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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458097/topographical-memory-analyzed-in-mice-using-the-hamlet-test-a-novel-complex-maze
#1
Lucie Crouzier, Damien Gilabert, Mireille Rossel, Françoise Trousse, Tangui Maurice
The Hamlet test is an innovative device providing a complex environment for testing topographic memory in mice. Animals were trained in groups for weeks in a small village with a central agora, streets expanding from it towards five functionalized houses, where they can drink, eat, hide, run, interact with a stranger mouse. Memory was tested by depriving mice from water or food and analyzing their ability to locate the Drink/Eat house. Exploration and memory were analysed in different strains, gender, and after different training periods and delays...
February 16, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457314/latent-source-mining-in-fmri-via-restricted-boltzmann-machine
#2
Xintao Hu, Heng Huang, Bo Peng, Junwei Han, Nian Liu, Jinglei Lv, Lei Guo, Christine Guo, Tianming Liu
Blind source separation (BSS) is commonly used in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data analysis. Recently, BSS models based on restricted Boltzmann machine (RBM), one of the building blocks of deep learning models, have been shown to improve brain network identification compared to conventional single matrix factorization models such as independent component analysis (ICA). These models, however, trained RBM on fMRI volumes, and are hence challenged by model complexity and limited training set...
February 18, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457248/duty-hours-restriction-for-our-surgical-trainees-an-ethical-obligation-or-a-bad-idea
#3
REVIEW
Christopher A Adin, Callie A Fogle, Steven L Marks
To ensure patient safety and protect the well-being of interns and residents, the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) issued guidelines in 2003 limiting the working hours of physician trainees. Although many supported the goals of the ACGME, institutions struggled to restructure their programs and hire staff required by this unfunded mandate. Numerous studies have analyzed the effects of duty hours restrictions on patient outcomes and physician training over the past 15 years. Most agree that duty hours restrictions improved well-being of house officers, but these improvements came at the expense of continuity, and patient hand-offs led to medical errors...
February 19, 2018: Veterinary Surgery: VS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456871/gestational-obesity-weight-management-implementation-of-national-guidelines-glowing-a-pilot-cluster-randomised-controlled-trial-of-a-guideline-implementation-intervention-for-the-management-of-maternal-obesity-by-midwives
#4
Nicola Heslehurst, Judith Rankin, Catherine McParlin, Falko F Sniehotta, Denise Howel, Stephen Rice, Elaine McColl
Background: Weight management in pregnancy guidelines exist, although dissemination alone is an ineffective means of implementation. Midwives identify the need for support to overcome complex barriers to practice. An evaluation of an intervention to support midwives' guideline implementation would require a large-scale cluster randomised controlled trial. A pilot study is necessary to explore the feasibility of delivery and evaluation prior to a definitive trial. The GestationaL Obesity Weight management: Implementation of National Guidelines (GLOWING) trial aims to test whether it is feasible and acceptable to deliver a behaviour change intervention to support midwives' implementation of weight management guidelines...
2018: Pilot and Feasibility Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456870/a-psychosocial-intervention-for-the-management-of-functional-dysphonia-complex-intervention-development-and-pilot-randomised-trial
#5
Vincent Deary, Elaine McColl, Paul Carding, Tracy Miller, Janet Wilson
Background: Medically unexplained loss or alteration of voice-functional dysphonia-is the commonest presentation to speech and language therapists (SLTs). Besides the impact on personal and work life, functional dysphonia is also associated with increased levels of anxiety and depression and poor general health. Voice therapy delivered by SLTs improves voice but not these associated symptoms. The aims of this research were the systematic development of a complex intervention to improve the treatment of functional dysphonia, and the trialling of this intervention for feasibility and acceptability to SLTs and patients in a randomised pilot study...
2018: Pilot and Feasibility Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455475/nutrition-education-in-the-care-of-patients-with-chronic-kidney-disease-and-end-stage-renal-disease
#6
Cheryl A M Anderson, Hoang Anh Nguyen
Diet counseling and nutrition education are recommended in the prevention and management of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD). The importance of effectively addressing nutrition with patients has grown given the increasing prevalence of obesity, hypertension, and diabetes; conditions which influence CKD/ESRD. Dietary advice for individuals with CKD/ESRD can be seen as complex; and successful dietary management requires careful planning, periodic assessment of nutritional status, as well as monitoring of dietary compliance...
February 18, 2018: Seminars in Dialysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455440/computer-aided-solution-for-automatic-segmenting-and-measurements-of-blood-leucocytes-using-static-microscope-images
#7
Enas Abdulhay, Mazin Abed Mohammed, Dheyaa Ahmed Ibrahim, N Arunkumar, V Venkatraman
Blood leucocytes segmentation in medical images is viewed as difficult process due to the variability of blood cells concerning their shape and size and the difficulty towards determining location of Blood Leucocytes. Physical analysis of blood tests to recognize leukocytes is tedious, time-consuming and liable to error because of the various morphological components of the cells. Segmentation of medical imagery has been considered as a difficult task because of complexity of images, and also due to the non-availability of leucocytes models which entirely captures the probable shapes in each structures and also incorporate cell overlapping, the expansive variety of the blood cells concerning their shape and size, various elements influencing the outer appearance of the blood leucocytes, and low Static Microscope Image disparity from extra issues outcoming about because of noise...
