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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448784/a-motivational-interviewing-intervention-by-pharmacy-students-to-improve-medication-adherence
#1
Susan Abughosh, Xin Wang, Omar Serna, Tara Esse, Amanda Mann, Santhi Masilamani, Marcia McDonnell Holstad, Ekere James Essien, Marc Fleming
BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus (DM) patients with comorbid hypertension (HTN) are at a higher risk of developing microvascular and macrovascular DM complications. Through guideline-driven recommendations, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) are highly recommended for these patients. Unfortunately, medication adherence to these products, though crucial to achieving therapeutic benefit, is frequently suboptimal. Motivational interviewing (MI) is a patient-centered collaborative communication style that is used to strengthen internal motivation for change that may prove effective in enhancing adherence...
May 2017: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447970/laparoscopic-recurrent-inguinal-hernia-repair-during-the-learning-curve-it-can-be-done
#2
Umberto Bracale, Antonio Sciuto, Jacopo Andreuccetti, Giovanni Merola, Leandro Pecchia, Paolo Melillo, Giusto Pignata
AIM: Trans-Abdominal Preperitoneal Patch (TAPP) repairs for Recurrent Hernia (RH) is a technically demanding procedure. It has to be performed only by surgeons with extensive experience in the laparoscopic approach. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the surgical safety and the efficacy of TAPP for RH performed in a tutoring program by surgeons in practice (SP). MATERIAL AND STUDY: All TAPP repairs for RH performed by the same surgical team have been included in the study...
2017: Annali Italiani di Chirurgia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445220/catalyzing-interdisciplinary-research-and-training-initial-outcomes-and-evolution-of-the-affinity-research-collaboratives-model
#3
Katya Ravid, Francesca Seta, David Center, Gloria Waters, David Coleman
Team science has been recognized as critical to solving increasingly complex biomedical problems and advancing discoveries in the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of human disease. In 2009, the Evans Center for Interdisciplinary Biomedical Research (ECIBR) was established in the Department of Medicine at Boston University School of Medicine as a new organizational paradigm to promote interdisciplinary team science. The ECIBR is made up of affinity research collaboratives (ARCs), consisting of investigators from different departments and disciplines who come together to study biomedical problems that are relevant to human disease and not under interdisciplinary investigation at the university...
April 25, 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445213/learner-patient-and-supervisor-features-are-associated-with-different-types-of-cognitive-load-during-procedural-skills-training-implications-for-teaching-and-instructional-design
#4
Justin L Sewell, Christy K Boscardin, John Q Young, Olle Ten Cate, Patricia S O'Sullivan
PURPOSE: Cognitive load theory, focusing on limits of the working memory, is relevant to medical education; however, factors associated with cognitive load during procedural skills training are not well characterized. The authors sought to determine how features of learners, patients/tasks, settings, and supervisors were associated with three types of cognitive load among learners performing a specific procedure, colonoscopy, to identify implications for procedural teaching. METHOD: Data were collected through an electronically administered survey sent to 1,061 U...
April 25, 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445100/remap-a-framework-for-goals-of-care-conversations
#5
Julie W Childers, Anthony L Back, James A Tulsky, Robert M Arnold
Conversations regarding goals of care with patients who have advanced cancer still occur too late, and oncologists say they lack the training to have these conversations effectively. Experts recommend a number of strategies when having these discussions, including discussing prognosis, responding to patient emotion, exploring values, and often making a recommendation for medical treatments that fit those values. To help learners, from residents to attending oncologists, learn these complex conversational skills, we have developed a framework with a mnemonic, REMAP: Reframe, Expect emotion, Map out patient goals, Align with goals, and Propose a plan...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Oncology Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444320/complex-skill-training-transfers-to-improved-performance-and-control-of-simpler-tasks-after-stroke
#6
Shailesh S Kantak, Nazaneen Zahedi, Robert McGrath
Background: Given limited therapy time, it is important to practice tasks that optimize transfer to other tasks that cannot be practiced during therapy. However, little is known about how tasks can be selected for practice to optimize generalization. Objective: One dimension of task selection is the complexity of the task. The purpose of the current study was to test if learning of a complex motor skill with the paretic arm would transfer to simpler unpracticed goal-directed reaching task...
April 21, 2017: Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443333/emulation-and-sensitivity-analysis-of-the-cmaq-model-for-a-uk-ozone-pollution-episode
#7
Andrew V Beddows, Nutthida Kitwiroon, Martin L Williams, Sean D Beevers
Gaussian process emulation techniques have been used for the first time with the CMAQ model, simulating the effects of input uncertainties on ozone and NO\textsubscript{2} output, to allow robust global sensitivity analysis (SA). A screening process ranked the effect of perturbations in 223 inputs, isolating the 30 most influential from emissions, boundary conditions (BCs) and reaction rates. CMAQ simulations of a July 2006 ozone pollution episode in the UK were made with input values for these variables plus ozone dry deposition velocity chosen according to a 576 point Latin hypercube design...
