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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231498/bone-specific-poly-ethylene-sodium-phosphate-bearing-biodegradable-nanoparticles
#1
Yuya Hirano, Yasuhiko Iwasaki
Chemotherapy is the most reliable treatment for osteoporosis and osseous metastases. To facilitate better drug delivery for bone treatments, a novel preparation of polymeric nanoparticles with high affinity to bone has been prepared. Two-step synthesis of cholesteryl-functionalized poly(ethylene sodium phosphate) (Ch-PEPn·Na) was performed via ring-opening polymerization of cyclic phosphoesters and the demethylation. The molecular weight of Ch-PEPn·Na could be well controlled by changing the ratio of cholesterol and cyclic phosphoesters...
February 16, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231061/role-of-treatment-modifying-mthfr677c-t-and-1298a-c-polymorphisms-in-metformin-treated-puerto-rican-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-and-peripheral-neuropathy
#2
Francisco J Jiménez-Ramírez, Liza M Castro, Clarymar Ortiz, Jennifer Concepción, Jessicca Y Renta, Raúl H Morales-Borges, Jorge R Miranda-Massari, Jorge Duconge
BACKGROUND: The study was conducted to investigate potential association between MTHFR genotypes and diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) in Puerto Ricans with type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) treated with metformin. The prevalence of major MTHFR polymorphisms in this cohort was also ascertained. METHODS: DNAs from 89 metformin-treated patients with T2DM and DPN were genotyped using the PCR-based RFLP assay for MTHFR677C>T and 1298A>C polymorphisms. Frequency distributions of these variants in the study cohort were compared to those reported for three reference populations (HapMap project) and controls (400 newborn specimens)...
February 23, 2017: Drug Metabolism and Personalized Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230965/fluorine-functionalized-graphene-quantum-dots-as-inhibitor-against-hiapp-amyloid-aggregation
#3
Maryam Yousaf, Huan Huang, Ping Li, Chen Wang, Yanlian Yang
Fibrillar deposits of the human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP) is considered as a root of Type II diabetes mellitus. Fluorinated graphene quantum dots (FGQDs) are new carbon nanomaterials with unique physicochemical properties containing highly electronegative F atoms. Herein we report a single step synthesis method of FGQDs with an inhibitory effect on aggregation and cytotoxicity of hIAPP in vitro. Highly fluorescent and water dispersible FGQDs, less than 3 nm in size were synthesized by the microwave-assisted hydrothermal method...
February 23, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230783/acute-toxicities-of-the-saxitoxin-congeners-gonyautoxin-5-gonyautoxin-6-decarbamoyl-gonyautoxin-2-3-decarbamoyl-neosaxitoxin-c-1-2-and-c-3-4-to-mice-by-various-routes-of-administration
#4
Andrew I Selwood, Craig Waugh, David T Harwood, Lesley L Rhodes, John Reeve, Jim Sim, Rex Munday
Paralytic shellfish poisoning results from consumption of seafood naturally contaminated by saxitoxin and its congeners, the paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs). The levels of such toxins are regulated internationally, and maximum permitted concentrations in seafood have been established in many countries. A mouse bioassay is an approved method for estimating the levels of PSTs in seafood, but this is now being superseded in many countries by instrumental methods of analysis. Such analyses provide data on the levels of many PSTs in seafood, but for risk assessment, knowledge of the relative toxicities of the congeners is required...
February 21, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230257/a-general-framework-for-the-assessment-of-power-system-vulnerability-to-malicious-attacks
#5
R Piccinelli, G Sansavini, R Lucchetti, E Zio
The protection and safe operations of power systems heavily rely on the identification of the causes of damage and service disruption. This article presents a general framework for the assessment of power system vulnerability to malicious attacks. The concept of susceptibility to an attack is employed to quantitatively evaluate the degree of exposure of the system and its components to intentional offensive actions. A scenario with two agents having opposing objectives is proposed, i.e., a defender having multiple alternatives of protection strategies for system elements, and an attacker having multiple alternatives of attack strategies against different combinations of system elements...
