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Yi-Chao Zheng, Dan-Dan Shen, Meng Ren, Xue-Qi Liu, Zhi-Ru Wang, Ying Liu, Qian-Na Zhang, Li-Juan Zhao, Li-Jie Zhao, Jin-Lian Ma, Bin Yu, Hong-Min Liu
Baicalin is one of the active ingredients in the skullcap, with a variety of pharmacological effects, such as blood pressure reduction, sedation, liver-protection, gallbladder-protection, anti-bacteria, and anti-inflammation. In our study, baicalin was first characterized as a LSD1 inhibitor with an IC50 of 3.01μM and showed strong LSD1 inhibitory effect in cells. Baicalin may serve as a template for designing flavone-based LSD1 inhibitors.
October 11, 2016: Bioorganic Chemistry
Ondrea A Moore, Ying Gao, Allen Y Chen, Ross Brittain, Yi Charlie Chen
The dried root of Baikal skullcap (Scutellaria baicalensis) has been historically and widely used in traditional Eastern medicine. Modern science proved that baicalin is the major bioactive responsible for the physiological activity of Baikal skullcap. Baicalin, a flavonoid found in several species in the genus Scutellaria, has been regarded as a potent anticancer agent. In this review, we present the main extraction methods, anticancer activity and bioavailability of baicalin. Besides, the utilization of nanotechnology to improve the bioavailability of baicalin is also mentioned...
2016: Journal of Nutritional Medicine and Diet Care
Qing Zhao, Xiao-Ya Chen, Cathie Martin
Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, or Chinese skullcap, has been widely used as a medicinal plant in China for thousands of years, where the preparation from its roots is called Huang-Qin. It has been applied in the treatment of diarrhea, dysentery, hypertension, hemorrhaging, insomnia, inflammation and respiratory infections. Flavones such as baicalin, wogonoside and their aglycones baicalein wogonin are the major bioactive compounds extracted from the root of S. baicalensis. These flavones have been reported to have various pharmacological functions, including anti-cancer, hepatoprotection, antibacterial and antiviral, antioxidant, anticonvulsant and neuroprotective effects...
2016: Science Bulletin
Chenghe Sun, Hecheng Wang, Yingping Wang, Shengyuan Xiao
Chlorophyll-type contaminants are commonly encountered in the isolation and determination of flavones of plant aerial plant parts. Heme is also a difficult background substance in whole blood analysis. Both chlorophyll and heme are porphyrin type compounds. In this study, a rapid method for isolating flavones with 5-hydroxyl or ortho-hydroxyl groups from biological samples was developed based on the different solubilities of porphyrin-metal and flavone-metal complexes. It is important that other background substances, e...
August 16, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Ning Ma, Ya-zhu Hou, Xian-liang Wang, Jing-yuan Mao
OBJECTIVE: To analyze medication laws of Chinese medicine (CM) treatment in hypertension patients with yin deficiency yang hyperactivity syndrome. METHODS: China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI, Jan. 1979-Dec 2014), Chinese Scientific Journals Database (VIP, Jan 1989-Dec2014), Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (CBM, Jan.1978-Dec.2014), Wanfang Database (Jan 1990-Dec 2014) were retrieved by using "hypertension", "CM", "Chinese herbs", "syndrome" as keywords...
April 2016: Chinese Journal of Integrated Traditional and Western Medicine
Izabela Grzegorczyk-Karolak, Krzysztof Gołąb, Jakub Gburek, Halina Wysokińska, Adam Matkowski
Methanolic extracts from the aerial parts and roots of two Scutellaria species, S. alpina and S. altissima, and five polyphenols from these plants demonstrated a significant ability to inhibit the formation of advanced glycation end-products (AGE) in vitro. S. alpina, which is richer in polyphenolic compounds, had strong antiglycation properties. These extracts demonstrated also high activity in the FRAP (ferric-reducing antioxidant power), antiradical (DPPH) and lipid peroxidation inhibition assays. Among the pure compounds, baicalin was the strongest glycation inhibitor (90...
June 14, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Charilaos Papafragkakis, Mel A Ona, Madhavi Reddy, Sury Anand
Many herbal preparations are routinely used and have been occasionally associated with a wide range of side effects, from mild to severe. Chinese skullcap and black catechu are herbal medications commonly used for their hepatoprotective and other properties. We report a case of acute toxic hepatitis associated with ingestion of Chinese skullcap and black catechu in one preparation for the alleviation of joint pain.