April 26, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443277/pediatric-hand-surgery-training-in-nicaragua-a-sustainable-model-of-surgical-education-in-a-resource-poor-environment
#8
Mary Claire B Manske, Jairo J Rios Roque, Gabriel Ramos Zelaya, Michelle A James
Recent reports have demonstrated that nearly two-thirds of the world's population do not have access to adequate surgical care, a burden that is borne disproportionately by residents of resource-poor countries. Although the reasons for limited access to surgical care are complex and multi-factorial, among the most substantial barriers is the lack of trained surgical providers. This is particularly true in surgical subspecialties that focus on life-improving, rather than life-saving, treatments, such as pediatric hand and upper extremity surgery, which manages such conditions as congenital malformations, trauma and post-traumatic deformities including burns, and neuromuscular conditions (brachial plexus birth palsy, spinal cord injury, and cerebral palsy)...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443274/the-guatemala-penn-partners-an-innovative-inter-institutional-model-for-scientific-capacity-building-healthcare-education-and-public-health
#9
Maria Alejandra Paniagua-Avila, Elizabeth Messenger, Caroline A Nelson, Erwin Calgua, Frances K Barg, Kent W Bream, Charlene Compher, Anthony J Dean, Sergio Martinez-Siekavizza, Victor Puac-Polanco, Therese S Richmond, Rudolf R Roth, Charles C Branas
Population health outcomes are directly related to robust public health programs, access to basic health services, and a well-trained health-care workforce. Effective health services need to systematically identify solutions, scientifically test these solutions, and share generated knowledge. The World Health Organization (WHO)'s Global Healthcare Workforce Alliance states that the capacity to perform research is an essential factor for well-functioning public health systems. Low- and middle-income countries have greater health-care worker shortages and lower research capacity than higher-income countries...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442355/effects-of-muscarinic-receptor-antagonists-on-cocaine-discrimination-in-wild-type-mice-and-in-muscarinic-receptor-m1-m2-and-m4-receptor-knockout-mice
#10
Lauren Joseph, Morgane Thomsen
Muscarinic M1/M4 stimulation can reduce abuse-related effects of cocaine and may represent avenues for treating cocaine addiction. Muscarinic antagonists can mimic and enhance effects of cocaine, including discriminative stimulus (S(D)) effects, but the receptor subtypes mediating those effects are not known. A better understanding of the complex cocaine/muscarinic interactions is needed to evaluate and develop potential muscarinic-based medications. Here, knockout mice lacking M1, M2, or M4 receptors (M1(-/-), M2(-/-), M4(-/-)), as well as control wild-type mice and outbred Swiss-Webster mice, were trained to discriminate 10mg/kg cocaine from saline...
April 22, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440722/twelve-tips-for-teaching-about-patients-with-cognitive-impairment
#11
James Michael Fisher, Ellen Tullo, Kwong Chan, Andrew Teodorczuk
The global population is ageing and consequently cognitive problems are increasingly prevalent. To ensure that the healthcare needs of this complex group are met, healthcare professionals must receive adequate training in this field. There are, however, a variety of reasons why this is not currently being achieved, including, but not limited to: ethical and logistical issues relating to the delivery of educational experiences involving cognitively impaired patients; a failure of curricula to keep pace with the changing demographic; societal and institutional ageism; and the inherent complexity of the conditions...
May 2017: Medical Teacher
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440342/significant-variation-between-snp-based-hla-imputations-in-diverse-populations-the-last-mile-is-the-hardest
#12
D J Pappas, A Lizee, V Paunic, K R Beutner, A Motyer, D Vukcevic, S Leslie, J Biesiada, J Meller, K D Taylor, X Zheng, L P Zhao, P-A Gourraud, J A Hollenbach, S J Mack, M Maiers
Four single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based human leukocyte antigen (HLA) imputation methods (e-HLA, HIBAG, HLA*IMP:02 and MAGPrediction) were trained using 1000 Genomes SNP and HLA genotypes and assessed for their ability to accurately impute molecular HLA-A, -B, -C and -DRB1 genotypes in the Human Genome Diversity Project cell panel. Imputation concordance was high (>89%) across all methods for both HLA-A and HLA-C, but HLA-B and HLA-DRB1 proved generally difficult to impute. Overall, <27.8% of subjects were correctly imputed for all HLA loci by any method...
April 25, 2017: Pharmacogenomics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440302/performance-of-machine-learning-scoring-functions-in-structure-based-virtual-screening
#13
Maciej Wójcikowski, Pedro J Ballester, Pawel Siedlecki
Classical scoring functions have reached a plateau in their performance in virtual screening and binding affinity prediction. Recently, machine-learning scoring functions trained on protein-ligand complexes have shown great promise in small tailored studies. They have also raised controversy, specifically concerning model overfitting and applicability to novel targets. Here we provide a new ready-to-use scoring function (RF-Score-VS) trained on 15 426 active and 893 897 inactive molecules docked to a set of 102 targets...
