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Severe mental illness

Jagnoor Jagnoor, Annelies De Wolf, Michael Nicholas, Chris G Maher, Petrina Casey, Fiona Blyth, Ian A Harris, Ian D Cameron
BACKGROUND: We sought to identify the role of pre-injury socio-demographic and health characteristics, and injury severity in determining health-related quality-of-life outcomes for mild to moderate injuries 2 months after a motor vehicle crash in a compensable setting. METHODS: People aged 17 years and older, injured with a New Injury Severity Score of 8 or less, in a motor vehicle crash in New South Wales and who had registered a claim with the Compulsory Third Party Insurance scheme from March to December 2010 were contacted to participate in the study...
December 2015: Injury Epidemiology
Raúl Alelú-Paz, Francisco J Carmona, José V Sanchez-Mut, Ariel Cariaga-Martínez, Ana González-Corpas, Nadia Ashour, Maria J Orea, Ana Escanilla, Alfonso Monje, Carmen Guerrero Márquez, Jerónimo Saiz-Ruiz, Manel Esteller, Santiago Ropero
Attempts to discover genes that are involved in the pathogenesis of major psychiatric disorders have been frustrating and often fruitless. Concern is building about the need to understand the complex ways in which nature and nurture interact to produce mental illness. We analyze the epigenome in several brain regions from schizophrenic patients with severe cognitive impairment using high-resolution (450K) DNA methylation array. We identified 139 differentially methylated CpG sites included in known and novel candidate genes sequences as well as in and intergenic sequences which functions remain unknown...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Andrea G Segal, Dominic A Sisti
Several forms of mandated community treatment exist in the United States. One mechanism, assisted outpatient treatment (AOT), has become both more common and more controversial in recent years. The status of individuals committed to AOT remains unclear within regulatory guidelines aimed at protecting research participants. Should individuals on AOT be considered psychiatric inpatients, prisoners, community members, or something else? The authors argue that persons on AOT inhabit a gray area wherein they should be given some of the ethical protections afforded to involuntary inpatients and prisoners, but they should also enjoy freedoms as members of the community...
October 17, 2016: Psychiatric Services: a Journal of the American Psychiatric Association
Martha Sajatovic, Curtis Tatsuoka, Elisabeth Welter, Adam T Perzynski, Kari Colon-Zimmermann, Jamie R Van Doren, Ashley Bukach, Mary Ellen Lawless, Eleanor R Ryan, Katherine Sturniolo, Samden Lhatoo
OBJECTIVES: Serious mental illness is disproportionately common in people with epilepsy and contributes to complications and mortality. Few care approaches specifically target individuals who have epilepsy and severe mental illness. We used an iterative process to refine an existing intervention and tested the novel intervention, Targeted Self-Management for Epilepsy and Mental Illness (TIME) in individuals with epilepsy and comorbid mental illness (E-MI). METHODS: The TIME intervention was developed with input from a community advisory board and then tested for feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary efficacy in people with E-MI, using a 16-week prospective, randomized controlled design comparing TIME (N=22) vs...
October 12, 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Nicholas J Bradshaw, Mirian A F Hayashi
NDE1 (Nuclear Distribution Element 1, also known as NudE) and NDEL1 (NDE-Like 1, also known as NudEL) are the mammalian homologues of the fungus nudE gene, with important and at least partially overlapping roles for brain development. While a large number of studies describe the various properties and functions of these proteins, many do not directly compare the similarities and differences between NDE1 and NDEL1. Although sharing a high degree structural similarity and multiple common cellular roles, each protein presents several distinct features that justify their parallel but also unique functions...
October 14, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
Cynthia Lien, Tony Rosen, Elizabeth M Bloemen, Robert C Abrams, Maria Pavlou, Mark S Lachs
OBJECTIVES: To identify patterns of personal experience or behavior in self-neglect by exploring narratives of cognitively intact older adults. DESIGN: Descriptive study involving semistructured interviews and unstructured narratives. SETTING: A parent study of self-neglect characteristics. PARTICIPANTS: Cognitively intact, self-neglecting older adults referred from 11 community-based senior services agencies (N = 69)...