2016: Case Reports in Hepatology
Susannah Havermann, Yvonni Chovolou, Hans-Ulrich Humpf, Wim Wätjen
CONTEXT: Baicalein is a major compound in extracts derived from Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi (Lamiaceae) which are used in the Traditional Chinese Medicine for the treatment of inflammatory and gastrointestinal diseases. This flavonoid is an activator of the Nrf2 signalling pathway but the molecular mechanism is not clearly established. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the molecular mode of baicalein-mediated Nrf2-activation in Hct116 cells by the analysis of proteasomal activity, radical-scavenging activity and the comparison with baicalein derivatives...
September 2016: Pharmaceutical Biology
H Pang, A Shi, M Li, W Xue, Y Li, G Cao, B Yan, F Dong, W Xiao, G He, G Du, X Hu, G Cheng
BACKGROUND: Baicalein is a flavonoid isolated from skullcap and it is likely to exist in plasma at a low concentration because of the extensive first-pass metabolism in vivo. The aim of our study was to develop and fully validate a sensitive and selective HPLC-MS/MS method for simultaneous determination of baicalein and its main metabolite baicalin (baicalein-7-O-β-glucopyranuronoside) in human plasma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Liquid-liquid extraction was used for pretreatment of plasma samples...
August 2016: Drug Research
M Wang, Y Yu, K Brad, W Xie, X-Y Zhang
A total of 25 "heat-clearing and detoxifying" herbs used in Chinese medicine were investigated for their cytopathic effects on the growth of Newcastle Disease virus (NDV) in a chicken fibroblast cell line. The 5 herbs with the highest virus inhibitory effects were Herba agastaches, Flos chrysanthemi indici, Rhizoma anemarrhenae, Astragalus root and Baikal skullcap root and these were used in herbal formulations. Anti-NDV activities of 4 formulations were tested on the growth of NDV in the DF-1 fibroblast cell line...
2016: British Poultry Science
Jonathan Sukovich, Zhen Xu, Yohan Kim, Hui Cao, Thai-Son Nguyen, Aditya Pandey, Timothy Hall, Charles Cain
This study demonstrates the ability of histotripsy to generate targeted lesions through the skullcap without using aberration correction. Histotripsy therapy was delivered using a 500 kHz, 256-element hemispherical transducer with an aperture diameter of 30 cm and a focal distance of 15 cm fabricated in our lab. This transducer is theoretically capable of producing peak rarefactional pressures, based on linear estimation, (p-)LE, in the free field in excess of 200MPa with pulse durations 2 acoustic cycles. Three excised human skullcaps were used displaying attenuations of 73-81% of the acoustic pressure without aberration correction...
February 18, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control
Ryan M Jones, Kullervo Hynynen
Computed tomography (CT)-based aberration corrections are employed in transcranial ultrasound both for therapy and imaging. In this study, analytical and numerical approaches for calculating aberration corrections based on CT data were compared, with a particular focus on their application to transcranial passive imaging. Two models were investigated: a three-dimensional full-wave numerical model (Connor and Hynynen 2004 IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 51 1693-706) based on the Westervelt equation, and an analytical method (Clement and Hynynen 2002 Ultrasound Med...
January 7, 2016: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Hee Soon Shin, Dong-Hwa Shon
An immune hypersensitivity disorder called allergy is caused by diverse allergens entering the body via skin contact, injection, ingestion, and/or inhalation. These allergic responses may develop into allergic disorders, including inflammations such as atopic dermatitis, asthma, anaphylaxis, food allergies, and allergic rhinitis. Several drugs have been developed to treat these allergic disorders; however, long-term intake of these drugs could have adverse effects. As an alternative to these medicines, food and natural materials that ameliorate allergic disorder symptoms without producing any side effects can be consumed...
2015: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
Angel Manchón, Mohammad Hamdan Alkhraisat, Carmen Rueda-Rodriguez, Juan Carlos Prados-Frutos, Jesús Torres, Julia Lucas-Aparicio, Andrea Ewald, Uwe Gbureck, Enrique López-Cabarcos
β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) is an osteoconductive and biodegradable material used in bone regeneration procedures, while iron has been suggested as a tool to improve the biological performance of calcium phosphate-based materials. However, the mechanisms of interaction between these materials and human cells are not fully understood. In order to clarify this relationship, we have studied the iron role in β-TCP ceramics. Iron-containing β-TCPs were prepared by replacing CaCO3 with C6H5FeO7 at different molar ratios...