February 17, 2018: Journal of Medical Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455166/the-development-of-an-online-intervention-care-assist-to-support-male-caregivers-of-women-with-breast-cancer-a-protocol-for-a-mixed-methods-study
#8
Janelle V Levesque, Martha Gerges, Afaf Girgis
INTRODUCTION: It is projected that 17 730 women will be diagnosed with breast cancer in Australia in 2017, with 3114 of these predicted to be fatal. Caregiving for a person with cancer can significantly impact caregivers' physical and mental health. Many caregivers feel ill-prepared for this role, especially when care involves complex medical needs accompanied by the psychological challenges experienced following a cancer diagnosis. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This study employs a convergent, parallel, mixed methods design combining an online survey with an optional interview...
February 17, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454876/the-development-and-psychometric-validation-of-an-instrument-to-evaluate-nurses-attitudes-towards-communication-with-the-patient-aco
#9
María Del Carmen Giménez-Espert, Vicente Javier Prado-Gascó
BACKGROUND: Patient communication is a key skill for nurses involved in clinical care. Its measurement is a complex phenomenon that can be addressed through attitude evaluation. OBJECTIVES: To develop and psychometrically test a measure of nurses' attitudes towards communication with patients (ACO), to study the relationship between these dimensions, and to analyse nursing attitudes. DESIGN: To develop and psychometrically test the ACO questionnaire...
February 7, 2018: Nurse Education Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454788/advances-and-challenges-in-endoscopic-training
#10
Kevin A Waschke, Walter Coyle
One of the challenges of the current era is ensuring that endoscopic training is accomplished effectively in the face of multiple competing demands. As healthcare delivery evolves, with rising patient complexity and increasing productivity requirements, there is mounting pressure on the time available for training in the clinical setting. The practice of endoscopy itself continues to expand to include increasingly complex procedures (e.g. therapeutic endoscopic ultrasound (EUS), endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD), peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM), etc...
February 15, 2018: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453235/a-workforce-survey-on-developmental-behavioral-pediatrics
#11
Carolyn Bridgemohan, Nerissa S Bauer, Britt A Nielsen, Anne DeBattista, Holly S Ruch-Ross, Linda B Paul, Nancy Roizen
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Developmental-behavioral conditions are common, affecting ∼15% of US children. The prevalence and complexity of these conditions are increasing despite long wait times and a limited pipeline of new providers. We surveyed a convenience sample of the developmental-behavioral pediatric (DBP) workforce to determine current practices, workforce trends, and future needs. METHODS: An electronic survey was e-mailed to 1568 members of the American Academy of Pediatrics Section on Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics and Council on Children with Disabilities, the Society for Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, and the National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners Developmental and Behavioral Mental Health Special Interest Group...
February 16, 2018: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450901/semiempirical-configuration-interaction-calculations-for-ru-centered-dyes
#12
Lisa A Fredin, Thomas C Allison
Computational investigation of the photochemical properties of transition-metal-centered dyes typically involves optimization of the molecular structure followed by calculation of the UV/visible spectrum. At present, these steps are usually carried out using density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT calculations. Recently, we demonstrated that semiempirical methods with appropriate parameterization could yield geometries that were in very good agreement with DFT calculations, allowing large sets of molecules to be screened quickly and efficiently...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Computational Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450892/rat-choice-in-rapidly-changing-concurrent-schedules
#13
Anthony P McLean, Randolph C Grace, Olesya T Shevchouk, Jacinta R Cording
In two experiments, experimentally naïve rats were trained in concurrent variable-interval schedules in which the reinforcer ratios changed daily according to a pseudorandom binary sequence. In Experiment 1, relative response rates showed clear sensitivity to current-session reinforcer ratios, but not to previous sessions' reinforcer ratios. Within sessions, sensitivity to the current session's reinforcement rates increased steadily, and by session end, response ratios approached matching to the current-session reinforcer ratios...
February 16, 2018: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449457/the-activity-of-thalamic-nucleus-reuniens-is-critical-for-memory-retrieval-but-not-essential-for-the-early-phase-of-off-line-consolidation
#14
Hao Mei, Nikos K Logothetis, Oxana Eschenko
Spatial navigation depends on the hippocampal function, but also requires bidirectional interactions between the hippocampus (HPC) and the prefrontal cortex (PFC). The cross-regional communication is typically regulated by critical nodes of a distributed brain network. The thalamic nucleus reuniens (RE) is reciprocally connected to both HPC and PFC and may coordinate the information flow within the HPC-PFC pathway. Here we examined if RE activity contributes to the spatial memory consolidation. Rats were trained to find reward following a complex trajectory on a crossword-like maze...