October 14, 2016: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
Jisha Myalil Lucca, Madhan Ramesh, Gurumurthy Parthasarathi, Dushad Ram
AIMS/OBJECTIVES: Psychotropic drugs are associated with significant short-term and long-term safety issues which may affect patients' mental health, physical health and cost of care. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGNS: This was a prospective study conducted in psychiatry department of a tertiary care hospital. Study included patients of any age and either sex who presented with psychiatric illness as diagnosed by ICD-10 and were receiving at least one psychotropic agent. The study involved both intensive and spontaneous reporting methods to identify ADRs...
March 1, 2016: Psychopharmacology Bulletin
Rosaria Di Lorenzo, Michela Cameli, Marisa Bolondi, Giulia Landi, Valentina Moretti, Chiara Piemonte, Gabriella Pollutri
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate paliperidone palmitate (PP) effectiveness, safety and adherence to treatment. METHODS: We collected data of all patients (n = 50) affected by Schizophrenia Disorders, treated with PP for a 3 month minimum period in the outpatient setting of Mental Health Department in Modena, from 01/01/2014 to 31/01/2015. We evaluated reasons and modality for PP implementation, improvement in symptom and functioning scales, adverse effects, discontinuations and relapses...
March 1, 2016: Psychopharmacology Bulletin
Zarnie Khadjesari, Sarah L Hardoon, Irene Petersen, Fiona L Hamilton, Irwin Nazareth
AIMS: Lack of financial incentive is a frequently cited barrier to alcohol screening in primary care. The Quality and Outcomes Framework (QOF) pay for performance scheme has reimbursed UK primary care practices for alcohol screening in people with schizophrenia since April 2011. This study aimed to determine the impact of financial incentives on alcohol screening by comparing rates of alcohol recording in people with versus those without schizophrenia between 2000 and 2013. METHODS: Cross-sectional and retrospective cohort study...
October 13, 2016: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
Lone Baandrup, Ole Bernt Fasmer, Birte Yding Glenthøj, Poul Jørgen Jennum
BACKGROUND: Patients with severe mental illness often suffer from disruptions in circadian rest-activity cycles, which might partly be attributed to ongoing psychopharmacological medication. Benzodiazepines are frequently prescribed for prolonged periods despite recommendations of only short-term usage. Melatonin, a naturally occurring nocturnal hormone, has the potential to stabilize disrupted circadian rhythmicity. Our aim was to investigate how prolonged-release melatonin affects rest-activity patterns in medicated patients with severe mental illness and if benzodiazepine dose reduction is associated with changes in circadian rhythm parameters...
October 13, 2016: BMC Psychiatry
Bamini Gopinath, Jagnoor Jagnoor, Ian A Harris, Michael Nicholas, Petrina Casey, Fiona Blyth, Christopher G Maher, Ian D Cameron
OBJECTIVES: A better understanding of the long-term factors that independently predict poorer quality of life following mild to moderate musculoskeletal injuries is needed. We aimed to establish the predictors of quality of life (including, socio-demographic, health, psychosocial and pre-injury factors), 24 months after a non-catastrophic road-traffic injury. METHODS: Prospective cohort study of 252 participants with mild/ moderate injury sustained in a road traffic crash, had quality of life measured 24 months following baseline survey...
October 13, 2016: Traffic Injury Prevention
Sharon Lawn, Teri Lucas
BACKGROUND: Smoking rates for people with severe mental illness have remained high despite significant declines in smoking rates in the general population, particularly for residents of community supported residential facilities (SRFs) where smoking has been largely neglected and institutionalized. METHODS: Two studies undertaken 10 years apart (2000 and 2010) with SRFs in Adelaide, Australia looked at historical trends to determine whether any progress has been made to address smoking for this population...
October 10, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Lauren P Shapiro, Ryan G Parsons, Anthony J Koleske, Shannon L Gourley
The prevalence of depression, anxiety, schizophrenia, and drug and alcohol use disorders peaks during adolescence. Further, up to 50% of "adult" mental health disorders emerge in adolescence. During adolescence, the prefrontal cortex (PFC) undergoes dramatic structural reorganization, in which dendritic spines and synapses are refined, pruned, and stabilized. Understanding the molecular mechanisms that underlie these processes should help to identify factors that influence the development of psychiatric illness...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Benjamin Milbourn, Beverley McNamara, Angus Buchanan
BACKGROUND/AIM: People with severe mental illness (SMI) do not receive adequate attention in research or clinical practice. They are considered hard to reach and difficult to engage. Information is needed to help provide support for this vulnerable population. This paper aims to investigate the well-being of adults diagnosed with SMI and receiving Assertive Community Treatment (ACT) by applying the occupational well-being framework to the everyday activities of this vulnerable group of people...
