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Psychiatric symptoms management

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806385/a-naturalistic-comparison-of-methylphenidate-and-risperidone-monotherapy-in-drug-naive-youth-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-comorbid-with-oppositional-defiant-disorder-and-aggression
#1
Gabriele Masi, Azzurra Manfredi, Giulia Nieri, Pietro Muratori, Chiara Pfanner, Annarita Milone
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) are frequently co-occurring in youth, but data about the pharmacological management of this comorbidity are scarce, especially when impulsive aggression is prominent. Although stimulants are the first-line medication for ADHD, second-generation antipsychotics, namely, risperidone, are frequently used. We aimed to assess effectiveness and safety of monotherapy with the stimulant methylphenidate (MPH) and risperidone in a consecutive sample of 40 drug-naive male youths diagnosed as having ADHD-combined presentation, comorbid with ODD and aggression, without psychiatric comorbidities, according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition criteria and a structured clinical interview (Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children-Present and Lifetime Version)...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806161/concussion-evaluation-and-management
#2
REVIEW
Alexandra Stillman, Michael Alexander, Rebekah Mannix, Nancy Madigan, Alvaro Pascual-Leone, William P Meehan
Concussion is a common problem often managed by nonneurologists. It is often accompanied by headaches, dizziness, sleep disturbance, psychiatric symptoms, and cognitive issues. Here, we outline how to evaluate and manage concussion, including treatment of the most common symptoms.
August 2017: Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805591/acute-presentation-of-nonmotor-symptoms-in-parkinson-s-disease
#3
Kimberly Kwei, Steven Frucht
There are a few syndromes involving the nonmotor symptoms of Parkinson's disease and other movement disorders that can quickly lead to severe morbidity and mortality, and, as such, need rapid identification and management. Among these are neuroleptic malignant syndrome, serotonin syndrome, dopamine agonist withdrawal syndrome, and dystonic storm. It is important to maintain a high index of suspicion for these disorders as lack of identification can lead to death. Many of these acutely occurring nonmotor syndromes are primarily the result of imbalances in dopaminergic and serotonergic systems due to changes in pharmacologic management of psychiatric disorders or Parkinson's disease...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783134/assessing-the-effectiveness-of-neurofeedback-training-in-the-context-of-clinical-and-social-neuroscience
#4
REVIEW
Franklin Orndorff-Plunkett, Fiza Singh, Oriana R Aragón, Jaime A Pineda
Social neuroscience benefits from the experimental manipulation of neuronal activity. One possible manipulation, neurofeedback, is an operant conditioning-based technique in which individuals sense, interact with, and manage their own physiological and mental states. Neurofeedback has been applied to a wide variety of psychiatric illnesses, as well as to treat sub-clinical symptoms, and even to enhance performance in healthy populations. Despite growing interest, there persists a level of distrust and/or bias in the medical and research communities in the USA toward neurofeedback and other functional interventions...
August 7, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780282/adolescent-insomnia-suicide-risk-and-the-interpersonal-theory-of-suicide
#5
Lucas Zullo, Sarah Horton, Michael Eaddy, Jessica King, Jennifer Hughes, Andrew Diederich, Betsy Kennard, Graham Emslie, Sunita Stewart
Although insomnia has been repeatedly linked with suicide ideation, the reason for the linkage is not clear. The Interpersonal Psychological Theory of Suicide (IPTS) proposes that three core variables (thwarted belongingness, perceived burdensomeness, and acquired capability) are the final common pathway for all risk factors for suicide ideation and behavior. Recent research has suggested that insomnia may be associated with suicide ideation independently of the IPTS. We examined cross-sectional data from 151 psychiatric inpatients (ages 12-17) to determine if the association between insomnia symptoms and a continuous measure of suicide risk (measured as increasingly severe ideation and plan) was explained by the framework of the IPTS...
July 29, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771524/the-effect-of-brief-case-management-on-emergency-department-use-of-frequent-users-in-mental-health-findings-of-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#6
Vicky Stergiopoulos, Agnes Gozdzik, Ashley Cohen, Tim Guimond, Stephen W Hwang, Paul Kurdyak, Molyn Leszcz, Donald Wasylenki
Frequent users of hospital emergency departments (EDs) are a medically and socially vulnerable population. The Coordinated Access to Care from Hospital EDs (CATCH-ED) study examined the effectiveness of a brief case management intervention in reducing ED use and improving health outcomes among frequent ED users with mental health or addiction challenges in a large urban centre. Adults (≥18 years of age) who had five or more ED visits in the past 12-months, with at least one visit for mental health or addictions problems were randomized to either brief case management (N = 83) or usual care (N = 83) and followed for 12 months...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767205/prevalence-and-pharmacotherapy-of-behavioral-and-psychological-symptoms-of-dementia-in-a-geriatric-psychiatry-unit-a-retrospective-analysis
#7
Arnim Quante, Atdhe Sulejmani
Objective: To observe (1) the proportion and nature of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) in patients treated at a geriatric psychiatry ward in Germany over a time span of 1 year and (2) the use and effect of various pharmacologic interventions in managing BPSD in a real-world scenario. Methods: This study was a naturalistic, retrospective analysis. Between May 2015 and May 2016, 437 patients aged 65 to 100 years with various psychiatric diseases (including dementia, schizophrenia, and depression) were admitted to a geriatric psychiatry unit in Germany...
