao, Edward Giovannucci
Prostate cancer is a complex, heterogeneous disease. Factors related to detection, particularly PSA screening, further increase heterogeneity in the manifestation of the disease. It is thus not possible to provide a simple summary of the relationship between obesity and prostate cancer. Findings on obesity, often defined using body mass index (BMI), and total prostate cancer risk have been mixed; however, obesity is relatively consistently associated with a higher risk of aggressive prostate cancer, with aggressiveness defined in various ways (e...
2016: Recent Results in Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909902/obesity-and-oesophageal-cancer
#11
Katharina Nimptsch, Annika Steffen, Tobias Pischon
A substantial increase in the incidence of oesophageal adenocarcinoma has been observed in Western countries during the past 30 years, which may be related to the parallel rise of the obesity prevalence. On the other hand, incidence rates of oesophageal squamous cell carcinomas, the other major histological type of oesophageal cancer, have remained relatively stable. Epidemiological research of the past decades has identified obesity as risk factor for oesophageal adenocarcinoma. Studies investigating general obesity as assessed by body mass index (BMI) provide evidence for a strong positive association with oesophageal adenocarcinoma...
2016: Recent Results in Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909723/inhibition-of-jnk-suppresses-autophagy-and-attenuates-insulin-resistance-in-a-rat-model-of-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#12
Hua Yan, Yanqiong Gao, Ying Zhang
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common chronic liver disease, the pathological process of which is complex. Activation of the c‑Jun N‑terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathway is associated with the mechanism underlying obesity-induced insulin resistance. Furthermore, the JNK signaling pathway and dysfunctional autophagy serve important roles in hepatic lipid metabolism. However, the exact role of JNK in autophagy and obesity‑induced insulin resistance is not fully understood. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the underlying mechanisms by which the JNK signaling pathway regulates autophagy and insulin resistance in fatty liver...
November 24, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909699/aav-mediated-sirt1-overexpression-in-skeletal-muscle-activates-oxidative-capacity-but-does-not-prevent-insulin-resistance
#13
Laia Vilà, Carles Roca, Ivet Elias, Alba Casellas, Ricardo Lage, Sylvie Franckhauser, Fatima Bosch
Type 2 diabetes is characterized by triglyceride accumulation and reduced lipid oxidation capacity in skeletal muscle. SIRT1 is a key protein in the regulation of lipid oxidation and its expression is reduced in the skeletal muscle of insulin resistant mice. In this tissue, Sirt1 up-regulates the expression of genes involved in oxidative metabolism and improves mitochondrial function mainly through PPARGC1 deacetylation. Here we examined whether Sirt1 overexpression mediated by adeno-associated viral vectors of serotype 1 (AAV1) specifically in skeletal muscle can counteract the development of insulin resistance induced by a high fat diet in mice...
2016: Molecular Therapy. Methods & Clinical Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909560/induction-of-heme-oxygenase-1-with-dietary-quercetin-reduces-obesity-induced-hepatic-inflammation-through-macrophage-phenotype-switching
#14
Chu-Sook Kim, Hye-Seon Choi, Yeonsoo Joe, Hun Taeg Chung, Rina Yu
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Obesity-induced steatohepatitis accompanied by activated hepatic macrophages/Kupffer cells facilitates the progression of hepatic fibrinogenesis and exacerbates metabolic derangements such as insulin resistance. Heme oxyganase-1 (HO-1) modulates tissue macrophage phenotypes and thus is implicated in protection against inflammatory diseases. Here, we show that the flavonoid quercetin reduces obesity-induced hepatic inflammation by inducing HO-1, which promotes hepatic macrophage polarization in favor of the M2 phenotype...