February 23, 2017: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230125/seven-temperate-terrestrial-planets-around-the-nearby-ultracool-dwarf-star-trappist-1
#6
Michaël Gillon, Amaury H M J Triaud, Brice-Olivier Demory, Emmanuël Jehin, Eric Agol, Katherine M Deck, Susan M Lederer, Julien de Wit, Artem Burdanov, James G Ingalls, Emeline Bolmont, Jeremy Leconte, Sean N Raymond, Franck Selsis, Martin Turbet, Khalid Barkaoui, Adam Burgasser, Matthew R Burleigh, Sean J Carey, Aleksander Chaushev, Chris M Copperwheat, Laetitia Delrez, Catarina S Fernandes, Daniel L Holdsworth, Enrico J Kotze, Valérie Van Grootel, Yaseen Almleaky, Zouhair Benkhaldoun, Pierre Magain, Didier Queloz
One aim of modern astronomy is to detect temperate, Earth-like exoplanets that are well suited for atmospheric characterization. Recently, three Earth-sized planets were detected that transit (that is, pass in front of) a star with a mass just eight per cent that of the Sun, located 12 parsecs away. The transiting configuration of these planets, combined with the Jupiter-like size of their host star-named TRAPPIST-1-makes possible in-depth studies of their atmospheric properties with present-day and future astronomical facilities...
February 22, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230047/electrically-tunable-artificial-gauge-potential-for-polaritons
#7
Hyang-Tag Lim, Emre Togan, Martin Kroner, Javier Miguel-Sanchez, Atac Imamoğlu
Neutral particles subject to artificial gauge potentials can behave as charged particles in magnetic fields. This fascinating premise has led to demonstrations of one-way waveguides, topologically protected edge states and Landau levels for photons. In ultracold neutral atoms, effective gauge fields have allowed the emulation of matter under strong magnetic fields leading to realization of Harper-Hofstadter and Haldane models. Here we show that application of perpendicular electric and magnetic fields effects a tunable artificial gauge potential for two-dimensional microcavity exciton polaritons...
February 23, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229354/genetic-differentiation-of-colombian-populations-of-anopheles-darlingi-root-diptera-culicidae
#8
C Y Rosero, G I Jaramillo, R Gonzalez, H Cardenas
Anopheles darlingi Root is a primary vector of malaria in the neotropic region, a species not just highly anthropophilic but very efficient in transmitting Plasmodium species and considered the most important vector in the Amazon region. The main goal of this study was to determine the genetic structure of the A. darlingi populations using microsatellites (STR) in western and eastern regions of Colombia. DNA extraction was done with the cited protocol of band using the Genomic Prep™ cell and tissue isolation commercial kits...
February 23, 2017: Neotropical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229148/uniform-and-janus-like-nanoparticles-in-contact-with-vesicles-energy-landscapes-and-curvature-induced-forces
#9
Jaime Agudo-Canalejo, Reinhard Lipowsky
Biological membranes and lipid vesicles often display complex shapes with non-uniform membrane curvature. When adhesive nanoparticles with chemically uniform surfaces come into contact with such membranes, they exhibit four different engulfment regimes as recently shown by a systematic stability analysis. Depending on the local curvature of the membrane, the particles either remain free, become partially or completely engulfed by the membrane, or display bistability between free and completely engulfed states...
February 23, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229050/association-between-beta-fibrinogen-c148t-gene-polymorphism-and-risk-of-ischemic-stroke-in-a-north-indian-population-a-case-control-study
#10
Amit Kumar, Shubham Misra, Pradeep Kumar, Ram Sagar, Kameshwar Prasad
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Stroke is a multifactorial disease influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. The aim of this case-control study was to determine the association between β-fibrinogen C148T (rs1800787) gene polymorphism and susceptibility to ischemic stroke (IS) in a North Indian population. METHODS: In the present case-control study, genotyping was performed using the PCR-RFLP (polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism) method on 250 IS patients and 250 age- and sex-matched controls...