April 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439834/an-assessment-of-the-next-generation-of-animal-mirna-target-prediction-algorithms
#14
Thomas Bradley, Simon Moxon
The advent of genome-wide next-generation sequencing technologies has revolutionized the genomic and transcriptomic fields. New technologies also present an opportunity for greater discovery and understanding of post-transcriptional processes, in particular, translational inhibition of transcripts by miRBP (microRNA-RNA binding protein) complexes. Not only have novel methodologies been developed for the direct sequencing of RBP-bound RNA, but a new class of miRNA (microRNA) target prediction algorithms trained on this data has emerged...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439451/automated-identification-of-insect-vectors-of-chagas-disease-in-brazil-and-mexico-the-virtual-vector-lab
#15
Rodrigo Gurgel-Gonçalves, Ed Komp, Lindsay P Campbell, Ali Khalighifar, Jarrett Mellenbruch, Vagner José Mendonça, Hannah L Owens, Keynes de la Cruz Felix, A Townsend Peterson, Janine M Ramsey
Identification of arthropods important in disease transmission is a crucial, yet difficult, task that can demand considerable training and experience. An important case in point is that of the 150+ species of Triatominae, vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi, causative agent of Chagas disease across the Americas. We present a fully automated system that is able to identify triatomine bugs from Mexico and Brazil with an accuracy consistently above 80%, and with considerable potential for further improvement. The system processes digital photographs from a photo apparatus into landmarks, and uses ratios of measurements among those landmarks, as well as (in a preliminary exploration) two measurements that approximate aspects of coloration, as the basis for classification...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438422/next-generation-parasitologists-structured-training-programs-meet-educational-challenges
#16
Juliane Kofer, Heribert Hofer, Susanne Hartmann
Parasite infections are diverse, complex and widespread, and they represent major health threats to people and animals alike. Topics such as vaccine development, drug resistance, immune regulation, vector-borne parasitic diseases, and wildlife parasitology are key issues. Here, we discuss the need and direction of structured educational programs for graduates in modern parasitology.
April 21, 2017: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436910/discovering-the-relationship-between-generalization-and-uncertainty-by-incorporating-complexity-of-classification
#17
Xi-Zhao Wang, Ran Wang, Chen Xu
The generalization ability of a classifier learned from a training set is usually dependent on the classifier's uncertainty, which is often described by the fuzziness of the classifier's outputs on the training set. Since the exact dependency relation between generalization and uncertainty of a classifier is quite complicated, it is difficult to clearly or explicitly express this relation in general. This paper shows a specific study on this relation from the viewpoint of complexity of classification by choosing extreme learning machines as the classification algorithms...
April 24, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Cybernetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436545/training-basic-visual-attention-leads-to-changes-in-responsiveness-to-social-communicative-cues-in-9-month-olds
#18
Linda Forssman, Sam V Wass
This study investigated transfer effects of gaze-interactive attention training to more complex social and cognitive skills in infancy. Seventy 9-month-olds were assigned to a training group (n = 35) or an active control group (n = 35). Before, after, and at 6-week follow-up both groups completed an assessment battery assessing transfer to nontrained aspects of attention control, including table top tasks assessing social attention in seminaturalistic contexts. Transfer effects were found on nontrained screen-based tasks but importantly also on a structured observation task assessing the infants' likelihood to respond to an adult's social-communication cues...
April 24, 2017: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436482/pathospotter-k-a-computational-tool-for-the-automatic-identification-of-glomerular-lesions-in-histological-images-of-kidneys
#19
George O Barros, Brenda Navarro, Angelo Duarte, Washington L C Dos-Santos
PathoSpotter is a computational system designed to assist pathologists in teaching about and researching kidney diseases. PathoSpotter-K is the version that was developed to detect nephrological lesions in digital images of kidneys. Here, we present the results obtained using the first version of PathoSpotter-K, which uses classical image processing and pattern recognition methods to detect proliferative glomerular lesions with an accuracy of 88.3 ± 3.6%. Such performance is only achieved by similar systems if they use images of cell in contexts that are much less complex than the glomerular structure...
April 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436364/upper-pole-urologist-obtained-percutaneous-renal-access-for-pcnl-is-safe-and-efficacious
#20
Amar P Patel, Don Bui, John Pattaras, Kenneth Ogan
INTRODUCTION: Interventional radiologist may be hesitant to obtain upper pole access for percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) due to a higher complication rate. Renal access gained by urologists may achieve higher stone-free rates with similar complication rates. We evaluate our institution's contemporary results of percutaneous renal access in the upper pole for nephrolithotomy by urologists, which we believe both safe and efficacious. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective chart review included all PCNL's performed by fellowship-trained endourologists from 2003 to 2014 at a single institution...
April 2017: Canadian Journal of Urology
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