July 27, 2017: Primary Care Companion to CNS Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766469/the-forsaking-of-the-clinical-eeg-by-psychiatry-how-justified
#8
Nash N Boutros
Despite decades of publications attesting to the role of the clinical EEG in diagnosing and managing psychiatric disorders, the procedure remains highly underutilized in the practice of psychiatry. The visually inspected EEG (vEEG) can detect various forms of abnormalities, each with its own clinical significance. Abnormalities can be paroxysmal (i.e., suggestive of an epileptic-like process) or stationary. The most important unanswered question remains the value of detecting epileptiform activity in a nonepileptic psychiatric patient in predicting favorable responses to anticonvulsant treatment...
August 2, 2017: CNS Spectrums
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749831/targets-for-the-treatment-of-insomnia-in-veterans-with-serious-mental-illness
#9
Elizabeth A Klingaman, Julie M McCarthy, Elana K Schwartz, Philip R Gehrman, Melanie E Bennett
STUDY OBJECTIVES: Insomnia is pervasive among people with serious mental illnesses (SMI) and has a profound negative impact on their psychiatric symptom management and recovery. However, little is known about the factors that affect severity of insomnia in those with SMI. In addition, very few studies have explored whether evidence-based interventions developed for those without SMI are appropriate for or applicable to individuals with SMI. The purpose of this study was to test the role of arousal, dysfunctional cognitions about sleep, and sleep-related behaviors in predicting severity of insomnia in a sample of 60 Veterans who were receiving care in Veterans Health Administration mental health and psychosocial rehabilitation programs and who reported subjective insomnia...
July 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743212/caregiver-burden-in-parkinson-disease-a-critical-review-of-recent-literature
#10
Philip E Mosley, Rebecca Moodie, Nadeeka Dissanayaka
Burden is a negative psychological state induced in caregivers by the demands of providing care to a person with an illness or a disability. Managing caregiver burden in Parkinson disease (PD) is significant because informal caregivers make a substantial contribution to the well-being of persons with PD, incurring financial, social, and personal losses. Failure to recognize and manage caregiver burden may lead to burnout and premature institutionalization of the person with PD. We conducted a comprehensive literature review to identify and summarize factors that may amplify burden, including motor and nonmotor symptoms of PD, caregiver psychiatric symptoms, and caregiver coping style...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry and Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734555/decisional-and-dispositional-capacity-determinations-neuropsychiatric-illness-and-an-integrated-clinical-paradigm
#11
REVIEW
James A Bourgeois, Mary Ann Cohen, Jennifer M Erickson, Rebecca Weintraub Brendel
BACKGROUND: Assessment of decisional capacity requires thorough clinical review of a patient's current psychiatric symptoms and cognitive processes. The assessment to determine the patient's capacity for self-management postdischarge is a different clinical concept from decisional capacity. OBJECTIVES: Standardized guidelines for capacity determinations (both for informed consent and for disposition) would be helpful to clinicians, patients, and their caregivers...
May 13, 2017: Psychosomatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734149/discharge-management-strategies-and-post-discharge-care-interventions-for-depression-systematic%C3%A2-review-and-meta-analysis
#12
REVIEW
F Holzinger, S Fahrenkrog, S Roll, F Kleefeld, M Adli, C Heintze
BACKGROUND: Patients with depression require treatment continuity when discharged from inpatient care. Interventions aimed at optimizing transition into outpatient care may be effective in preventing symptom deterioration and readmission. We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of care transition interventions for patients with depression after psychiatric hospitalization. METHODS: Systematic review and random-effects meta-analysis of controlled trials. Primary outcomes were readmissions and symptoms of depression...
July 11, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731778/a-pharmacologic-algorithm-for-youth-who-are-at-high-risk-for-bipolar-disorder
#13
Christopher D Schneck, Kiki D Chang, Manpreet K Singh, Melissa P DelBello, David J Miklowitz
OBJECTIVE: Depression and brief periods of manic symptoms are linked to a significant risk of progression to bipolar disorder (BD) in children who have a first-degree relative with BD I or II. However, little evidence exists to guide the pharmacologic management of children with these high-risk phenotypes. We propose a pharmacological treatment algorithm for high-risk youth and present results on its use in a study of children with a first-degree relative with BD. METHODS: Subjects were 40 youth (mean 12...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730848/cpa-treatment-guidelines-for-individuals-at-clinical-high-risk-of-psychosis
#14
Jean Addington, Donald Addington, Sabina Abidi, Thomas Raedler, Gary Remington
OBJECTIVE: Young people who are at clinical high risk (CHR) of developing psychosis are often help seeking and have significant distress and dysfunction. There are limited guidelines for the assessment and treatment for this population. The aim of this guideline was to develop treatment recommendations for this at-risk group. METHOD: A systematic search was conducted for published guidelines for CHR. All current guidelines for schizophrenia were reviewed for treatment guidelines on individuals at CHR...
