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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049961/smartphone-app-based-portable-sensor-for-the-detection-of-fluoro-surfactant-pfoa
#1
Cheng Fang, Xian Zhang, Zhaomin Dong, Liang Wang, Mallavarapu Megharaj, Ravi Naidu
We developed a smartphone app-based monitoring tool for the detection of anionic surfactants (AS), including perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS). Akin to the methylene blue active substances (MBAS), liquid-phase extraction (LPE) is employed to extract the hydrophobic ion-pair of dye (ethyl violet)-AS to an organic phase (ethyl acetate). The colour (RGB) of the organic phase is read using a smartphone camera with the help of a reading kit. The value of RGB is carefully corrected and linked to the concentration of ASs with a standard deviation of <10% in the 10-1000 ppb (part per billion) range...
October 10, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049883/rotational-spectroscopy-of-p-toluic-acid-and-its-1-1-complex-with-water
#2
Elijah G Schnitzler, Nathan A Seifert, Ignes Kusuma, Wolfgang Jaeger
The structure and internal dynamics of p-toluic acid and its 1:1 complex with water were investigated in the gas phase using chirped-pulse and cavity-based Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy. One conformer and one isomer were identified for the monomer and monohydrate, respectively. In the monohydrate, water acts as both a hydrogen bond donor and acceptor, participating in a six-membered intermolecular ring with the carboxyl group. Both a- and b-type transitions were observed for the monomer; only a-type transitions were observed for the monohydrate...
October 19, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049632/an-engineering-model-to-test-for-sensory-reweighting-in-non-human-primate-posture
#3
Lara A Thompson, Csilla Haburcakova, Adam D Goodworth, Richard F Lewis
Quantitative animal models are critically needed to provide proof-of-concept for the investigation of rehabilitative balance therapies (e.g., invasive vestibular prostheses) and treatment response prior to, or in conjunction with, human clinical trials. This paper describes a novel approach to modeling the non-human primate postural control system. Our observation that rhesus macaques and humans have even remotely similar postural control motivates the further application of the rhesus macaque as a model for studying the effects of vestibular dysfunction, as well as vestibular prosthesis-assisted states, on human postural control...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049242/the-prevalence-of-pi-s-and-pi-z-serpina1-alleles-in-healthy-individuals-and-copd-patients-in-saudi-arabia-a-case-control-study
#4
Noura Al-Jameil, Amina A Hassan, Rana Hassanato, Sree R Isac, Maram Al Otaiby, Fadwa Al-Shareef, Basmah Al-Maarik, Iman Al Ajeyan, Khloud Al-Bahloul, Samina Ghani, Dana Al-Torbak
Alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) is an acute phase protein produced in hepatocytes. Its deficiency affects the lungs and liver. A case-control study was carried out to determine the prevalence of 2 common deficiency alleles, PI*S and PI*Z, for alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (AATD) in both healthy and chronic obstructive pulmmonary disease (COPD)-affected Saudi populations and to clarify the importance of genetic tests in the screening of people at risk for COPD.One thousand blood samples from healthy individuals and 1000 from COPD-affected Saudi individuals were genotyped for the above-mentioned alleles, using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), with the exclusion of any other nationalities...
October 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049173/the-influence-of-caveolin-1-gene-polymorphisms-on-hepatitis-b-virus-related-hepatocellular-carcinoma-susceptibility-in-chinese-han-population-a-case-control-study
#5
Jian Zhang, Fangxi Xue, Shuhua Chen, Dongqin Zhang, Cuihong Lu, Gongen Tang
This study aimed to explore the genetic association of polymorphisms in caveolin-1 gene (CAV1) with hepatitis B virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HBV-related HCC) susceptibility in a Chinese Han population.The genotyping of polymorphism was conducted using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method. Whether the genotype distribution of polymorphisms in the healthy controls was consistent with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) was detected. The genotype and allele frequency difference between the 2 groups was compared by chi-square test...
October 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049169/association-between-plasminogen-activator-inhibitor-gene-polymorphisms-and-osteonecrosis-of-the-femoral-head-susceptibility-a-case-control-study
#6
Yi Li, Feng-Xia Liu, Chao Yuan, Lingguo Meng
This study aimed to analyze the correlation of the plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1) gene polymorphisms (rs6092 and rs7242) with susceptibility of osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH).This case-control study included 106 ONFH patients and 151 healthy controls. PAI-1 polymorphisms were genotyped by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with direct sequencing. The genotype distribution of polymorphism in the control group was checked with the status of Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE). The χ test was applied to compare the genotypes of polymorphisms between the case and control groups...