December 2016: Nutrition Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908924/excess-weight-as-a-risk-factor-common-to-many-cancer-sites-words-of-caution-when-interpreting-meta-analytic-evidence
#15
Melina Arnold, Andrew G Renehan, Graham A Colditz
For over a decade, excess body weight, commonly categorized as overweight (body mass index, BMI: 25.0 to 29.9 kg/m2) and obesity (BMI: ≥ 30 kg/m2) has been an established incidence risk factor for several adult cancers (1). For 2012, the burden of disease attributed to elevated BMI was estimated as nearly half-million new cancers worldwide, making this the third highest ranked cancer risk factor globally after smoking and infections (ranked second in most western populations) and an important public health problem (2, 3)...
December 1, 2016: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908750/mesenchymal-stromal-cell-based-therapies-reduce-obesity-and-metabolic-syndromes-induced-by-a-high-fat-diet
#16
Chien-Wei Lee, Wei-Ting Hsiao, Oscar K Lee
Obesity is an alarming global health problem that results in multiaspect metabolic syndromes in both genders and most age groups. The lack of effective therapies for obesity and its associated metabolic syndrome is an urgent societal issue. To elucidate whether mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC)-based therapies can ameliorate high-fat diet-induced obesity and compare the effectiveness of several methodological approaches, we transplanted human MSCs, MSC-derived brown adipocytes (M-BA), and MSC lysateinto obese mice...
November 12, 2016: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908418/lead-pb-exposure-promotes-diabetes-in-obese-rodents
#17
Jannifer B Tyrrell, Samar Hafida, Paul Stemmer, Angie Adhami, Todd Leff
BACKGROUND: Pb (lead) exposure occurs at elevated frequency in urban inner city populations that also have high rates of obesity and diabetes. OBJECTIVES: To determine if Pb can promote the development of diabetes in a setting of obesity, we examined the effect of Pb exposure on glucose metabolism in a rodent model of obesity. METHODS: Adult female ZDF rats were exposed to Pb in drinking water for 24 weeks. Fasting blood glucose, insulin, and glucose tolerance were measured at regular intervals...
January 2017: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907186/inter-tissue-gene-co-expression-networks-between-metabolically-healthy-and-unhealthy-obese-individuals
#18
Lisette J A Kogelman, Jingyuan Fu, Lude Franke, Jan Willem Greve, Marten Hofker, Sander S Rensen, Haja N Kadarmideen
BACKGROUND: Obesity is associated with severe co-morbidities such as type 2 diabetes and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. However, studies have shown that 10-25 percent of the severely obese individuals are metabolically healthy. To date, the identification of genetic factors underlying the metabolically healthy obese (MHO) state is limited. Systems genetics approaches have led to the identification of genes and pathways in complex diseases. Here, we have used such approaches across tissues to detect genes and pathways involved in obesity-induced disease development...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907092/unconjugated-bile-acids-influence-expression-of-circadian-genes-a-potential-mechanism-for-microbe-host-crosstalk
#19
Kalaimathi Govindarajan, John MacSharry, Patrick G Casey, Fergus Shanahan, Susan A Joyce, Cormac G M Gahan
Disruptions to circadian rhythm in mice and humans have been associated with an increased risk of obesity and metabolic syndrome. The gut microbiota is known to be essential for the maintenance of circadian rhythm in the host suggesting a role for microbe-host interactions in the regulation of the peripheral circadian clock. Previous work suggested a role for gut bacterial bile salt hydrolase (BSH) activity in the regulation of host circadian gene expression. Here we demonstrate that unconjugated bile acids, known to be generated through the BSH activity of the gut microbiota, are potentially chronobiological regulators of host circadian gene expression...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906747/update-on-angiotensin-at2-receptors
#20
Robert M Carey
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review updates major new findings and concepts introduced during the past year on the role of angiotensin II (Ang II) subtype 2 receptors (AT2Rs) in the control of blood pressure and renal function. RECENT FINDINGS: AT2R activation prevents sodium (Na) retention and lowers blood pressure in the Ang II infusion model of experimental hypertension and prevents salt-sensitive hypertension in the obese Zucker rat model of obesity and the metabolic syndrome...
November 30, 2016: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
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