March 2018: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448996/automating-data-analysis-for-two-dimensional-gas-chromatography-time-of-flight-mass-spectrometry-non-targeted-analysis-of-comparative-samples
#15
Ivan A Titaley, O Maduka Ogba, Leah Chibwe, Eunha Hoh, Paul H-Y Cheong, Staci L Massey Simonich
Non-targeted analysis of environmental samples, using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC × GC/ToF-MS), poses significant data analysis challenges due to the large number of possible analytes. Non-targeted data analysis of complex mixtures is prone to human bias and is laborious, particularly for comparative environmental samples such as contaminated soil pre- and post-bioremediation. To address this research bottleneck, we developed OCTpy, a Python™ script that acts as a data reduction filter to automate GC × GC/ToF-MS data analysis from LECO ® ChromaTOF ® software and facilitates selection of analytes of interest based on peak area comparison between comparative samples...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448855/acute-effects-of-blood-flow-restriction-on-exercise-induced-free-radical-production-in-young-and-healthy-subjects
#16
Christoph Centner, Denise Zdzieblik, Patrick Dressler, Bruno Fink, Albert Gollhofer, Daniel König
The main purpose of this study was to investigate the acute local and systemic effects of low-load resistance exercise (30% 1RM) with partial vascular occlusion on exercise-induced free radical production and to compare these effects with other established training methods. Fifteen young and healthy males (25 ± 3 years) performed the following four sessions in a counterbalanced order on separate days: low-load resistance exercise (LI: 30% 1RM), low-load resistance exercise with blood flow restriction (LIBR: 30% 1RM), high-load resistance exercise (HI: 80% 1RM) and an additional session without exercise but blood flow restriction only (BR)...
February 16, 2018: Free Radical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446155/not-just-trust-factors-influencing-learners-attempts-to-perform-technical-skills-on-real-patients
#17
Susan L Bannister, Mark S Dolson, Lorelei Lingard, David A Keegan
CONTEXT: As part of their training, physicians are required to learn how to perform technical skills on patients. The previous literature reveals that this learning is complex and that many opportunities to perform these skills are not converted into attempts to do so by learners. This study sought to explore and understand this phenomenon better. METHODS: A multi-phased qualitative study including ethnographic observations, interviews and focus groups was conducted to explore the factors that influence technical skill learning...
February 15, 2018: Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445982/care-coordination-empowering-families-a-promising-practice-to-facilitate-medical-home-use-among-children-and-youth-with-special-health-care-needs
#18
Lisa Gorman Ufer, Julie A Moore, Kristen Hawkins, Gina Gembel, David N Entwistle, David Hoffman
Introduction This paper describes the care coordination training program and results of an evaluation from its pilot in seven states. Despite the importance of practice-based care coordination, only 42.3% of children with special health care needs (CYSHCN) met all needed components of care coordination as defined by the Maternal Child Health Bureau. Recognizing that children with medically complex conditions often have lower rates of achieving care coordination within a medical home, the Region 4 Midwest Genetics Collaborative worked with families to develop a training to empower families in care coordination...
February 14, 2018: Maternal and Child Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445607/comprehensive-evaluation-of-liver-resection-procedures-surgical-mind-development-through-cognitive-task-analysis
#19
Cheng-Maw Ho, Go Wakabayashi, Chi-Chuan Yeh, Rey-Heng Hu, Takanori Sakaguchi, Yasushi Hasegawa, Takeshi Takahara, Hiroyuki Nitta, Akira Sasaki, Po-Huang Lee
Background: Liver resection is a complex procedure for trainee surgeons. Cognitive task analysis (CTA) facilitates understanding and decomposing tasks that require a great proportion of mental activity from experts. Methods: Using CTA and video-based coaching to compare liver resection by open and laparoscopic approaches, we decomposed the task of liver resection into exposure (visual field building), adequate tension made at the working plane (which may change three-dimensionally during the resection process), and target processing (intervention strategy) that can bridge the gap from the basic surgical principle...
2018: Journal of Visualized Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444561/committed-to-be-fit-the-value-of-preoperative-care-in-the-perioperative-medicine-era
#20
Javier Ripollés-Melchor, Francesco Carli, Miquel Coca-Martínez, Macarena Barbero-Mielgo, José M Ramírez-Rodríguez, José A García-Erce
In the era of perioperative medicine, important advances have been made in the perioperative care of patients, usually within those known as Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) protocols. These have led to a decrease in postoperative complications and the duration of hospital stays; however, there is still a lack of preoperative care, which could make perioperative medicine more prominent. Elderly patients, malnourished, anaemic and ones with a low physical function before surgery are likely to have sub-optimal recovery from surgery...
February 14, 2018: Minerva Anestesiologica
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