October 13, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy
Silvia Haag, Paula Haffner, Esther Quinlivan, Martin Brüne, Thomas Stamm
BACKGROUND: Research on theory of mind (ToM) abilities in patients with bipolar disorder has yielded conflicting results. Meta-analyses point to a stable moderate impairment in remitted patients, but factors such as subsyndromal symptoms, illness severity, and deficits in basic neurocognitive functions might act as confounders. Also, differences in deficits depending on task area (cognitive or affective) or task modality (visual or verbal) have been observed. This study aimed to test the hypothesis that euthymic bipolar patients would perform more poorly than healthy subjects on visual cognitive and visual affective ToM tasks...
December 2016: International Journal of Bipolar Disorders
Elisabeth M P Laurenssen, Hester V Eeren, Martijn J Kikkert, Jaap Peen, Dieuwertje Westra, Jack J M Dekker, Jan J V Busschbach
BACKGROUND: Mentalization-Based Treatment (MBT) is a promising, though expensive treatment for severely ill patients with Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD). A high burden of disease in terms of quality of life (QoL) and life years lost can be a reason to prioritize mental health interventions, and specifically for BPD patients. Moreover, when the societal costs of the illness are high, spending resources on high treatment costs would be more easily legitimized. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to calculate the burden of disease of BPD patients eligible for MBT...
October 12, 2016: Health and Quality of Life Outcomes
Tilman Steinert, Andreas Heinz, Felix Hohl-Radke, Manfred Koller, Jürgen Müller, Sabine Müller, Martin Zinkler
The term of a "considerable damage to one's health" is central in German guardianship law with respect to judge's decisions on involuntary commitment and coercive treatment. A legal definition has not been provided, and up to now no explanations from the part of medicine have been available what a "considerable damage to one's health" is in the case of mental illness and how it can be determined. A consensus paper of the German Association of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy (DGPPN) explains four possible scenarios of manifestation of such kind of damage, corresponding to somatic illnesses: evidence of structural brain lesions (rare), subjective suffering (sufficient, but not necessary), impairment of functioning in important areas of life, and severe impairment of social participation (e...
October 2016: Psychiatrische Praxis
Julian D Ford, Andres R Schneeberger, Irina Komarovskaya, Kristina Muenzenmaier, Dorothy Castille, Lewis A Opler, Bruce Link
A new clinician rating measure, the Symptoms of Trauma Scale (SOTS) was administered to adult psychiatric outpatients (46 men, 47 women) with severe mental illness (SMI) who reported a history of trauma exposure and were recently discharged from inpatient psychiatric treatment. SOTS composite severity scores for DSM-IV and DSM-5 posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), complex PTSD (cPTSD), and total PTSD/cPTSD severity had acceptable internal consistency reliability. SOTS scores' construct and convergent validity was supported by correlations with self-report measures of childhood and adult trauma history, and PTSD, dissociation, and anger symptoms...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Trauma & Dissociation
Jennifer W Mack, Maya Ilowite, Sarah Taddei
BACKGROUND: Previous work on difficult relationships between patients and physicians has largely focused on the adult primary care setting and has typically held patients responsible for challenges. Little is known about experiences in pediatrics and more serious illness; therefore, we examined difficult relationships between parents and physicians of children with cancer. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional, semistructured interview study of parents and physicians of children with cancer at the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Boston Children's Hospital (Boston, Mass) in longitudinal primary oncology relationships in which the parent, physician, or both considered the relationship difficult...
October 11, 2016: Cancer
Bojan Mirkovic, Claudine Laurent, Marc-Antoine Podlipski, Thierry Frebourg, David Cohen, Priscille Gerardin
Suicidal behaviors (SBs), which range from suicidal ideation to suicide attempts and completed suicide, represent a fatal dimension of mental ill-health. The involvement of genetic risk factors in SB is supported by family, twin, and adoption studies. The aim of this paper is to review recent genetic association studies in SBs including (i) case-control studies, (ii) family-based association studies, and (iii) genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Various studies on genetic associations have tended to suggest that a number of genes [e...
2016: Frontiers in Psychiatry
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