January 2017: Pulse (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228777/natural-mineral-waters-chemical-characteristics-and-health-effects
#11
REVIEW
Sara Quattrini, Barbara Pampaloni, Maria Luisa Brandi
Water contributes significantly to health and a daily intake of 1.5 to 2 liters of water should be guaranteed, because a good hydration is essential to maintain the body water equilibrium, although needs may vary among people. However, worldwide population is far from the Recommended Allowance for water intake. Among the waters for human uses, there are 'waters (treated or not), intended for drinking, used for the food and beverages preparation or for other domestic purposes' and natural mineral waters, that are 'originated from an aquifer or underground reservoir, spring from one or more natural or bore sources and have specific hygienic features and, eventually, healthy properties'...
September 2016: Clinical Cases in Mineral and Bone Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228031/partition-dft-on-the-water-dimer
#12
Sara Gómez, Jonathan Nafziger, Albeiro Restrepo, Adam Wasserman
As is well known, the ground-state symmetry group of the water dimer switches from its equilibrium Cs-character to C2h-character as the distance between the two oxygen atoms of the dimer decreases below RO-O∼2.5 Å. For a range of RO-O between 1 and 5 Å, and for both symmetries, we apply Partition Density Functional Theory (PDFT) to find the unique monomer densities that sum to the correct dimer densities while minimizing the sum of the monomer energies. We calculate the work involved in deforming the isolated monomer densities and find that it is slightly larger for the Cs geometry for all RO-O...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228028/characterization-of-the-electronic-states-of-the-biological-relevant-ssno-molecule
#13
Tarek Ayari, Majdi Hochlaf, Muneerah Mogren Al-Mogren, Joseph S Francisco
Using configuration interaction ab initio methods, we investigate the lowest electronic states of doublet and quartet spin multiplicities of SSNO where the one-dimensional cuts of the six-dimensional potential energy surfaces of these electronic states along the stretching and bending coordinates are computed. Mainly, these electronic states are found to be repulsive along the central SN distance. A high density of electronic states is computed even at low excitation energies that may favor their couplings...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228021/waiting-time-distribution-for-electron-transport-in-a-molecular-junction-with-electron-vibration-interaction
#14
Daniel S Kosov
On the elementary level, electronic current consists of individual electron tunnelling events that are separated by random time intervals. The waiting time distribution is a probability to observe the electron transfer in the detector electrode at time t+τ given that an electron was detected in the same electrode at an earlier time t. We study waiting time distribution for quantum transport in a vibrating molecular junction. By treating the electron-vibration interaction exactly and molecule-electrode coupling perturbatively, we obtain the master equation and compute the distribution of waiting times for electron transport...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227850/a-kalman-filter-to-estimate-altitude-change-during-a-fall
#15
Michael C Stevens, Wei Lu, Changhong Wang, Stephen J Redmond, Nigel H Lovell, Michael C Stevens, Wei Lu, Changhong Wang, Stephen J Redmond, Nigel H Lovell, Changhong Wang, Wei Lu, Stephen J Redmond, Nigel H Lovell, Michael C Stevens
Barometers have been incorporated into fall detectors in order to enhance the accuracy of fall detection algorithms, however they are power-hungry devices. We present an offline evaluation of a Kalman filter (KF) for estimating the pressure change during a fall that enables low-power operation of the barometer. The KF takes advantage of the fact that a semi-permeable air membrane on a waterproof fall detector enclosure causes a delay in the equilibrium between internal and external enclosure pressure, and this delay enables the barometer to be switched off until a free-fall is detected...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226913/low-power-operation-of-a-barometric-pressure-sensor-for-use-in-an-automatic-fall-detector
#16
Wei Lu, Changhong Wang, Michael C Stevens, Stephen J Redmond, Nigel H Lovell, Wei Lu, Changhong Wang, Michael C Stevens, Stephen J Redmond, Nigel H Lovell, Changhong Wang, Nigel H Lovell, Wei Lu, Stephen J Redmond, Michael C Stevens