October 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048915/chiral-and-racemic-spin-crossover-polymorphs-in-a-family-of-mononuclear-iron-ii-compounds
#7
Carlos Bartual-Murgui, Lucía Piñeiro-López, F Javier Valverde-Muñoz, M Carmen Muñoz, Maksym Seredyuk, José Antonio Real
Understanding the origin of cooperativity and the equilibrium temperature of transition (T1/2) displayed by the spin-crossover (SCO) compounds as well as controlling these parameters are of paramount importance for future applications. For this task, the occurrence of polymorphism, presented by a number of SCO complexes, may provide deep insight into the influence of the supramolecular organization on the SCO behavior. In this context, herein we present a novel family of mononuclear octahedral Fe(II) complexes with formula cis-[Fe(bqen)(NCX)2], where bqen is the chelating tetradentate ligand N,N'-bis(8-quinolyl)ethane-1,2-diamine and X = S, Se...
October 19, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048166/an-atomistic-explanation-for-interlayer-charge-transfer-in-metal-semiconductor-nanocomposites-the-case-of-silver-and-anatase
#8
Giovanni DI Liberto, Valentina Pifferi, Leonardo Lo Presti, Michele Ceotto, Luigi Falciola
A concerted theoretical and experimental investigation of the silver/anatase hybrid nanocomposite, a very promising material for advanced sensing applications, is presented. We measure its exceptional electrochemical virtues in terms of current densities and reproducibility, providing their explanation at the atomic-scale level, and demonstrating how and why silver acts as a positive electrode. Using periodic plane-wave DFT calculations, we estimate the overall amount of electron transfer toward the semiconductor side of the interface at equilibrium...
October 19, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047921/game-theory-based-visual-tracking-approach-focusing-on-color-and-texture-features
#9
Zefenfen Jin, Zhiqiang Hou, Wangsheng Yu, Chuanhua Chen, Xin Wang
It is difficult for a single-feature tracking algorithm to achieve strong robustness under a complex environment. To solve this problem, we proposed a multifeature fusion tracking algorithm that is based on game theory. By focusing on color and texture features as two gamers, this algorithm accomplishes tracking by using a mean shift iterative formula to search for the Nash equilibrium of the game. The contribution of different features is always keeping the state of optical balance, so that the algorithm can fully take advantage of feature fusion...
July 20, 2017: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047886/thermal-conductivity-of-gaas-alas-distributed-bragg-reflectors-in-semiconductor-disk-laser-comparison-of-molecular-dynamics-simulation-and-analytic-methods
#10
Peng Zhang, Maohua Jiang, Renjiang Zhue, Dingke Zhang, Yanrong Song
GaAs/AlAs distributed Bragg reflectors (DBRs) are widely used in the gain chips of 1 μm wave band semiconductor disk lasers (SDLs) as an end/folded cavity mirror. Because the generated redundant heat in the active region of a gain chip mainly dissipates through the DBR, thermal conductivities of DBRs are crucial for the output performance of SDLs. For the purpose of more reasonable semiconductor wafer design, to improve the thermal management of SDLs, accurate thermal conductivities of DBRs with various layer thicknesses are under considerable requirement...
May 20, 2017: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047729/quantification-and-analysis-of-color-stability-based-on-thermal-transient-behavior-in-white-led-lamps
#11
M Nisa Khan
We present measurement and analysis of color stability over time for two categories of white LED lamps based on their thermal management scheme, which also affects their transient lumen depreciation. We previously reported that lumen depreciation in LED lamps can be minimized by properly designing the heat sink configuration that allows lamps to reach a thermal equilibrium condition quickly. Although it is well known that lumen depreciation degrades color stability of white light since color coordinates vary with total lumen power by definition, quantification and characterization of color shifts based on thermal transient behavior have not been previously reported in literature for LED lamps...
September 20, 2017: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047414/histone-isoform-h2a1h-promotes-attainment-of-distinct-physiological-states-by-altering-chromatin-dynamics
#12
Saikat Bhattacharya, Divya Reddy, Vinod Jani, Nikhil Gadewal, Sanket Shah, Raja Reddy, Kakoli Bose, Uddhavesh Sonavane, Rajendra Joshi, Sanjay Gupta
BACKGROUND: The distinct functional effects of the replication-dependent histone H2A isoforms have been demonstrated; however, the mechanistic basis of the non-redundancy remains unclear. Here, we have investigated the specific functional contribution of the histone H2A isoform H2A1H, which differs from another isoform H2A2A3 in the identity of only three amino acids. RESULTS: H2A1H exhibits varied expression levels in different normal tissues and human cancer cell lines (H2A1C in humans)...
October 18, 2017: Epigenetics & Chromatin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047280/adhesion-of-phospholipid-bilayer-to-hydroxylated-silica-existence-of-nanometer-thick-water-interlayer
#13
Aleksey Vishnyakov, Ting Li, Alexander V Neimark
Lipid bilayers attached to solid surfaces play important role in bioinspired materials and devices and serve as model systems for studies of interactions of cell membranes with particles and biomolecules. Despite active experimental and theoretical studies, the interactions of lipid membranes with solid substrates are still poorly understood. In this work, we explore, using atomistic molecular dynamics simulations, equilibrium and stability of a phospholipid DMPC membrane supported on hydroxylated amorphous silica...