September 2015: Biomedical Materials
Gary B Skolnick, Sybill D Naidoo, Dennis C Nguyen, Kamlesh B Patel, Albert S Woo
Measurement of cranial vault asymmetry (CVA) is a common feature in the treatment of patients with deformational plagiocephaly (DP). In many cases, this measure is the primary marker of improvement. CVA is typically measured with calipers and is subject to interrater variability. There is little research comparing results of calipers with those of three-dimensional (3D) photogrammetry.Fifty nine visits were made by 51 children previously diagnosed with DP. Thirty eight were male and 13 were female. Thirty one of the visits included a 3D photograph...
September 2015: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
Ryan M Jones, Meaghan A O'Reilly, Kullervo Hynynen
PURPOSE: Experimentally verify a previously described technique for performing passive acoustic imaging through an intact human skull using noninvasive, computed tomography (CT)-based aberration corrections Jones et al. [Phys. Med. Biol. 58, 4981-5005 (2013)]. METHODS: A sparse hemispherical receiver array (30 cm diameter) consisting of 128 piezoceramic discs (2.5 mm diameter, 612 kHz center frequency) was used to passively listen through ex vivo human skullcaps (n = 4) to acoustic emissions from a narrow-band fixed source (1 mm diameter, 516 kHz center frequency) and from ultrasound-stimulated (5 cycle bursts, 1 Hz pulse repetition frequency, estimated in situ peak negative pressure 0...
July 2015: Medical Physics
Mehmet Asim Bilen, Sue-Hwa Lin, Dean G Tang, Kinjal Parikh, Mong-Hong Lee, Sai-Ching J Yeung, Shi-Ming Tu
Metformin is derived from galegine, a natural ingredient, and recent studies have suggested that metformin could enhance the antitumor effects of hormone ablative therapy or chemotherapy and reduce prostate cancer-specific mortality. Zyflamend is a combination of herbal extracts that reduces inflammation and comprises turmeric, holy basil, green tea, oregano, ginger, rosemary, Chinese goldthread, hu zhang, barberry, and basil skullcap. We propose a maintenance regimen with metformin and/or Zyflamend that targets cancer stem cells and the tumor microenvironment to keep the cancer dormant and prevent it from activation from dormancy...
2015: Case Reports in Oncological Medicine
Sang-Hee Lee
In 2006, a skullcap was discovered in Salkhit, Mongolia. The Salkhit skullcap has a mostly complete frontal, two partially complete parietals, and nasals. No chronometric dating has been published yet, and suggested dates range from early Middle Pleistocene to terminal Late Pleistocene. While no chronometric date has been published, the presence of archaic features has led to a potential affiliation with archaic hominin species. If it is indeed Homo erectus or archaic Homo sapiens, Salkhit implies a much earlier spread of hominins farther north and inland Asia than previously thought...
August 2015: Homo: Internationale Zeitschrift Für die Vergleichende Forschung Am Menschen
Bing-Hong Huang, Erli Pang, Yi-Wen Chen, Huifen Cao, Yu Ruan, Pei-Chun Liao
Anthocyanin is the main pigment forming floral diversity. Several transcription factors that regulate the expression of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes belong to the R2R3-MYB family. Here we examined the transcriptomes of inflorescence buds of Scutellaria species (skullcaps), identified the expression R2R3-MYBs, and detected the genetic signatures of positive selection for adaptive divergence across the rapidly evolving skullcaps. In the inflorescence buds, seven R2R3-MYBs were identified. MYB11 and MYB16 were detected to be positively selected...
2015: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Federico P O Mollard, Marie-Claude Roy, A Lee Foote
Companies mining oil sands in Alberta (Canada) face the challenge of reclaiming wetlands under water use restrictions. Wetland reclamation after mining will generate marshes characterized by elevated salinity and residual hydrocarbons. Oil sands wetlands are also impoverished in forbs, suggesting that their establishment may be constrained by water chemistry. We transplanted skullcap, mint, and smartweed plants into experimental trenches that simulated two possible reclamation scenarios: wetlands amended with on-site freshwater or with oil sands processed water (OSPW)...
March 2015: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
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