The use of a barometric pressure sensor in a wearable fall detector has been shown to improve the detection accuracy by determining the altitude change associated with the fall event. However, the barometer is a high-power-consuming sensor. This paper proposes a fall detection approach using a hermetically sealed and waterproof enclosure incorporating a small window covered by a semi-permeable membrane (SPM) to delay the equilibrium of internal and external pressures. This feature can be utilized to limit the time the barometer is powered but still capturing critical pressure information to discriminate fall and non-fall events...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226652/early-warnings-of-heart-rate-deterioration
#17
Vania G Almeida, Ian T Nabney, Vania G Almeida, Ian T Nabney, Ian T Nabney, Vania G Almeida
Hospitals can experience difficulty in detecting and responding to early signs of patient deterioration leading to late intensive care referrals, excess mortality and morbidity, and increased hospital costs. Our study aims to explore potential indicators of physiological deterioration by the analysis of vital-signs. The dataset used comprises heart rate (HR) measurements from MIMIC II waveform database, taken from six patients admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) and diagnosed with severe sepsis. Different indicators were considered: 1) generic early warning indicators used in ecosystems analysis (autocorrelation at-1-lag (ACF1), standard deviation (SD), skewness, kurtosis and heteroskedasticity) and 2) entropy analysis (kernel entropy and multi scale entropy)...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226477/improving-resolution-of-robotic-capsule-locomotion-using-dynamic-electromagnetic-field
#18
Fahad N Alsunaydih, Jean-Michel Redoute, Mehmet R Yuce, Fahad N Alsunaydih, Jean-Michel Redoute, Mehmet R Yuce, Jean-Michel Redoute, Mehmet R Yuce, Fahad N Alsunaydih
This paper describes a new method to control the motion of swallowable wireless capsule endoscopy devices. A dynamic magnetic field produced by a set of external magnetic coils is used to manage the locomotion of the capsule. A permanent magnet is embedded into the capsule in order to manipulate the capsule by changing the external magnetic field strength for each specific position. The dynamic magnetic field is externally controlled to reach and maintain the equilibrium state for holding the capsule in a specific location...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226432/reinforcement-learning-for-stabilizing-an-inverted-pendulum-naturally-leads-to-intermittent-feedback-control-as-in-human-quiet-standing
#19
Kenjiro Michimoto, Yasuyuki Suzuki, Ken Kiyono, Yasushi Kobayashi, Pietro Morasso, Taishin Nomura, Kenjiro Michimoto, Yasuyuki Suzuki, Ken Kiyono, Yasushi Kobayashi, Pietro Morasso, Taishin Nomura, Ken Kiyono, Pietro Morasso, Kenjiro Michimoto, Yasushi Kobayashi, Yasuyuki Suzuki, Taishin Nomura
Intermittent feedback control for stabilizing human upright stance is a promising strategy, alternative to the standard time-continuous stiffness control. Here we show that such an intermittent controller can be established naturally through reinforcement learning. To this end, we used a single inverted pendulum model of the upright posture and a very simple reward function that gives a certain amount of punishments when the inverted pendulum falls or changes its position in the state space. We found that the acquired feedback controller exhibits hallmarks of the intermittent feedback control strategy, namely the action of the feedback controller is switched-off intermittently when the state of the pendulum is located near the stable manifold of the unstable saddle-type upright equilibrium of the inverted pendulum with no active control: this action provides an opportunity to exploit transiently converging dynamics toward the unstable upright position with no help of the active feedback control...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226429/postural-responses-after-utilization-of-a-computerized-biofeedback-based-intervention-aimed-at-improving-static-and-dynamic-balance-in-traumatic-brain-injury-a-case-study
#20
Rakesh Pilkar, Nibal Arzouni, Arvind Ramanujam, Kathleen Chervin, Karen J Nolan, Rakesh Pilkar, Nibal Arzouni, Arvind Ramanujam, Kathleen Chervin, Karen J Nolan, Arvind Ramanujam, Kathleen Chervin, Nibal Arzouni, Karen J Nolan, Rakesh Pilkar
Balance dysfunction is one of the most disabling aspects of Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI). Without rapid transmission and accurate perception of somatosensory inputs, the automatic postural responses required during standing may be delayed or absent after TBI which can lead to instability. Further, the sensitivity level to which environmental perturbations can be detected is also vital, as the central nervous system will only employ balance control strategies when it perceives a change in equilibrium. Such undetectable perturbations, however small they may be, can result in fatal falls, especially after TBI...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
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