October 19, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046990/active-force-maintains-the-stability-of-a-contractile-ring
#14
Stanard Mebwe Pachong, Kristian K Müller-Nedebock
We investigate a system of sufficiently dense polar actin filaments considered rigid and cross-linked by dimer myosin II protein within the contractile ring. The Langevin dynamics of this system is cast in a functional integral formalism and then transformed into density variables. Using the dynamical Random Phase Approximation (RPA) along with the a one-dimensional Langevin dynamics simulation (LDS), we investigate the structural integrity of the actin bundle network. The active force and the networking force reveal a non-trivial diffusive behaviour of the filaments within the ring...
October 23, 2017: European Physical Journal. E, Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046893/the-measurement-of-the-surface-energy-of-solids-using-a-laboratory-drop-tower
#15
Alfredo Calvimontes
This work presents a technique for the study and measurement of the interfacial energies of solid-liquid-gas systems. The instrument and the evaluation method for the measurements obtained by it, allow the analysis of the energy changes of sessile drops submitted to microgravity. A mathematical model based on the thermodynamic of wetting is applied to evaluate the interfacial energies as a function of the drop shape changes due to the effect of the release of gravitation during the experiment. The presented model bases on the thermodynamic equilibrium of the interfaces and not on the balance of bi-dimensional tensors on the contour line...
2017: NPJ Microgravity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046875/asymmetric-rna-distribution-among-cells-and-their-secreted-exosomes-biomedical-meaning-and-considerations-on-diagnostic-applications
#16
REVIEW
Marco Ragusa, Cristina Barbagallo, Matilde Cirnigliaro, Rosalia Battaglia, Duilia Brex, Angela Caponnetto, Davide Barbagallo, Cinzia Di Pietro, Michele Purrello
Over the past few years, exosomes and their RNA cargo have been extensively studied because of the fascinating biological roles they play in cell-to-cell communication, including the signal exchange among cancer, stromal, and immune cells, leading to modifications of tumor microenvironment. RNAs, especially miRNAs, stored within exosomes, seem to be among the main determinants of such signaling: their sorting into exosomes appears to be cell-specific and related to cellular physiopathology. Accordingly, the identification of exosomal miRNAs in body fluids from pathological patients has become one of the most promising activity in the field of biomarker discovery...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046570/general-ecological-models-for-human-subsistence-health-and-poverty
#17
Calistus N Ngonghala, Giulio A De Leo, Mercedes M Pascual, Donald C Keenan, Andrew P Dobson, Matthew H Bonds
The world's rural poor rely heavily on their immediate natural environment for subsistence and suffer high rates of morbidity and mortality from infectious diseases. We present a general framework for modelling subsistence and health of the rural poor by coupling simple dynamic models of population ecology with those for economic growth. The models show that feedbacks between the biological and economic systems can lead to a state of persistent poverty. Analyses of a wide range of specific systems under alternative assumptions show the existence of three possible regimes corresponding to a globally stable development equilibrium, a globally stable poverty equilibrium and bistability...
August 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046353/a-mechanistic-model-to-predict-effects-of-cathepsin-b-and-cystatin-c-on-%C3%AE-amyloid-aggregation-and-degradation
#18
Tyler J Perlenfein, Regina M Murphy
β-Amyloid (Aβ) aggregation is thought to initiate a cascade of neurodegenerative events in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Much effort is underway to develop strategies to reduce Aβ concentration or inhibit aggregation. Cathepsin B (CatB) proteolytically degrades Aβ into nonaggregating fragments, but is potently inhibited by cystatin C (CysC). It has been suggested that decreasing CysC would facilitate Aβ clearance by relieving CatB inhibition. On the other hand, CysC binds Aβ and inhibits Aβ aggregation, suggesting that an intervention that increases CysC would prevent Aβ aggregation...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045868/identification-and-characterization-of-an-inside-out-folding-intermediate-of-t4-phage-sliding-clamp
#19
Manika Indrajit Singh, Vikas Jain
Protein folding process involves formation of transiently occurring intermediates that are difficult to isolate and characterize. It is both necessary and interesting to characterize the structural conformations adopted by these intermediates, also called molten globules (MG), to understand protein folding. Here, we investigated the equilibrium (un)folding intermediate state of T4 phage gene product 45 (gp45, also known as DNA polymerase processivity factor or sliding clamp) obtained during chemical denaturation...
October 17, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045862/the-two-state-prehensile-tail-of-the-antibacterial-toxin-colicin-n
#20
Christopher L Johnson, Alexandra S Solovyova, Olli Hecht, Colin Macdonald, Helen Waller, J Günter Grossmann, Geoffrey R Moore, Jeremy H Lakey
Intrinsically disordered regions within proteins are critical elements in many biomolecular interactions and signaling pathways. Antibacterial toxins of the colicin family, which could provide new antibiotic functions against resistant bacteria, contain disordered N-terminal translocation domains (T-domains) that are essential for receptor binding and the penetration of the Escherichia coli outer membrane. Here we investigate the conformational behavior of the T-domain of colicin N (ColN-T) to understand why such domains are widespread in toxins that target Gram-negative bacteria...
October 17, 2017: Biophysical Journal
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