January 1, 2017: Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. Revue Canadienne de Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729345/recent-advances-in-understanding-and-managing-body-dysmorphic-disorder
#15
REVIEW
Georgina Krebs, Lorena Fernández de la Cruz, David Mataix-Cols
Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is a relatively common and disabling psychiatric disorder characterised by excessive and persistent preoccupation with perceived defects or flaws in one's appearance, which are unnoticeable to others, and associated repetitive behaviours (eg, mirror checking). The disorder generally starts in adolescence, but often goes unnoticed and is severely underdiagnosed. Left untreated, BDD typically persists and causes marked functional impairment in multiple domains. This clinical review considers recent advances in the epidemiology and classification of BDD, including its reclassification in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders under the new 'Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders' chapter...
July 20, 2017: Evidence-based Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725260/help-seeking-and-suicidality-among-people-with-epilepsy-in-a-rural-low-income-country-setting-cross-sectional-survey
#16
Ruth Tsigebrhan, Charlotte Hanlon, Girmay Medhin, Abebaw Fekadu
BACKGROUNDS: Epilepsy is a serious neurological disorder associated with a high level of psychiatric comorbidity. Suicidality is a recognised complication of epilepsy. As part of developing an integrated service for people with epilepsy (PWE) and priority psychiatric disorders within primary care, a cross-sectional study was conducted in a rural district in Ethiopia to investigate patterns of help-seeking, suicidality and the association with duration of untreated epilepsy (DUE) among PWE...
2017: International Journal of Mental Health Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722481/clinical-management-of-pediatric-acute-onset-neuropsychiatric-syndrome-part-i-psychiatric-and-behavioral-interventions
#17
Margo Thienemann, Tanya Murphy, James Leckman, Richard Shaw, Kyle Williams, Cynthia Kapphahn, Jennifer Frankovich, Daniel Geller, Gail Bernstein, Kiki Chang, Josephine Elia, Susan Swedo
OBJECTIVE: This article outlines the consensus guidelines for symptomatic treatment for children with Pediatric Acute-Onset Neuropsychiatric Syndrome (PANS) and Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Syndrome Associated with Streptococcal Infection (PANDAS). METHODS: Extant literature on behavioral, psychotherapeutic, and psychopharmacologic treatments for PANS and PANDAS was reviewed. Members of the PANS Research Consortium pooled their clinical experiences to find agreement on treatment of PANS and PANDAS symptoms...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721340/post-intensive-care-syndrome-an-overview
#18
Gautam Rawal, Sankalp Yadav, Raj Kumar
Survival of critically unwell patients has improved in the last decade due to advances in critical care medicine. Some of these survivors develop cognitive, psychiatric and /or physical disability after treatment in intensive care unit (ICU), which is now recognized as post intensive care syndrome (PICS). Given the limited awareness about PICS in the medical faculty this aspect is often overlooked which may lead to reduced quality of life and cause a lot of suffering of these patients and their families. Efforts should be directed towards preventing PICS by minimizing sedation and early mobilization during ICU...
June 2017: Journal of Translational Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721057/safety-tolerability-and-risks-associated-with-first-and-second-generation-antipsychotics-a-state-of-the-art-clinical-review
#19
REVIEW
Marco Solmi, Andrea Murru, Isabella Pacchiarotti, Juan Undurraga, Nicola Veronese, Michele Fornaro, Brendon Stubbs, Francesco Monaco, Eduard Vieta, Mary V Seeman, Christoph U Correll, André F Carvalho
Since the discovery of chlorpromazine (CPZ) in 1952, first-generation antipsychotics (FGAs) have revolutionized psychiatric care in terms of facilitating discharge from hospital and enabling large numbers of patients with severe mental illness (SMI) to be treated in the community. Second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) ushered in a progressive shift from the paternalistic management of SMI symptoms to a patient-centered approach, which emphasized targets important to patients - psychosocial functioning, quality of life, and recovery...
2017: Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708359/-psychological-distress-and-infertile-couple-a-global-approach
#20
Elodie Girard, Vasiliki Galani, Simona Toma, Isabelle Streuli
Infertility treatment doesn't stop in the technical and specific processing. The psychological distress may be very important and a frequent cause of drop-out during the medical procedure. Therefore the couple should be taken into account globally. Different level of counselling sessions should be offered to give the couple complete information about the procedure. The psychological counselling should be tailored to their need in term of coping strategies in the management of the stress or more specific psychotherapeutical approach...
February 8, 2017: Revue Médicale Suisse
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